|Diarrhea and loss of production on Dutch dairy farms caused by the Schmallenberg virus
Muskens, J. ; Smolenaars, A.J. ; Poel, W.H.M. van der; Mars, M.H. ; Wuijckhuise, L. van; Holzhauer, M. ; Weering, H. van; Kock, P. - \ 2012
Tijdschrift voor Diergeneeskunde 137 (2012)2. - ISSN 0040-7453 - p. 112 - 115.
melkveehouderij - melkopbrengst - diarree - schmallenbergvirus - rundveeziekten - orthobunyavirus - virusziekten - bloedmonsters verzamelen - dairy farming - milk yield - diarrhoea - schmallenberg virus - cattle diseases - viral diseases - blood specimen collection - adult cattle - coronavirus
At the end of August and the first two weeks of September 2011 dozens of veterinary practitioners reported to GD Veekijker (Animal Health Service) several dairy herds with cows with sudden decreased milk production, watery diarrhea and sometimes fever. In the beginning these reports came from the Eastern region of the Netherlands, after that also from the other three regions. The percentages of diseased herds per veterinary practice varied from a few till dozens per cent. Extensive bacteriological, virological and parasitological testing of the feces of sick cows did not reveal an infectious cause of the clinical problems. Recently, 50 stored blood samples of clinically diseased cattle were tested for the Schmallenbergvirus using a PCR, and 36% (18/50) tested positive. A large group of control cows (n=115) was also tested with the PCR and all cattle tested negative. Likely the Schmallenbergvirus was the primary cause of the clinical symptoms in the Dutch dairy herds. Further research will be done to confirm this.
Toepassing van uitsluitdiagnostiek voor klassieke varkenspest bij a-specifieke klinische problemen op varkensbedrijven: een enquete onder varkenshouders en dierenartsen.
Elbers, A.R.W. ; Gorgievski-Duijvesteijn, M.J. ; Velden, P.G. ; Loeffen, W.L.A. - \ 2007
Tijdschrift voor Diergeneeskunde 132 (2007)9. - ISSN 0040-7453 - p. 340 - 345.
varkenspest - varkenshouderij - diagnostische technieken - laboratoriumdiagnose - polymerase-kettingreactie - testen - bloedmonsters verzamelen - bloed - klinische aspecten - symptomen - swine fever - pig farming - diagnostic techniques - laboratory diagnosis - polymerase chain reaction - testing - blood specimen collection - blood - clinical aspects - symptoms - epidemic
Outbreaks (of Classical Swine Fever (CSF) occurred in spring 2006 in Germany close to the Dutch border. On 6th April Dutch pig farmers were given the possibility to submit blood samples directly via their veterinary practitioner to the National Reference Laboratory for CSF if their pigs had nonspecific clinical symptoms or if pigs were being treated with antibiotics. The pig farm was not quarantined and was not visited by the veterinary authorities. Over a period of 9 weeks 156 pig farmers submitted whole blood samples via 50 different veterinary practices. All samples tested negative in the PCR test. These pig farmers and veterinary practitioners were asked to respond to a postal questionnaire with questions regarding their experience with this new diagnostic possibility, the distribution of the costs involved, a comparison official notification or use of with other instruments, such as of a leukocyte count test, and their knowledge of clinical signs of CSF 65 pig farmers (42%) and 33 veterinary practices (66%) returned the questionnaire. The main results indicated that pig farmers (72%) would use this type of exclusion diagnostics sooner than that they would approach the veterinary authorities (practitioners: 86%). Moreover the respondents considered the fact that the farm was not quarantined immediately to be an advantage (pig farmers, 79%; practitioners, 88%). 32 percent of the pig farmers were not aware that they were required to submit blood samples if pigs were being treated with antibiotics (practitioners: 11%). The majority of pig farmers and practitioners were not satisfied with the current distribution of the costs involved: in their opinion the costs of the PCR test, the costs of the veterinary practitioner and the costs for shipping the samples to the reference laboratory should be paid out of the Animal Health Fund (50% government and 50% industry) or by the government. If the current distribution of the costs is not changed, a large proportion of the pig farmers indicated that they would not use this form of exclusion diagnostics for CSF in the future. Pig farmers appeared to have a rather limited knowledge of the clinical signs of CSF: 33% of the pig farmers could mention maximally three clinical signs of CSF and 7% could not mention a single clinical sign of CSF and said they were entirely dependent on the practitioners' ability to judge a CSF-suspect situation.