- H.M.G. Beers-Schreurs van (2)
- M. Berkeveld (1)
- S.J. Dieleman (2)
- C. Dooremalen van (1)
- G.R. Foxcroft (1)
- R. Gerritsen (2)
- W. Hazeleger (2)
- B. Kemp (3)
- A.P. Koets (1)
- W.I. Kuller (1)
- P. Langendijk (4)
- N.M. Soede (3)
- M.A.M. Taverne (2)
- J.H.M. Verheijden (2)
LH and FSH secretion, follicle development and oestradiol in sows ovulating or failing to ovulate in an intermittent suckling regimen
Langendijk, P. ; Dieleman, S.J. ; Dooremalen, C. van; Foxcroft, G.R. ; Gerritsen, R. ; Hazeleger, W. ; Soede, N.M. ; Kemp, B. - \ 2009
Reproduction Fertility and Development 21 (2009)2. - ISSN 1031-3613 - p. 313 - 322.
luteinizing-hormone - primiparous sows - stimulating-hormone - lactating sows - litter separation - boar exposure - feeding level - estrus - expression - prolactin
The present paper describes LH and FSH secretion, follicle development and ovulation in sows that were subjected to a limited nursing regimen. From Day 14 of lactation, 32 sows were separated from their piglets for 12 h every day (intermittent suckling; IS). Half the sows had boar contact during separation. Nine of 32 sows ovulated spontaneously within 14 days from initiation of IS. The frequency of LH pulses on the first day of IS tended to be higher in anovulatory sows (6.3 v. 4.2 pulses per 12 h; P <0.10); other characteristics of LH secretion were similar to sows that ovulated. The characteristics of FSH secretion did not differ over the 8-h sampling period. Boar contact did not influence either LH and FSH secretion or the number of sows that ovulated. Up to 58% of anovulatory sows showed an increase in follicle size after initiation of IS and, 4 days after the initiation of IS, one-third still had follicles similar in size to those in ovulatory sows. However, the oestradiol concentration in anovulatory sows did not increase. We conclude that FSH and LH stimulation in anovulatory sows is not limiting for normal follicle development, but that ovarian follicles are not responsive to increased LH secretion
Peri-oestrus Hormone Profiles and Follicle Growth in Lactating Sows with Oestrus Induced by Intermittent Suckling
Gerritsen, R. ; Soede, N.M. ; Langendijk, P. ; Dieleman, S.J. ; Hazeleger, W. ; Kemp, B. - \ 2008
Reproduction in Domestic Animals 43 (2008)1. - ISSN 0936-6768 - p. 1 - 8.
preovulatory lh surge - luteinizing-hormone - stimulating-hormone - prolactin secretion - progesterone concentration - litter separation - endocrine changes - primiparous sows - boar exposure - ovulation
This study describes follicle dynamics, endocrine profiles in multiparous sows with lactational oestrus compared with conventionally weaned sows (C). Lactational oestrus was induced by Intermittent Suckling (IS) with separation of sows and piglets for either 12 consecutive hours per day (IS12, n = 14) or twice per day for 6 h per occasion (IS6, n = 13) from day 14 of lactation onwards. Control sows (n = 23) were weaned at day 21 of lactation. Pre-ovulatory follicles (¿6 mm) were observed in 100% of IS12, 92% of IS6 and 26% of C sows before day 21 of lactation and in the remaining 74% C sows within 7 days after weaning. All sows with pre-ovulatory follicles showed oestrus, but not all sows showed ovulation. Four IS6 sows and one IS12 sow developed cystic follicles of which two IS6 sows partially ovulated. Follicle growth, ovulation rate and time of ovulation were similar. E2 levels tended to be higher in IS sows (p = 0.06), the pre-ovulatory LH surge tended to be lower in IS12 (5.1 ± 1.7 ng/ml) than in C sows (8.4 ± 5.0 ng/ml; p = 0.08) and P4 levels were lower in IS12 and IS6 than in C sows (at 75 h after ovulation: 8.8 ± 2.4 ng/ml vs 7.0 ± 1.4 ng/ml vs 17.1 ± 4.4 ng/ml; p <0.01). In conclusion, sows with lactational oestrus induced by IS are similar to weaned sows in the timing of oestrus, early follicle development and ovulation rates, but the pre-ovulatory LH surge and post-ovulatory P4 increase are lower.
Postweaning growth check in pigs is markedly reduced by intermittent suckling and extended lactation
Berkeveld, M. ; Langendijk, P. ; Beers-Schreurs, H.M.G. van; Koets, A.P. ; Taverne, M.A.M. ; Verheijden, J.H.M. - \ 2007
Journal of Animal Science 85 (2007)12. - ISSN 0021-8812 - p. 258 - 266.
feed-intake characteristics - digestive enzyme-activity - housed weanling pigs - early-weaned pig - small-intestine - boar exposure - crypt depth - performance - sows - consumption
The objective of this study was to determine whether intermittent suckling (IS) combined with an extended lactation can reduce postweaning growth check in pigs. Three weaning regimens [ conventional weaning (CW), IS with 6-h separation intervals (IS6), and IS with 12-h separation intervals (IS12)] were compared. In CW (n = 17 litters), litters had continuous access to the sow until weaning (d 21, d 0 = farrowing). In IS6 and IS12, litters were separated from the sow for 12 h/d, beginning at d 14 and lasting until weaning (d 41 to 45). Litters were with the sow from 1400 to 2000 and from 0200 to 0800 (IS6, n = 14) or between 2000 and 0800 (IS12, n = 14). Litter size was standardized within 2 d after farrowing by crossfostering, resulting in an average litter size of 10.9 +/- 1.8 piglets. Piglets had ad libitum access to creep feed from d 7 onward. One week after the onset of IS (d 20), creep feed intake was increased in litters from both IS groups compared with CW litters (P <0.05). Both IS groups consumed considerable amounts of creep feed before weaning (d 41 to 45). Total feed intake before weaning was greater (P = 0.004) in IS12 (3,808 +/- 469 g/ piglet) than in IS6 (2,717 +/- 404 g/ piglet). In comparison, CW litters consumed 18 +/- 9 g/ piglet before weaning (d 21). Irrespective of weaning regimen, total feed intake of litters before weaning was highly correlated with postweaning feed intake (P <0.001). Furthermore, in all treatment groups, total preweaning feed intake was correlated with postweaning growth (P <0.10). Irrespective of treatment, piglets suckling anterior teats grew faster than piglets suckling middle or posterior teats during the first 2 wk of lactation. Body weights at the end of the experiment (d 55) were similar among weaning regimens. Onset of IS induced a growth check in both IS groups (34% for IS12 and 22% for IS6). Only a mild growth check was observed after weaning of IS litters (14% for both IS groups). However, a serious growth check (98%) was observed after weaning of CW litters. Results of the current study indicate that IS stimulated feed intake during lactation, providing a more gradual transition to weaning. Because the IS6 regimen did not prevent the growth check after the onset of IS and is rather laborious, we suggest that IS12 might be preferable for a practical implementation of IS.
Intermittent suckling: Effects on piglet and sow performance before and after weaning
Kuller, W.I. ; Soede, N.M. ; Beers-Schreurs, H.M.G. van; Langendijk, P. ; Taverne, M.A.M. ; Verheijden, J.H.M. ; Kemp, B. - \ 2004
Journal of Animal Science 82 (2004)2. - ISSN 0021-8812 - p. 405 - 413.
creep feed consumption - individual variation - litter separation - small-intestine - lactating sows - boar exposure - weanling pigs - estrus - fertility - growth
An experiment was conducted to study effects of intermittent suckling on creep feed intake and weight gain of litters. Loss of weight and backfat during lactation, as well as reproductive performance, were also measured. Batches of multiparous sows (Parity I to 12, 4.1 on average) were either suckled intermittently (IS, eight batches; n = 50) or continuously (control, eight batches; n = 62). Litters were weaned at 27 +/- 2 d of age, on average. Litter size (11.1 +/- 0.2 piglets, on average) was standardized within a batch within 3 d of birth. All litters had free access to creep feed and water from 1 wk of age onward. In the IS group, litters were separated from the sow for a period of 12 h/d (0930 to 2130), starting 11 d before weaning. Rectal ultrasonography was applied at d 3 after weaning to check the ovaries for follicle development or presence of corpora lutea. Creep feed intake by the litters during lactation was higher in IS litters than in control litters (686 57 vs. 314 +/- 42 g/piglet, P <0.01). The distribution of creep feed intake shifted from a skewed one, with a majority of litters consuming less than 250 g/piglet in control litters, to a normal distribution, with an average creep feed intake of 500 to 750 g/piglet in IS litters. During the 7 d after weaning, creep feed intake in IS litters was also higher (281 +/- 15 vs. 204 +/- 9 g(.)piglet(-1.)d(-1), P <0.01). The ADG of piglets during lactation was negatively affected by IS, resulting in lower weight at weaning (7,229 +/- 140 vs. 7,893 +/- 145 g/piglet, P <0.05). During the 7 d after weaning, however, ADG was higher in IS litters (255 +/- 10 vs. 177 +/- 8 g(.)piglet(-1.)d(-1), P <0.01), and 7 d after weaning, the weights of the litters were similar (9,011 +/- 167 vs. 9,132 +/- 164 g/piglet, P = 0.81). The IS litters that consumed little or no feed during lactation had an ADG after lactation that was higher than in control litters, with comparable creep feed intake during lactation: 204 vs. 136 g/d. Body weight loss by the sows during lactation was lower in IS sows (-10 +/- 2 vs. -16 +/- 1 kg, P <0.05). A higher percentage of IS sows ovulated during lactation (22 vs. 3%, P <0.01), and weaning-to-ovulation interval (excluding sows with lactational ovulation) was shorter in IS sows (4.7 +/- 0.2 vs. 5.3 +/- 0.2 d, P <0.05). We conclude that IS increased creep feed intake during lactation, and that IS increased ADG after weaning, despite lower weaning weights. Ovulation during lactation was induced in 22% of the IS sows.