Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Understanding entrepreneurship at the base of the pyramid in developing countries : insights from small-scale vegetable farmers in Benin
Yessoufou, Ahoudou Waliou - \ 2017
University. Promotor(en): Onno Omta, co-promotor(en): Vincent Blok. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463438216 - 196
entrepreneurship - farmers - vegetables - small businesses - farm management - management science - benin - west africa - ondernemerschap - boeren - groenten - kleine bedrijven - agrarische bedrijfsvoering - bedrijfswetenschap - west-afrika

Local small-scale entrepreneurship has recently become an important field of study and a tool for policymakers. However, there are some practical and theoretical issues regarding the promotion of local entrepreneurship. First, the dynamics of entrepreneurship are considered to be universal, whereas the Base of the Pyramid (BoP) context from Developing and Emerging (D&E) countries is different in terms of resource availability and institutional environment supporting production and transaction activities. Next, the prevailing conceptualization focuses on an individualistic and goal-oriented process which is determined by competencies related to alertness, recognition, and resource mobilization for the exploitation of opportunities, followed by business growth, whereas a multi-layered conceptualisation which transcends individual agent and structural-level analyses of entrepreneurship is required. This thesis brought the model of the entrepreneurial action of small businesses to light and revealed that three subprocesses are driving the development of entrepreneurship in BoP. It inductively examined the behavioural patterns of agropreneurs. The thesis also provided new insights to the entrepreneurial orientation (EO) of small firms operating within the BoP, by showing that three traditional dimensions – innovativeness, proactiveness, and risk taking - are necessary but not sufficient to capture the manifestation of EO. Two new context-specific dimensions - resource-acquisition capability and collaborative orientation - emerged as part of the entrepreneurial orientation strategy. The thesis developped clear measurement of the EO, and a proper measurement model of the construct. Finally, the thesis demonstrated an inverted U-shaped relationship between EO and business performance. The findings suggested that increasing levels of EO appear beneficial up to a point, after which positive returns cease, and business performance begins to decline. Furthermore, increasing EO in tandem with networking promotes the success of BoP entrepreneurial process. These results have important theroretical and practical implications for the growth of small businesses in Benin and other developing countries with similar contextual characteristics.

Rabies in Ethiopia: modelling the burden and the effectiveness of control
Beyene, Tariku Jibat - \ 2017
University. Promotor(en): Henk Hogeveen, co-promotor(en): Monique Mourits. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463432177 - 194
cattle - dogs - rabies - farmers - cattle farming - vaccination - business economics - cost effectiveness analysis - ethiopia - east africa - rundvee - honden - hondsdolheid - boeren - rundveeteelt - vaccinatie - bedrijfseconomie - cost effective analysis - ethiopië - oost-afrika

Rabies claims the lives of more than 24,000 people in Africa annually, but efforts to control the disease are still lacking, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa such as Ethiopia. The overall objective of this study was to support the design of an appropriate cost-effective rabies control policy in Ethiopia by providing insights in the health burden of the disease and its economic impacts, as well as an understanding of the relationship between intervention levels, implementation costs and potential returns.

As most human rabies cases result from the bite of domestic dogs, the disease can be eliminated by mass canine rabies vaccination. An extensive literature review on mass canine vaccination programs in Africa indicated that most dogs in Africa are owned and therefore accessible for vaccination, but vaccination coverages strongly depend on the implemented cost schemes. Canine vaccination in Ethiopia is voluntarily based, i.e. “owner-charged”, resulting in one of the lowest coverages in the world.

To assess the current burden of rabies in Ethiopia a retrospective study was conducted by collecting data on human rabies exposure over the period of one year through extensive bite case searching in three representative districts of Ethiopia. Extrapolation of the results to national level indicated an annual average of 3,000 human deaths and 97,000 rabies-exposed persons treated at an average costs of 21 USD per case, causing 2 million USD on treatment costs per year and a health loss of about 93,000 DALYs. About 77% of the exposure cases visited a health centre, while only 57% received sufficient doses of post exposure treatment. Important factors that influenced victim’s medical treatment seeking behaviour were ownership status of the biting dog, severity of the bite, body part bitten, monthly spending and distance to the nearest health centre whereas the likelihood of receiving sufficient doses of treatment were determined by monthly spending and distance to health centre. The district in which victims lived appeared to have a relevant influence on the likelihood of seeking medical treatment but not on the likelihood of treatment compliance. By means of a structured questionnaire administered to cattle-owning households the economic impact of rabies in livestock was assessed. Herd-level incidence rates appeared higher in the mixed crop-livestock system (21%) than in the pastoral system (11%). Average economic losses per herd due to rabies were estimated at 49 USD per year for the mixed-crop livestock system, and at 52 USD per year for the pastoral system.

In light of policy support for rabies control, an evaluation of the cost-effectiveness of control strategies was performed by the use of a dynamic epidemiological model coupled with an economic analysis to predict the human health impact and economic benefit (reducing human treatment costs and livestock rabies-related losses) across a range of vaccination scenarios. Human exposures, human deaths, and rabies-related livestock losses decreased monotonically with increasing vaccination coverage. In the evaluated urban and rural districts, 50% coverage was identified as most likely scenario to provide the greatest net health benefits at the WHO-recommended willingness-to-pay threshold over a time frame of 10 years. The additional economic benefit from rabies control in livestock justified the additional costs of vaccination campaigns with higher coverages than would have been efficient from a strict human health perspective, highlighting the importance of applying a broad perspective with regard to the evaluation of vaccination benefits.

Foreign investment, organizational innovation and transformation in food supply chains : evidence from the Ethiopian barley sector
Tefera, Delelegne Abera - \ 2017
University. Promotor(en): Onno Omta, co-promotor(en): Jos Bijman; Maja Slingerland. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463437165 - 217
foreign investment - organizations - innovations - management science - food supply - supply chain management - farmers - barley - economic sectors - ethiopia - east africa - buitenlandse investering - organisaties - innovaties - bedrijfswetenschap - voedselvoorziening - ketenmanagement - boeren - gerst - economische sectoren - ethiopië - oost-afrika

Driven by rapid urbanization, economic growth, and changes in consumption patterns, food chains in emerging and developing economies are experiencing a fundamental transformation process. This transformation is usually characterized by increased vertical coordination, growth of modern distribution channels (e.g. supermarkets), consolidation of retail markets, and an increase in export orientation. The rapid growth in demand of modern food with higher quality and safety attracts multinational enterprises to invest in agriculture and food processing in emerging economies. The appearance of multinationals in the food systems of developing countries has been claimed to have a positive impact on economic development and reduction of poverty. The multinationals have adopted modern supply chain management practices for securing a large volume and consistent supply of high quality products. They introduce new technologies that boost productivity and post-harvest management for product upgrading.

While so far most research on the modernization of food systems has focused on export chains, there is growing interest in the transformation of domestic and staple food chains. Upgrading domestic food chains is needed for a more efficient supply to fast growing urban markets and to sustain access to affordable food for the rapidly growing urban consumers in sub-Saharan Africa. As domestic food value chains are more inclusive than high-value export chains, upgrading these food chains can contribute more to poverty reduction and food security. However, much remains to be understood about the process of modernization in domestic food chains and its implications for rural development. The overarching aim of this dissertation was to deepen our understanding on how organizational innovations facilitate modernization of domestic food chains using case studies from the Ethiopian barley sector. In particular, the thesis examines the effectiveness and impacts of foreign direct investments (FDI), contract farming arrangements (CFAs), producer organizations (POs), and partnerships on the upgrading of malt barley value chains and welfare of local suppliers. To address this objective, we use a combination of qualitative and quantitative research approaches. Data were analyzed using parametric and non-parametric econometric models.

The findings from the empirical chapters show that: First, our analysis reveals that the appearance of foreign companies in the malt barley chain has brought important changes in the structure and economics of the barley value chain, resulting in the development of a modern chain next to the conventional chain. It is also shown that participation in modern supply chains is determined by a range of factors that include farmer and farm characteristics. Second, the results show that participation in modern supply chains has a positive and significant impact on commercialization, intensification, quality improvement and farm gate prices, ultimately resulting in increased farmer income and spillovers towards productivity of other food crops. Third, we found that POs perform diverse economic functions to enhance rural development , but tighter coordination in food value chains demands alignment of chain activities among actors which leads to changes in the strategies and functions of POs. Fourth, we showed that POs have a positive impact on farm productivity and smallholder income. However, this positive impact of POs come at the expense of inclusiveness, i.e. POs are less inclusive. Thus, there is a tension between business performance and inclusiveness of POs. Moreover, the results show that the motivation to participate in a PO is determined by demographic and economic factors. Lastly, we found that the determinants of quality improvement at farm level are socioeconomic, technological and institutional factors. Specifically, the identified factors are farmers’ level of education, age (as a proxy for farming experience), entrepreneurial attitude, PO membership, CFA participation, and type of improved seed varieties. The thesis concludes that enhancing the modernization of food value chains involving smallholders requires organizational innovation that facilitate coordination and collaborative activities among chain actors.

Farmers’ willingness to invest in livestock disease control: the case of voluntary vaccination against bluetongue
Sok, Jaap - \ 2017
University. Promotor(en): Alfons Oude Lansink; Henk Hogeveen, co-promotor(en): Armin Elbers. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463437059 - 214
business economics - farmers - livestock - vaccination - bluetongue virus - animal diseases - animal disease prevention - netherlands - bedrijfseconomie - boeren - vee - vaccinatie - bluetonguevirus - dierziekten - dierziektepreventie - nederland

Animal health authorities in the European Union nowadays consider voluntary approaches based on a neoliberal model of cost and responsibility sharing as a tool for controlling livestock diseases. Policy makers aim for policies that are soft and optional, and use insights from behavioural economics and social psychology. Voluntary approaches are flexible in terms of legislation and can be effective at lower costs, provided that farmers are willing to participate. In 2008, the Dutch animal health authorities used a voluntary vaccination approach to control an emerging bluetongue epidemic that started end of 2006. Nearly 60,000 holdings with ruminants were already affected by the end of 2007 and experts indicated that transmission could only be stopped through mass vaccination. Farmers were motivated to participate by informational and financial, incentive-based policy instruments.

Economic theory predicts that farmers underinvest in private disease control measures in the presence of externalities. These studies, however, assume farmers only consider the private economic motives and that they only can be extrinsically motivated via (monetary) incentives. If the willingness to invest in livestock disease control is also driven by intrinsic and social motives, this could imply that not only financial compensation, but a mix of policy instruments is needed to make voluntary approaches work.

The overarching research objective of this thesis was to assess the key determinants of farmers’ willingness to vaccinate against bluetongue and study the impact of different policy designs on the effectiveness of voluntary vaccination approaches to bluetongue disease control.

A three-stage research approach was conducted. Two models of decision making, one from economics and one from social psychology, were first applied to the case study to obtain a solid understanding of important perceptions and motivations that farmers have to invest in livestock disease control. These motivations (sometimes incentives) and perceptions were then related to different attributes of a vaccination scheme to have a better understanding of how a higher uptake can be obtained. In the third stage, the effect of the interplay between farmers’ collective behaviour and disease epidemiology on disease rate and vaccination uptake was studied.

Expected utility theory was used in combination with decision analysis and Monte Carlo simulation in chapter 2. The economic risk and monetary outcomes of the vaccination decision were considered, intrinsic or social motives ignored. The theoretical expectation from the analysis is that with high probabilities of herd exposure and disease effects at the start of the outbreak the farmer decides to vaccinate. Re-vaccination is uncertain during the course of the epidemic due to a lower probability of herd exposure and enduring protection against infection from previous vaccination. Factors that make re-vaccination more likely to happen are risk-averse behaviour and farm management aimed at the export of heifers. The decision moment – before or during an epidemic – and the characteristics of the disease – endemic, epidemic or emerging – are important factors in perceptions of disease risk.

Chapters 3 to 5 used data from a survey that was based on the reasoned action approach. Data were analysed with a variety of statistical, mostly multivariate, techniques. The relative importance of the social-psychological constructs in predicting the intention to participate in a hypothetical reactive vaccination scheme against bluetongue was assessed in chapter 3. It was found that intended vaccination behaviour was mainly explained by farmers’ attitude, but also by social pressures from injunctive and descriptive norms. Perceived behavioural control was the least important predictor of intention.

The most influential beliefs underlying the social-psychological constructs were assessed in chapter 4. Results suggested that instrumental beliefs (e.g. risk reduction) as well as experiential beliefs (e.g. animal welfare) were important drivers of the attitude towards vaccination against bluetongue. This indicates that in addition to monetary outcomes of the decision, at least a group of farmers also consider the non-monetary (or non-pecuniary) outcomes. The results further showed that the most influencing referents for the farmer are the veterinarian, his or her family members and colleague dairy farmers (peers). Two influencing control beliefs were associated with the provision of information and perceived trust and confidence in the vaccine safety, effectiveness and government approach to control the disease.

The aim of chapter 5 was to explore factors that could explain heterogeneity in farmers’ attitudinal beliefs. In particular, perceived risk, measured by a relative risk attitude and risk perception, and the Big Five personality traits were associated with variability in these beliefs. Conscientiousness discriminated farmers into a group of ‘vaccination intenders’ and non-intenders although it remained somewhat unclear how it relates to the decision problem, as it can be a sense of duty, achievement striving or both. The perceived risk measures were related to the milk production intensity and also discriminated intenders from non-intenders. These differences in perceived risk indicated that farmers might not be commonly risk averse, however, it is important to account for the domain specificity of risk taking behaviour.

A survey-based discrete choice experiment was used in chapter 6 to study more deeply farmers’ choices for different voluntary bluetongue vaccination scheme designs. A generalised random utility model of farmers’ behaviour allowed for heterogeneity in motives to invest in bluetongue disease control. Results showed that farmers have private economic motives (incentives) to participate in a vaccination scheme, such as to insure the production risk from disease infection and to maintain the export of heifers.

Interaction effects found between social-psychological constructs and specific designs of policy instruments highlighted the importance of perceived trust and confidence in the vaccine safety and effectiveness and in the disease control strategy chosen by animal health authorities. Attitude interacted positively with government communication (information) provided via veterinarians. Descriptive norm interacted positively with a lower perceived probability of adverse effects. This suggests that farmers are more likely to vaccinate if they perceive that others in their social network perform vaccination without experiencing adverse effects. Injunctive norm interacted negatively with a higher level of government subsidy. This suggested a crowding-out mechanism through which subsidization adversely affect farmer’s motivation to comply with the vaccination policy.

The interplay between farmers’ collective behaviour and bluetongue disease epidemiology was studied in chapter 7 with an agent-based model. The utility model specification from chapter 6 was used to describe the decision-making process of farmers. Other components that added to the dynamic nature of the model were a social network structure of the diffusion process of sharing information about vaccination status and a susceptible-latent-infectious-recovered model of disease spread. The effectiveness of different bluetongue vaccinations scheme designs was studied as measured by disease rate and vaccination uptake.

Results of chapter 7 showed that vaccination schemes that focus more on motivating farmers via informational instruments were somewhat more effective than predicted from the comparative static analysis in chapter 6. Motivation via financial incentives resulted in a somewhat lower effectiveness than was predicted from that same model. This might be explained as an emergent effect that evolves under specific vaccination scheme designs from the interactions between farmers themselves and with the environment from which they observe the progress of the disease. These schemes focus more on serving the information needs of farmers and raising the perceived trust and confidence in the disease control approach rather than on incentivising with higher levels of subsidy.

Three themes for livestock disease control emerged from the synthesis of the results in chapter 8, which were subsequently discussed in relation to the wider economic and (social) psychological literature. These themes coincide with shortcoming of the standard economic model of rational choice to describe and predict behaviour. The first theme was about understanding how farmers cope with risk in the context of livestock diseases. The second theme focused on the usefulness of financial compensation as a policy instrument. The third theme discussed the role of trust and social norms. After discussing the implications for policy making, main scientific contributions and suggestions for future research, the chapter concluded that:

Dutch dairy farmers who operate large-scale and intensive farms or keep heifers for export are likely to have private economic motives to vaccinate against bluetongue (Chapter 2, 4, 5 and 6).Farmers’ willingness to vaccinate against bluetongue is mostly driven by attitude, followed by perceived social pressures from injunctive norms and descriptive norms. This implies farmers can be motivated intrinsically, extrinsically, or both (Chapter 3).Dutch dairy farmers have intrinsic motives to vaccinate against bluetongue. They do not want to be confronted with animal suffering but want to keep job satisfaction high from working with healthy animals (Chapter 4).Dutch dairy farmers have social motives to vaccinate against bluetongue. They consider what important referents, such as the veterinarian or family members, think they should do and take into account the perceived behaviour of peers (Chapter 3 and 4).

Perceived risk, personality traits and past behaviour are important behavioural variables for explaining the heterogeneity in beliefs to vaccinate against bluetongue (Chapter 5).

The efficacy of financial, incentive based instruments to motivate to vaccinate against bluetongue is heterogeneous and not necessarily positive for each farmer. They are not effective if farmers already expect a positive net benefit from vaccination or if they crowd-out the motivation to comply with the vaccination policy (Chapter 2, 4, 6, 7).

The efficacy of informational policy instruments to motivate farmers to vaccinate against bluetongue is positively affected by farmers’ attitude towards vaccination and in case farmers perceive the communication channels used as credible and trustworthy (Chapter 3, 4, 6).

The efficacy of social interaction mechanisms in policy making, such as the perceived social pressuretovaccinateagainstbluetongue,ispositivelyaffectedbyfarmers’trustandconfidence in the government approach to control the disease (Chapter 4, 6, 7).

Planned development interventions and contested development in the Casamance Region, Senegal: an enquiry into the ongoing struggles for autonomy and progres by the Casamance peasantry
Ndiame, Fadel - \ 2017
University. Promotor(en): Jandouwe van der Ploeg, co-promotor(en): Paul Hebinck. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463436779 - 180
peasant farming - peasantry - farming - farmers - agricultural development - development projects - development studies - history - social change - senegal - west africa - landbouw bedrijven in het klein - boerenstand - landbouw bedrijven - boeren - landbouwontwikkeling - ontwikkelingsprojecten - ontwikkelingsstudies - geschiedenis - sociale verandering - west-afrika

This thesis analyses the relationships between i) planned development interventions which took place in the Casamance over the last 100 years; ii) the advent and co-existence of different forms of endogenous responses to state interventions, and iii) the conflictive outcomes which emanated from the interplay of i) and ii). The ultimate goal is to provide a critical and situated understanding of the ‘Casamance crises’.

The thesis is anchored on and actor oriented conceptual framework. This approach positions the agency of different categories of actors and their ability to engage, accommodate, resist and co-determine the outcome of the development processes. The processes observed in the Casamance are interpreted as ‘a structural feature of agrarian development’, as “arenas where different actors interact, compete and cooperate, based on their own objectives’ (Long, 2001). In light of this framework, the peasantry is seen to be able to strive for autonomy by relying on own resources to survive in an increasingly globalising economy. However, their potentials can be blocked by unfavourable socio- economic conditions, such as those that deprive them the fruits of their labour, thus leading to an agrarian crisis as defined by Van der Ploeg (2008). From this angle, the thesis explores the extent to which the long-term configurations of relationships between external interventions and local responses have accelerated the disarticulation of the traditional production systems, and contributed to compromising the livelihood position and the emancipation trajectories of youth and women within the traditional domestic units in the Casamance.

The methodology adopted described in chapter 2, thus focussed on unpacking interplay and mutual determination between ‘internal’ and ‘external’ factors and relationships. This entailed a historical contextualization of processes of planned state interventions and distancing from development activities in the Casamance over a long period of time. This is followed by a detailed analysis of the various consequent responses shown by different segments of the Casamance society at different historical junctures, in pursuit of a differentiated set of emancipatory trajectories. Data collection involved multiple times and locations, combining field observations, data collected through interviews and surveys and consulting research reports.

Chapter 3 reviews the key physical, socioeconomic and political features of the Casamance region, from the colonial era until the present day’s developments which culminated in the protracted conflict opposing the Government of Senegal and the Mouvement des Forces Democratiques de la Casamance (MFDC). The land reform programmes initiated during the colonial era brought a number of provisions which made it easier for the Colonial government to control local people’s holdings. When Senegal became independent in 1960, the colonial concept of land tenure also played an important role in the “Loi sur le Domaine National”, considered as a means of achieving both economic and social objectives. In addition, the country maintained a policy of specialisation on groundnut and the development of an import- substitution industry funded by foreign donors. During the 1980-2000s, changes in government policy and the drought contributed to significant changes in the production systems. These changes triggered multifaceted responses: collaboration, resistance, rejection as well as conflict- the most dramatic of which was the launch of an armed campaign for the independence of the Casamance region during the 1980s.

Chapter 4 analyses the state-administered agricultural programmes and the consequent local people’s responses which took place in the Casamance between the 1960s and the 1980s. These typically revolved around land and agrarian reform programmes supplying agricultural equipment and technology, rural development projects and farming systems research. They enabled significant sections of rural people to access animal traction equipment and complementary inputs through agricultural credit. Later during the 1980s, the state withdrew form direct involvement in production and marketing activities as part of the structural adjustment programme. This chapter also showed that State hegemony and locally driven development dynamics are related both historically and conceptually: During the first phase of State hegemony, a number of rural institutions were controlled and managed by the State. During the 1970s and 1980s when the state withdrew, an autonomous farmer movement (FONGS) emerged outside the official state extension and structuring system- defining a new farmer-centered political and economic agenda.

Chapter 5 provides an in-depth analysis of the two types of responses that the Casamance peasantry brought to planned development interventions. First, the incentives provided through State policies for groundnuts production analysed in chapter 4 led to a widespread adoption of labour-saving and scale-enlarging technologies, which facilitated a significant increase in the male-dominated production of cash crops- groundnuts especially- as a source for rural livelihoods in the region. This however happened at the expense of food crops whose production was dominated by women and youth. It also accelerated the gradual disconnections between crop production, livestock management at the household and village levels. Moreover, subsequent changes in State policies, which was no longer providing favourable conditions for entrepreneurial farming, combined with the negative consequences of a long drought, led to devastating impacts on local production systems. This situation triggered a significant out-migration of the Casamance youth to the country’s capital city and other metropolitan areas, in search of alternative employment and livelihood opportunities.

With the evolution of time, the Casamance farmers developed a second set of responses. As discussed in chapters 5 and 6, the rural youth and women explored new livelihood and emancipation opportunities- such as producing rice for family consumption and diversifying production activities to include seasonal cultivation of fruits and vegetables for sale. Many young people also embarked on seasonal out-migration to enable them to accumulate the resources necessary to start their own households.

Chapters 6 further analyzes the development and growth of FOs, and how they managed to use funding from donors to develop new technical and organisational capabilities to support the activities of the Casamance family farms. They succeeded in fulfilling the technical and advisory roles previously provided by state institutions, and facilitated rural people’s access to agricultural finance. They were also able to integrate and play a bigger role in the activities of their local government-with a more emboldened voice and power to influence change. The Chapter also shows the development of other forms of private rural business development actors from the Casamance and other regions of Senegal- mainly premised on the participation of smallholder farmers in the agricultural value chain.

Chapter 7 analyses the Casamance crisis as a major conflict of articulation between a region and the rest of country; epitomising a violent contestation of a dominant state- driven modernisation scenario which does not conform to the emancipation trajectories of the educated youth, aspiring to the benefits of sovereignty. In this respect the conflict conforms to the definitions of a governance and agrarian crisis as articulated in this thesis. However while significant, the actions of the MFDC do not represent the sole and unique responses of the Casamance rural youth to the prevailing crisis. The agrarian interpretation of the conflict adopted in this thesis enable us to illustrate other types of development dynamics associated with the interplay between planned interventions and local people responses. Building on the lessons learned in conducting this study, it appears that finding practical answers to the question of local people’s access to decent resources and living conditions could be a prerequisite to overcoming the current political and agrarian crisis prevailing in the Casamance.

The concluding chapter 8 explores the links between ‘peace’, ‘autonomy’ and ‘development’ in the Casamance. I examine the extent to which more autonomy, associated with peasant-centred development, can lead to ‘peace’ and development in the southern region of Senegal. It links the successful resolution of the Casamance crisis to the advent of a governance revolution, which permits a re-alignment of the resources, activities and personal agendas of the different family members around a shared goal for transformation and progress. Building on the lessons learned as part of this study, the approaches considered here are based on new principles of the valorisation of local resources, as well as the redefinition of the format and content of relationships with other development actors. This approach requires the revision of the relationships between local actors and the wider set of actors; it also implies a reconciliation of diverse strategies deployed by the different protagonists over different geographic boundaries.

These principles inform the final recommendations of this study which aim at creating the necessary conditions for the advent of lasting peace linked to the capacity of the local people to rebuild a more viable livelihood for the inhabitants of the Casamance region.

Rural livelihoods and agricultural commercialization in colonial Uganda: conjunctures of external influences and local realities
Haas, Michiel A. de - \ 2017
University. Promotor(en): Ewout Frankema, co-promotor(en): Niek Koning. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463436281 - 250
cum laude - livelihoods - livelihood strategies - communities - rural areas - farmers - history - colonies - colonialism - income - gender - social inequalities - food crops - cash crops - uganda - east africa - middelen van bestaan - strategieën voor levensonderhoud - gemeenschappen - platteland - boeren - geschiedenis - kolonies - kolonialisme - inkomen - geslacht (gender) - sociale ongelijkheden - voedselgewassen - marktgewassen - oost-afrika

The economic history of Sub-Saharan Africa is characterized by geographically and temporally dispersed booms and busts. The export-led ‘cash-crop revolution’ in parts of Sub-Saharan Africa during the colonial era is a key example of an economic boom. This thesis examines how external influences and local realities shaped the nature, extent and impact of the ‘cash-crop revolution’ in colonial Uganda, a landlocked country in central east Africa, where cotton and coffee production for global markets took off following completion of a railway to the coast. The thesis consists of five targeted ‘interventions’ into contemporary debates of comparative African development. Each of these five interventions is grounded in the understanding that the ability of rural Africans to respond to and benefit from trade integration during the colonial era was mediated by colonial policies, resource endowments and local institutions.

The first chapter reconstructs welfare development of Ugandan cash-crop farmers. Recent scholarship on historical welfare development in Sub-Saharan Africa has uncovered long-term trends in standards of living. How the majority of rural dwellers fared, however, remains largely elusive. This chapter presents a new approach to reconstructing rural living standards in a historical context, building upon the well-established real wage literature, but moving beyond it to capture rural realities, employing sub-national rural survey, census, and price data. The approach is applied to colonial and early post-colonial Uganda (1915–70), and yields a number of findings. While an expanding smallholder-based cash-crop sector established itself as the backbone of Uganda’s colonial economy, farm characteristics remained largely stagnant after the initial adoption of cash crops. Smallholders maintained living standards well above subsistence level, and while the profitability of cash crops was low, their cultivation provided a reliable source of cash income. At the same time, there were pronounced limits to rural welfare expansion. Around the time of decolonization, unskilled wages rose rapidly while farm incomes lagged behind. As a result, an urban–rural income reversal took place. The study also reveals considerable differences within Uganda, which were mediated to an important extent by differential resource endowments. Smallholders in Uganda’s banana regions required fewer labour inputs to maintain a farm income than their grain-farming counterparts, creating opportunities for additional income generation and livelihood diversification.

The second chapter zooms in on labour migration which connected Belgian-controlled Ruanda-Urundi to British-controlled Buganda, the central province of Uganda on the shores of Lake Victoria. The emergence of new labour mobility patterns was a key aspect of economic change in colonial Africa. Under conditions of land abundance and labour scarcity, the supply of wage labour required either the ‘pull’ forces of attractive working conditions and high wages, or the ‘push’ forces of taxation and other deliberate colonial interventions. Building upon primary sources, I show that this case diverges from the ‘conventional’ narrative of labour scarcity in colonial Africa. I argue that Ruanda-Urundi should be regarded as labour abundant and that migrants were not primarily ‘pushed’ by colonial labour policies, but rather by poverty and limited access to agricultural resources. This explains why they were willing to work for low wages in Buganda. I show that African rural employers were the primary beneficiaries of migrant labour, while colonial governments on both sides of the border were unable to control the course of the flow. As in the first chapter, this chapter highlights that the effects of trade integration on African rural development were uneven, and mediated by differences in resource endowments, local institutions and colonial policies.

The third chapter zooms out of the rural economy, evaluating the broader opportunity structures faced by African men and women in Uganda, and discussing the interaction of local institutions and colonial policies as drivers of uneven educational and occupational opportunities. The chapter engages with a recent article by Meier zu Selhausen and Weisdorf (2016) to show how selection biases in, and Eurocentric interpretations of, parish registers have provoked an overly optimistic account of European influences on the educational and occupational opportunities of African men and women. We confront their dataset, drawn from the marriage registers of the Anglican Cathedral in Kampala, with Uganda’s 1991 census, and show that trends in literacy and numeracy of men and women born in Kampala lagged half a century behind those who wedded in Namirembe Cathedral. We run a regression analysis showing that access to schooling during the colonial era was unequal along lines of gender and ethnicity. We foreground the role of Africans in the spread of education, argue that European influences were not just diffusive but also divisive, and that gender inequality was reconfigured rather than eliminated under colonial rule. This chapter also makes a methodological contribution. The renaissance of African economic history in the past decade has opened up new research avenues to study the long-term social and economic development of Africa. We show that a sensitive treatment of African realities in the evaluation of European colonial legacies, and a critical stance towards the use of new sources and approaches, is crucial.

The fourth chapter singles out the role of resource endowments in explaining Uganda’s ‘cotton revolution’ in a comparative African perspective. Why did some African smallholders adopt cash crops on a considerable scale, while most others were hesitant to do so? The chapter sets out to explore the importance of factor endowments in shaping the degrees to which cash crops were adopted in colonial tropical Africa. We conduct an in-depth case study of the ‘cotton revolution’ in colonial Uganda to put the factor endowments perspective to the test. Our empirical findings, based on an annual panel data analysis at the district-level from 1925 until 1960, underscore the importance of Uganda’s equatorial bimodal rainfall distribution as an enabling factor for its ‘cotton revolution’. Evidence is provided at a unique spatial micro-level, capitalizing on detailed household surveys from the same period. We demonstrate that previous explanations associating the variegated responses of African farmers to cash crops with, either the role of colonial coercion, or the distinction between ‘forest/banana’ and ‘savannah/grain’ zones, cannot explain the widespread adoption of cotton in Uganda. We argue, instead, that the key to the cotton revolution were Uganda’s two rainy seasons, which enabled farmers to grow cotton while simultaneously pursuing food security. Our study highlights the importance of food security and labour seasonality as important determinants of uneven agricultural commercialization in colonial tropical Africa.

The fifth and final chapter further investigates the experience of African smallholders with cotton cultivation, providing a comparative explanatory analysis of variegated cotton outcomes, focusing in particular on the role of colonial and post-colonial policies. The chapter challenges the widely accepted view that (i) African colonial cotton projects consistently failed, that (ii) this failure should be attributed to conditions particular to Africa, which made export cotton inherently unviable and unprofitable to farmers, and that (iii) the repression and resistance often associated with cotton, all resulted from the stubborn and overbearing insistence of colonial governments on the crop per se. I argue along three lines. Firstly, to show that cotton outcomes were diverse, I compare cases of cotton production in Sub-Saharan Africa across time and space. Secondly, to refute the idea that cotton was a priori unattractive, I argue that the crop had substantial potential to connect farmers to markets and contribute to poverty alleviation, particularly in vulnerable, marginal and landlocked areas. Thirdly, to illustrate how an interaction between local conditions and government policies created conducive conditions for cotton adoption, I zoom in on the few yet significant ‘cotton success stories’ in twentieth century Africa. Smallholders in colonial Uganda adopted cotton because of favourable ecological and marketing conditions, and policies had an auxiliary positive effect. Smallholders in post-colonial Francophone West Africa faced much more challenging local conditions, but benefitted from effective external intervention and coordinated policy. On a more general level, this chapter demonstrates that, from a perspective of rural development, colonial policies should not only be seen as overbearing and interventionist, but also as inadequate, failing to aid rural Africans to benefit from new opportunities created by trade integration.

Diversity of coordination mechanisms to support transactions : farmer - buyer relationships and farmer performance in the Brazilian pork chain
Müller Martins, Franco - \ 2017
University. Promotor(en): Onno Omta; Jacques Trienekens. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463436366 - 146
supply chain management - pigmeat - pig farmers - farmers - piglets - buying groups - consumers - brazil - south america - ketenmanagement - varkensvlees - varkensboeren - boeren - biggen - inkoopcombinaties - consumenten - brazilië - zuid-amerika

In the last decades consumers preferences have continuously triggered changes in quality regulations and the implementation of various private quality standards. New quality demands also imply new coordination arrangements to support transactions between food companies and their suppliers. To coordinate these transactions, food companies (i.e. buyers) use different types of governance structures (GSs) made up of different coordination mechanisms (CMs). These mechanisms are used to coordinate aspects such prices, quality, and allocation of resources (e.g. services, inputs). The general goal of this thesis is to analyse the complexity behind the GSs used to support transactions in the Brazilian Pork Chain (BPC). Furthermore, this thesis examines how these GSs impact on farmer performance and farmer investment. Brazil is the fourth world producer and exporter of pork. The quality standards and GSs used in this supply chain offer an interesting background to be examined with implications for theory and management. Chapter 1 presents a general introduction depicting the research problem, the research questions and the theoretical framework used in this thesis hich is grounded on Transaction Costs Economics, Supply Chain Management and Networks Theory. Chapter 2 examines, through an exploratory approach, the relationships between quality requirements and CMs. This study allows us to demonstrate that, in the BPC, chain actors use a wide array of CMs to support a non-diverse set of quality requirements. Quality requirements are based on public regulations and on a few specific requirements set by specific customers. The differences in CMs regard aspects such as base prices, criteria for bonuses, control on inputs and processes and resource allocation. Chapter 3 addresses the complexity of CMs embedded in a GS and the use of plural forms of coordination by individual buyers. A framework setting values of CMs on price, volume, quality and resource allocation, was used to demonstrate that a single GS (e.g. a contract) may include CMs on distinct positions within the market-hierarchy continuum. In addition, this framework is used, in four case studies, to support analyses on how and why individual buyers use plural CMs to support similar transactions. The main explanations that were found were the need to handle market fluctuations, the implementation of new and specific quality requirements, to adopt to CMs used by competitors, and to deal with bargaining power of specific groups of farmers. Chapter 4 applies structural equation modelling (SEM) to analyse influences of vertical (buyer-farmer) and horizontal relationships (farmer-farmer) on performance of pig farmers. Data were obtained through a survey questionnaire applied to 269 pig farmers. The results demonstrate that vertical and horizontal relationships improve performance and that horizontal relationships improve information exchange. In addition, the findings suggest that the context in which transactions take place (i.e. spot market, contracting), may affect these relationships. Chapter 5 analyses, based on the farmer survey, influences of buyer support on famer performance and farmer investments. A SEM analysis was applied to 199 farmers that deliver pigs through contracts. The results demonstrate positive influences of buyer support on farmer performance and farmer investment capacity. Chapter 6 provides a general discussion including theoretical, policy and management implications.

Handelingsperspectief voor pluimveehouders in de preventie van laag- en hoogpathogene vogelgriep (AI)
Bokma, Martien ; Bergevoet, Ron ; Elbers, Armin ; Goot, Jeanet van der; Neijenhuis, Francesca ; Niekerk, Thea van; Leenstra, Ferry - \ 2016
Wageningen : Wageningen Livestock Research (Wageningen Livestock Research rapport 998) - 42
aviaire influenza - hennen - pluimveehouderij - boeren - dierziektepreventie - risicofactoren - avian influenza - hens - poultry farming - farmers - animal disease prevention - risk factors
Committed by the Dutch poultry sector research is carried out concerning acting perspective for prevention of AI-introduction on poultry farms, based on existing knowledge. The findings are shown in two parts: part I with practical advices for poultry farmers, and part II with its underpinning with a summary of existing knowledge of risk factors, preventive measures, early detection and possibilities for promoting desired (preventive) behaviour.
Duurzame energie 2050 : verkenning rol van (agrarische) ondernemers in de energietransitie naar 2050
Wijnands, Frank ; Holster, Henri - \ 2016
Wageningen : Praktijkonderzoek Plant & Omgeving, onderdeel van Wageningen UR - 33
boeren - plattelandsomgeving - duurzame energie - energie - energievoorraden - hernieuwbare energie - farmers - rural environment - sustainable energy - energy - energy resources - renewable energy
Rural entrepreneurs (farmers) are going to play a major role in the energy transitions towards 2050. In professional dialogues between farmers and pertinent stakeholders it was shown that farmers are already involved in all aspects and are in the right position. The transition needs to be facilitated in local initiatives.
The relation between finance utilisation and business performance in Indonesian horticulture
Wulandari, Eliana - \ 2016
University. Promotor(en): Alfons Oude Lansink, co-promotor(en): Miranda Meuwissen. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463430296 - 147
business economics - farmers - farm enterprises - horticulture - financial planning - financial management - business administration - business management - indonesia - south east asia - bedrijfseconomie - boeren - landbouwondernemingen - tuinbouw - financiële planning - financieel beheer - bedrijfskunde - bedrijfsmanagement - indonesië - zuidoost-azië

Finance is important for Indonesian farmers to purchase agricultural inputs and machinery and to pay for hired labour, which can improve farm performance. Farmers in Indonesia can access finance from various finance providers, i.e. banks, micro-finance institutions, farmers’ associations, traders, agricultural input kiosks and so-called “other sources” such as family and friends. The overall objective of this thesis was to analyse the relation between finance utilisation from different finance providers and horticultural business performance in Indonesia. This thesis first compares farmer knowledge of the requirements to obtain finance with the actual requirements set by finance providers, and investigates factors that determine farmer knowledge of the requirements. Next, this thesis analyses the relation between finance utilisation from different finance providers and the technical efficiency of horticultural farms using a bootstrap truncated regression. Furthermore, the role of finance utilisation from different finance providers in production risk is analysed using an ordinary least squares regression. Finally, this thesis analyses finance utilisation and its relation with chili supply chain continuity as reflected by contract fulfilment rates using a censored regression analysis. Findings show that farmers generally have little knowledge of the finance requirements. Findings also show that in-kind finance utilisation from farmers’ associations positively associates with farmer knowledge of finance requirements. The results of the bootstrap truncated regression show that commercial credit from banks and in-kind finance from farmers’ associations positively associate with the technical efficiency of some types of horticultural farms. Commercial credit from micro-finance institutions and flexible payment of inputs to agricultural input kiosks generally have negative associations, especially with the technical efficiency of mangosteen farms. Subsidised credit from banks and in-kind finance from traders have both positive and negative associations with the technical efficiency of the horticultural farms. With regard to production risk, results show that depending on the risk measure, risk-reducing associations were found for commercial credit from banks and flexible payments of inputs to kiosks. With respect to supply continuity, outcomes show that chili contract fulfilment rates are positively associated with in-kind finance from farmers’ associations, but negatively associated with subsidised credit from banks and flexible payment of inputs to agricultural input kiosks.

Training Manual Occupational Pesticide Exposure & Health and Safe & Responsible Handling of Pesticides : With courtesy of vegIMPACT a program financed by The Netherlands’ Government
Maden, E.C.L.J. van der; Koomen, I. - \ 2016
Centre for Development Innovation (Report CDI-16-029 ) - 40 p.
pesticides - exposure - occupational health - safety at work - horticulture - farmers - training - handbooks - kenya - pesticiden - blootstelling - gezondheid op het werk - veiligheid op het werk - tuinbouw - boeren - opleiding - handboeken
Pesticides are commonly used in the horticulture sector. While emphasis is often on the correct and efficient application of pesticides, the risk associated with application of pesticides receives less attention. Those working with pesticides need to know about occupational pesticide exposure and health risks, both for themselves as well as people living in the vicinity of places where pesticides are used. The Practical Training Centre Horticulture Kenya (PTC Horticulture) offers hands-on trainings to the horticultural sector. This manual is developed for PTC Horticulture and is about the safe and responsible use of pesticides – a guide for trainers who have to deliver trainings on ‘Occupational Pesticide Exposure & Health’ and ‘Safe & Responsible Handling of Pesticides’. This manual guides the trainers through the material, provides background and tips to the content and gives suggestions for practical assignments.
Uganda Early Generation Seed Study : Unlocking Pathways for Sustainable Provision of EGS for Food Crops in Uganda
Mastenbroek, A. ; Ntare, Bonny - \ 2016
Centre for Development Innovation (Report CDI-16-030 ) - 120 p.
seeds - seed quality - food crops - sustainability - farmers - uganda - zaden - zaadkwaliteit - voedselgewassen - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - boeren
One of the major bottlenecks limiting farmers’ access to good quality seed for food crops in Uganda is the shortage of early generation seed (EGS - breeder and foundation) to produce sufficient quantities of certified and/or quality declared) to satisfy the needs of farmers. A national study was conducted between October 2015 to March 2016 to analyse pathways for promoting commercial and sustainable production and delivery of EGS. Five crops (hybrid maize, rice, beans, sesame and finger millet) were selected. The analysis provides real examples of potential business models that could scale in a commercially sustainable manner. For areas that are best suited to public sector investment, opportunities for public-private collaboration and increased efficiencies in the sector are outlined. Generalizable principles and recommendations to guide key stakeholders as they pursue policies, investments, and interventions are proposed.
Smallholder Dairy Value Chain Interventions; The Kenya Market-led Dairy Programme (KMDP) – Status Report
Rademaker, I.F. ; Koech, R.K. ; Jansen, A. ; Lee, J. van der - \ 2016
Wageningen : Centre for Development Innovation (Report CDI-16-018 ) - 70 p.
dairy farming - value chain analysis - supply chain management - small businesses - farmers - milk production - marketing - kenya - melkveehouderij - waardeketenanalyse - ketenmanagement - kleine bedrijven - boeren - melkproductie
The Kenya Market-led Dairy Programme (KMDP) is a 4.5-year programme funded by the Embassy of the Kingdom of the Netherlands and implemented by SNV Netherlands Development Organisation in collaboration with stakeholders in the dairy industry. The overall goal of KMDP is to contribute to the development of a vibrant and competitive private sector-driven dairy sector in Kenya, with beneficiaries across the value chain. KMDP has two pillars, or strategic intervention levels. The first pillar is the smallholder dairy value chain, which has the objective to increase efficiency, effectiveness and inclusiveness in this production and marketing channel. The second pillar concerns systemic issues in the sector, where the objective is to promote and support interventions and innovations in feed and fodder supply, milk quality, practical skills development and the policy or regulatory environment. Work in the second pillar partly supports work in the first pillar and partly addresses issues in the enabling environment and supporting systems. In the smallholder dairy value chain, KMDP has engaged with eighteen farmer-owned milk collection and bulking enterprises (CBEs), dispersed over three main milksheds in Kenya: North Rift region, Central region, and Eastern region (Meru). In addition, KMDP works with two processors that receive and process milk from a number of the eighteen supported CBEs. This report describes the work of KMDP in the smallholder dairy value chain. It looks at the response of CBEs, processors and farmers to KMDP’s interventions, which cover five themes: 1. Capacity building of CBEs in governance and financial management; 2. Training and extension activities for farmers; 3. Fodder development and preservation at CBE- and farmer level; 4. Business development through linkages with input suppliers and service providers; 5. Milk procurement and milk quality along the value chain.
Improving the effectiveness of rural development policy in Chile
Carter Leal, L.M. - \ 2016
University. Promotor(en): Alfons Oude Lansink; Helmut Saatkamp. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462578173 - 171 p.
business economics - rural development - development policy - agricultural development - regional development - livestock farming - farmers - chile - south america - bedrijfseconomie - plattelandsontwikkeling - ontwikkelingsbeleid - landbouwontwikkeling - regionale ontwikkeling - veehouderij - boeren - chili - zuid-amerika
Potato breeding in the Netherlands: successful collaboration between farmers and commercial breeders
Almekinders, C.J.M. ; Mertens, L. ; Loon, Jan van; Lammerts Van Bueren, E. - \ 2016
Farming Matters 32 (2016)Special Issue April. - ISSN 2210-6499 - p. 34 - 37.
potatoes - table potatoes - plant breeding - netherlands - cooperation - farmers - genetic diversity - firms - agricultural law - new variety - organic farming - aardappelen - consumptieaardappelen - plantenveredeling - nederland - samenwerking - boeren - genetische diversiteit - firma's - agrarisch recht - nieuwe variëteit - biologische landbouw
The Dutch potato breeding model, which involves a partnership between farmers and commercial breeding companies in a modern, Western context, is unique. While there are other examples of collaborative relationships between farmers and breeders in Europe, the Dutch potato breeding model stands out in terms of its long track record, the involvement of the private sector, and the institutional integration of the relationship which up to today facilitates access to genetic materials and financial benefit sharing.
Kennisontwikkeling samen met stakeholders : ecosysteemdiensten in agrolandschappen
Geertsema, W. ; Bianchi, F.J.J.A. ; Pulleman, M.M. ; Rijn, P.C.J. van; Rossing, W.A.H. ; Schaminee, J.H.J. ; Werf, W. van der - \ 2016
Landschap : tijdschrift voor Landschapsecologie en Milieukunde 33 (2016)1. - ISSN 0169-6300 - p. 63 - 65.
zuidhollandse eilanden - ecosystem services - fields - sustainable agriculture - landscape - farmers - public authorities - projects - workshops (programs) - ecosysteemdiensten - velden - duurzame landbouw - landschap - boeren - overheid - projecten - workshops (programma's)
Ecosysteemdiensten spelen een belangrijke rol bij het verduurzamen van de landbouw. Maatregelen voor het versterken van ecosysteemdiensten kunnen genomen worden op verschillende ruimtelijke schaalniveaus, van perceel tot landschap. Voor maatregelen op landschapsschaal is samenwerking tussen boeren en andere belanghebbenden onmisbaar. Dit artikel beschrijft hoe onderzoekers via samenwerking met verschillende belanghebbenden kennis ontwikkelen voor versterking van ecosysteemdiensten voor een duurzamere landbouw.
Kennisoverdracht stalboekjes
Groot, M.J. - \ 2016
Wageningen : RIKILT Wageningen UR (RIKILT-rapport 2016.002) - 17 p.
kennisoverdracht - boeren - landbouw bedrijven - knowledge transfer - farmers - farming
Dit rapport gaat in op de mogelijkheden voor kennisverspreiding van informatie die in de stalboekjes is weergegeven. De eerste stalboekjes waren bedoeld voor de biologische sector en werden als pdf via internet verspreid. Ondanks de vrije beschikbaarheid leek de kennis niet goed beschikbaar was voor de veehouders. Oorzaken hiervoor waren de 1) grote bestanden, mensen printen grote bestanden niet graag uit, 2) veehouders gaan liever niet experimenteren zonder steun van hun dierenarts, en 3) de dierenartsen hebben weinig kennis van natuurproducten.
Kusheh, na minem Fatu, en mi na koko farmer Hello, I am Fatu and I am a cocoa farmer : a Digital Farmer Field School for training in cocoa production and certification in Sierra Leone
Witteveen, L.M. ; Goris, Margriet ; Lie, R. ; Ingram, V.J. - \ 2016
Wageningen : Wageningen UR Science Shop (Report /Wageningen UR, Science Shop 330) - ISBN 9789462577657 - 44 p.
agricultural extension - cocoa - farmers - information technology - sierra leone - landbouwvoorlichting - cacao - boeren - informatietechnologie
This document reports on the development of a prototype Digital Farmer Field School (DFFS) called Kusheh, na minem Fatu, en mi na koko farmer (“Hello, I am Fatu and I am a cocoa farmer”). The DFFS provides an ICT-based alternative to traditional agricultural extension. More specifically, it offers a tablet-based substitute for the face-to-face certification training for cocoa farmers in Sierra Leone. The fact that gatherings of more than five people at a time were not allowed as a consequence of the Ebola outbreak triggered the development of the digital alternative to group training for cocoa farmers.
Laat het ons nou doen! : Voorlopige ervaringen met nieuwe vormen van beheer in de Pilot Natuurbeheer Krimpenerwaard : onderzoek ten bate van de tussenevaluatie
Westerink, J. ; Smit, A. ; Ottburg, F.G.W.A. - \ 2016
Alterra, Wageningen-UR (Alterra-rapport 2694) - 35 p.
natuurbescherming - boeren - bewoning - krimpenerwaard - zuid-holland - nature conservation - farmers - tenancy
De pilot Natuurbeheer Krimpenerwaard is nu halverwege de looptijd van zes jaar. In deze pilot wordt geëxperimenteerd met beheer van natuur in het NNN (Nationaal Natuur Netwerk, voorheen EHS) door een collectief van boeren: de Natuurcoöperatie Krimpenerwaard (NCK). NCK pacht grond van de provincie Zuid-Holland en verpacht dit aan leden via een proces van selectie en toedeling. De pachters worden intensief begeleid door een lokale deskundige van bureau Bui-tegewoon. In de pilot wordt de aanpak van NCK vergeleken met die van Zuid-Hollands Landschap (ZHL), de grootste terreinbeherende organisatie in de Krimpenerwaard. De meeste grond van ZHL wordt normaal ook al verpacht aan boeren. In het kader van de pilot pacht ZHL echter ook grond van de provincie en verpacht dit aan boeren in de Krimpenerwaard (zie Figuur 1). De pachters worden bij beide organisaties begeleid door dezelfde deskundige. Door middel van het bestuderen van beschikbare documenten (zoals de pachtcontracten) en interviews met diverse betrokkenen, hebben wij geprobeerd inzicht te krijgen in de tussenresultaten van de pilot, om aanbevelingen te kunnen doen voor de tweede helft en vooruit te kijken naar de periode na de pilot.
Geëcologiseerde samenleving versus arme mensen
Gils, S.H. van; Vet, L.E.M. - \ 2015
Vork 2 (2015)4. - ISSN 2352-2925 - p. 22 - 29.
voedselvoorziening - voedselzekerheid - milieueffect - meerlagenteelt - alternatieve landbouw - voedselproductie - agro-ecologie - boeren - inkomen van landbouwers - food supply - food security - environmental impact - multi-layer cultivation - alternative farming - food production - agroecology - farmers - farmers' income
Niemand weet hoeveel milieubelasting de aarde precies kan hebben, maar een ecologische crisis van ongekende proporties ligt voortdurend op de loer, stellen Stijn van Gils en Louise Vet. Ze pleiten voor radicale veranderingen in de maatschappij. Zo’n ‘geëcologiseerde samenleving’ is volgens hen niet alleen goed voor de aarde, het geeft ook nieuw economisch perspectief. Ralf Bodelier vindt echter dat de ecologen Vet en Van Gils te weinig rekening houden met miljarden armen.
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