Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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The role of forests in climate change mitigation : a discursive-institutional analysis of REDD+ MRV
Ochieng, Robert M. - \ 2017
University. Promotor(en): Bas Arts; Martin Herold, co-promotor(en): Ingrid Visseren-Hamakers; M. Brockhaus. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463431712 - 172
forests - climatic change - mitigation - forest monitoring - developing countries - deforestation - forestry - bossen - klimaatverandering - mitigatie - bosmonitoring - ontwikkelingslanden - ontbossing - bosbouw

Since the advent of professional forestry in the 17th century, forest monitoring has been part and parcel of forest management, and has been implemented in different forms in many European countries. The practice of forest monitoring was later exported to the European colonies, and has since been taken over and conducted by post-colonial governments in many developing countries. From an earlier focus on assessment of timber stocks, the practice has evolved to include assessments of other forest variables than timber. Despite this evolution, national forest monitoring has remained largely timber-oriented, and a closed system with little participation of actors outside the state forestry bureaucracy. However, the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) decision on reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation, and the role of conservation, sustainable management of forests and enhancement of forest carbon stocks in developing countries (REDD+) has opened up new discussions on forest monitoring in developing countries. Specifically, the global discourse on monitoring, reporting and verification (MRV) of REDD+ outcomes has introduced new ideas and demands on the scope and objectives of forest monitoring, the actors to be involved, and resources to be used. Taken together, the emergence of the REDD+ MRV discourse and associated ideas calls for change in the institutional arrangements for forest monitoring in developing countries. Furthermore, while these ideas and demands are determined and agreed upon in an international negotiation process, they need to be translated and implemented in highly diverse country-specific contexts, with country-specific actors, ideas, interests, and institutions. Translating the REDD+ MRV discourse and ideas into national institutional arrangements thus involves negotiation and contestation among national stakeholders.

This dissertation examines the performance of REDD+ MRV in terms of its implementation and institutionalization in developing countries, and the political processes by which such institutionalization occurs. Specifically, it examines (1) the institutional effectiveness of REDD+ MRV; (2) how the concept of REDD+ MRV and associated ideas have materialized in new institutional arrangements for forest monitoring in developing countries; and (3) how discursive processes of policymaking and the argumentation and contestation inherent in such processes enable or constrain institutionalization. With this, the dissertation contributes to the literature on REDD+ MRV by examining forest monitoring from a social science perspective. While current research on REDD+ MRV remains highly technical, since it is assumed that forest monitoring is a neutral, apolitical activity, this study argues that monitoring deforestation is also political, and contributes by highlighting the political contestation involved in implementing REDD+ MRV at the national level. The dissertation also contributes to scientific debates on the performance of international environment agreements at the national level, and how contestation and negotiation among domestic stakeholders enable or constrain their institutionalization at the national level.

Chapter 1 introduces the research presented in this dissertation. It provides an overview of the emergence of reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation in developing countries (REDD+) within the United Nations Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) as a climate mitigation strategy, and argues that the UNFCCC’s decisions on monitoring, reporting and verification (MRV) for REDD+ pose new ideas and demands for forest monitoring in developing countries. It elucidates the research that has been done on REDD+ MRV so far, identifies gaps in the existing literature on forest monitoring for REDD+, and delineates the objectives of the study. It discusses the theoretical basis and framework for the study, explaining how the main theoretical concept – discursive institutionalism – is combined with the Policy Arrangement Approach (PAA) to examine how REDD+ MRV has been shaped and institutionalized in new or reformed institutional arrangements for forest monitoring in developing countries, and discursive processes by which such institutionalization occurs. After presenting the conceptual framework, four research questions are outlined, namely:

1. What is the institutional effectiveness of REDD+ MRV in terms of its implementation in developing countries?

2. How have institutional arrangements for forest monitoring in Peru evolved, and how and to what extent has their evolution been shaped by international discourses on forests, especially REDD+ MRV?

3. How and to what extent has the concept of MRV become institutionalized in new or reformed institutional arrangements for forest monitoring in Indonesia, Peru and Tanzania, and how can differences in this extent of institutionalization across the countries be explained?

4. How has discursive politics enabled or constrained institutionalization of MRV in Indonesia, Peru and Tanzania?

The chapter then describes the study’s overall research design and methodology, and ends by outlining the structure of the dissertation.

Chapter 2 examines the institutional effectiveness of REDD+ MRV. The chapter draws on regime literature to conceptualize UNFCCC and its decisions on REDD+ MRV as an international institution or regime, and outlines the technical and good governance requirements for MRV. Drawing on Young and Levy’s (1999) framework for assessing effectiveness of international institutions, and building on UNFCCC and IPCC methodological guidelines for Land Use, Land Use Change and Forestry (LULUCF), and good governance literature, it develops criteria and indicators for assessing progress in implementing the identified technical and governance requirements for MRV. Three dimensions on which effectiveness of REDD+ MRV can be evaluated are developed: ‘owning technical methods for MRV’, ‘developing administrative competence’ and ‘integrating good governance’ in MRV. The framework is applied to assess and compare institutional effectiveness of REDD+ MRV in 13 REDD+ countries, based on a review of national and international documents. The Chapter shows that REDD+ countries have high to very high ownership of technical methods. However, the majority of the countries rank only low to moderate on administrative capacity and good governance. This means that although countries have started developing technical methods for MRV, they are yet to develop the competence necessary to administer MRV and to incorporate aspects of good governance in MRV. The chapter explains the scores and suggest ways of improving implementation of REDD+ MRV.

Chapter 3 examines how and to what extent global discourses and ideas on forests, especially the concept of REDD+ MRV, have shaped institutional arrangements for forest monitoring in developing countries, using the case of Peru. It draws on discursive institutionalism to conceptualize REDD+ MRV as a discourse and identify the ideas represented in the discourse. It then combines discursive institutionalism with the policy arrangement approach to craft a framework for examining the extent to which REDD+ MRV, and other global discourses, have shaped national institutional arrangements for forest monitoring in Peru. An analytical distinction is made between ‘shallow’ and ‘deep’ institutional change. The chapter identifies three distinct discourses – productivist forest philosophy, multiple-use and sustainable forest management philosophies and REDD+ MRV – that have shaped forest monitoring in Peru. The chapter shows that while all the three discourses have shaped the scope and objectives of forest monitoring, the actors involved, resources used, and rules governing forest assessments, none of them has led to ‘deep’ institutionalization of forest monitoring. On REDD+ MRV specifically, the chapter shows that it has expanded the scope and objectives of forest assessments in Peru, inspired the mobilization of new actors and resources, and spawned the development of new rules to govern forest monitoring. However, these institutional changes are not yet ‘deep’, since the new rules for forest inventories have not yet been formally adopted, and the agencies envisioned to implement forest monitoring have not been established. The chapter concludes that forest monitoring in general, and REDD+ MRV in particular, is only shallowly institutionalized in Peru.

Chapter 4 compares how and to what extent the concept of REDD+ MRV has institutionalized in Indonesia, Peru and Tanzania. To do so, the chapter draws on insights from discursive institutionalism operationalized by means of the policy arrangement approach to develop the analytical categories of ‘shallow’, ‘shallow-intermediate’, ‘deep-intermediate’ and ‘deep’ institutionalization, and uses these categories to examine the extent of institutionalization across the countries. The chapter shows that in all three countries, REDD+ MRV has institutionalized in new or revised aims, scope and strategies for forest monitoring, and the development of new agencies and mobilization of new actors and resources. New legislation to anchor forest monitoring in law, and procedures to institutionalize the roles of the various agencies, are also being developed. Nevertheless, the extent of institutionalization of MRV varies across the countries, with Indonesia experiencing ‘deep’ institutionalization, Peru ‘shallow-intermediate’, and Tanzania ‘intermediate-deep’ institutionalization. To explain the differences in institutionalization, the chapter examines the theoretical factors for discourse institutionalization and their manifestation in each country. It shows that the relatively ‘deep’ institutionalization of REDD+ MRV in Indonesia and Tanzania is due to the presence of all five factors for discourse institutionalization. Only one factor is found to be present in Peru, and the ‘shallow- intermediate’ institutionalization of REDD+ is largely due to the absence of other factors. Based on the findings and conclusions, the chapter draws lessons to inform institutionalization of MRV in other countries.

Chapter 5 examines how the discursive politics of MRV policymaking has enabled or constrained institutionalization of REDD+ MRV in Indonesia, Peru and Tanzania. To do this, it draws on the concept of discourse – understood as ideas and the interactive process of policymaking and public deliberation – to examine the actors involved in MRV policy development in the respective countries, and how the deliberation, argumentation and contestation among them (discursive politics) have enabled or constrained institutionalization. The chapter shows that in all countries, the methodologies to be used for MRV, the actors to be involved and their roles were contentious. However, it shows that in Indonesia and Tanzania, where there was a broad-based national discourse on MRV, and where policy actors agreed on the strategies to implement MRV and the role of different actors in forest monitoring, there is relatively ‘deep’ institutionalization compared to Peru, where such discourse and agreement were lacking. The chapter discusses how the discursive process facilitated institutionalization of REDD+ MRV in Indonesia and Tanzania and constrained the same in Peru. It concludes that how discursive politics is played matters in institutionalization.

Chapter 6 presents the conclusions on the study. It draws on the empirical chapters to answer the research questions, concluding that majority (60%) of the analysed countries has achieved at least a ‘moderate’ institutional effectiveness for MRV. Further, it concludes that the concept of REDD+ MRV has materialized in reformed institutional arrangements for forest monitoring in Indonesia, Peru and Tanzania, albeit to varying degrees. The chapter also concludes that forest monitoring for REDD+ is not only a technical activity, but is also political. Specifically, it concludes that decisions on what exactly is to be monitored and reported, by whom and using what methods are determined through political negotiations, and that how this political process is managed has a significant influence on how, and the extent to which, MRV is institutionalized. After drawing the conclusions, the chapter reflects on the key theoretical concepts used in the study by outlining how discursive institutionalism and the policy arrangement approach can be used to enrich one another. The chapter ends by outlining several policy recommendations. First, it recommends that while the development of new agencies to implement REDD+ MRV is necessary in some countries, care should be taken to avoid establishment of many agencies. Where possible, policy makers and donors should consider working with and strengthening existing agencies before deciding to establish new agencies. Second, it recommends that more investments be directed to organizing inclusive MRV policy coordination processes, since the politics involved in these processes determine the extent to which REDD+ MRV is institutionalized. Lastly, investments in policy coordination should be accompanied with investments in broader communicative political discourse to enlighten all REDD+ stakeholders on MRV policy processes and the strategies being proposed, while seeking the views and feedback these strategies. This is necessary if the proposed strategies are to be legitimate in the eyes of key REDD+ stakeholders.

Koninklijke Nederlandse Bosbouwvereniging: van bosbouw naar bosbeheer
Mohren, G.M.J. ; Wijdeven, Sander - \ 2016
Vakblad Natuur Bos Landschap 13 (2016)127. - ISSN 1572-7610 - p. 26 - 28.
forestry - forest administration - professional associations - nature conservation - nature conservation policy - experiential value - natural value - timber production - urban areas - extension - woodlands - bosbouw - bosbeheer - beroepsverenigingen - natuurbescherming - natuurbeleid - belevingswaarde - natuurwaarde - houtproductie - stedelijke gebieden - voorlichting - bosgebieden
Bos en bosbeheer veranderen continu. Met de ontwikkeling van de productiegerichte bosbouw van vijftig jaar geleden naar een bosbeheer gericht op meervoudige functievervulling in een dichtbevolkte samenleving veranderde ook de rol van de beheerder. Dit vraagt om andere kennis en vaardigheden van de beroepsgroep en andere organisatievormen van onderwijs en onderzoek. De Koninklijke Nederlandse Bosbouw Vereniging (KNBV) fungeert sinds de oprichting in 1910 als vakvereniging door en voor mensen uit de sector, volledig draaiend op vrijwilligers. De veranderingen in de sector en het werkveld vragen ook om een andere rol van de beroepsvereniging.
Bedrijfsuitkomsten in de Nederlandse particuliere bosbouw over 2014
Silvis, H.J. ; Voskuilen, M.J. - \ 2016
Wageningen : LEI Wageningen UR (Rapport / LEI 2016-071) - ISBN 9789462578463 - 59 p.
bosbouweconomie - bosbouw - houtproductie - particuliere bosbouw - nederland - forest economics - forestry - timber production - private forestry - netherlands
Dit rapport biedt een overzicht van de bedrijfsresultaten van particuliere bosbedrijven in 2014. Hierbij gaat het om privaatrechtelijke boseigenaren met meer dan 5 ha bos, met uitzondering van de natuurbeschermingsorganisaties. De resultaten zijn gebaseerd op gegevens van 152 particuliere boseigenaren, verdeeld naar bedrijfsgrootte en regio. Vooral dankzij relatief hoge houtopbrengsten
hebben zij gemiddeld opnieuw een positief resultaat behaald: 39 euro per ha bos in 2014 tegenover 24 euro in 2013. Als bijzonder thema wordt ingegaan op de energiebalans van de bosbouw.
Ghana's high forests : trends, scenarios and pathways for future developments
Oduro, K.A. - \ 2016
University. Promotor(en): Frits Mohren; Bas Arts, co-promotor(en): B. Kyereh. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462577824 - 171 p.
forests - forest ecology - forest management - high forest system - forest resources - forestry - ghana - bossen - bosecologie - bosbedrijfsvoering - hoog opgaand bos - bosbestanden - bosbouw

Deforestation and forest degradation in the tropics have been receiving both scientific and political attention in recent decades due to its impacts on the environment and on human livelihoods. In Ghana, the continuous decline of forest resources and the high demand for timber have raised stakeholders concerns about the future timber production prospects in the country. The principal drivers of deforestation and forest degradation in Ghana are agricultural expansion (50%), wood harvesting (35%), population and development pressures (10%), and mining and mineral exploitation (5%). Various measures are being pursued that are targeted at addressing the drivers of deforestation and forest degradation and at increasing the forest resource base. Understanding the key driving forces behind current forest resource development trends will help to gain insights into the possible courses of action to take to improve the developments of the resources, especially where actions that are being taken today will have an impact on the forest resources for many years to come.

In this thesis, I used interdisciplinary research methods to provide insights into the current status of the forest resource base in Ghana and into its likely and possible future developments. I addressed 5 research questions: (1) What are the trends and changes associated with the growing stock in the timber production areas? (2) What driving forces account for current trends and future developments of timber resources in Ghana? (3) What different scenarios can be identified and how will these affect future developments of timber resources in the high forest zone? (4) What factors motivate farmers to engage in on-farm tree planting and management? (5) To what extent do the current trends of forest resources drive forest transition in Ghana?

National forest inventory data, timber harvesting data and forest plantation establishment data showed that the growing stock in both on- and off-reserve production areas have been declining since 1990. Ghana’s average forest growing stock of 40m3 per ha is much lower than the 195 m3 per ha for the Western and Central Africa sub-region. Timber harvesting records also indicate that, in recent decades, total timber harvests have mostly been substantially higher than the annual allowable cut, resulting in an increasing gap between national timber demand and supply, which drives illegal logging. Current plantation establishment efforts are not sufficient to bridge the gap between demand and supply of timber, partly due to low establishment rates and lack of appropriate management of newly established plantations. Forest governance system and resource demand are the two key driving forces that affect the current trends and future developments of forest resources in the high forest zone of Ghana. Four scenarios were developed: (1) legal forestry scenario with emphasis on improving the resource base to meet high demand; (2) forest degradation, which implies a business-as-usual scenario; (3) forest transition, with emphasis on expanding the resource base in response to environmental concerns; and (4) timber substitution scenario seeking to provide wood substitutes to conserve the resource base. Across two on-farm tree planting schemes, I found that financial benefits, educational campaigns by project teams, knowledge about current environmental issues, ownership of timber for family use and access to land, grants, farming inputs, seedlings, capacity building, and market for agricultural produce are the factors that motivated farmers to engage in on-farm tree planting and management. Currently, there is no strong force toward a forest transition through any of the five generic pathways (economic development; forest scarcity; globalization; state forest policy; and smallholder, tree-based land use intensification). This is because the existing trends of forest resources developments are either too small-scale or too ineffective. In order to accelerate a forest transition in Ghana, policy and management options should target measures that reduce current degradation of natural forests, increase the area and productivity of commercial forest plantations, promote sustainable forest management, and support and encourage forest conservation and integration of trees into farming systems.

Bestellen van bosplantsoen : handvaten voor de praktijk
Jansen, Patrick ; Boosten, Martijn - \ 2015
Wageningen : Stichting Probos - ISBN 9789074277266 - 103 p.
bos- en haagplantsoen - plantmateriaal - bosbouw - groenbeheer - beplanten - natuurbeheer - woody nursery stock - planting stock - forestry - management of urban green areas - planting - nature management
Voor het aanleggen van een goed functionerende beplanting is veel vakkennis en ervaring noodzakelijk. Welke soorten, plantverbanden en mengingen moet ik gebruiken? Van welke genetische herkomst moet mijn plantmateriaal zijn? Hoe ga ik om met onkruid en wildschade? Dit zijn zo maar een paar vragen die de revue passeren. Vrijwel elke terreinbeheerder moet wel eens een beplanting aanleggen, maar voor slechts weinigen is het dagelijks werk. Dan is het niet eenvoudig om alle benodigde vakkennis paraat te hebben. Dit geldt zeker voor de keuze van het plantmateriaal. De keuze welk plantmateriaal gebruikt wordt is medebepalend voor het toekomstige functioneren van de beplanting. Daarom is het belangrijk om hierin de goede keuzes te maken. Deze gids geeft praktische handvaten voor beheerders die met dergelijke vragen te maken krijgen. Hierbij worden handige hulpmiddelen aangereikt die gebruikt kunnen worden bij het bestellen van plantmateriaal en het controleren van het geleverde materiaal. Deze gids richt zich hierbij vooral op bos- en haagplantsoen.
Oogst in het Nederlandse bos : Analyse van niet-geoogste plots uit de Zesde Nederlandse Bosinventarisatie
Clerkx, A.P.P.M. ; Schelhaas, M. ; Zwart, J. - \ 2015
Alterra, Wageningen-UR (Alterra-rapport 2610) - 33 p.
forestry - forest inventories - forest management - forests - netherlands - bosbouw - bosinventarisaties - bosbedrijfsvoering - bossen - nederland
Vanuit de overheid zijn al sinds de jaren 80 van de vorige eeuw acties genomen om de oogst in het
Nederlandse bos te promoten, maar het niveau van de oogst is al enkele decennia min of meer
constant. Uit de Zesde Nederlandse Bosinventarisatie is gebleken dat op ruim 40% van de punten niet
is geoogst sinds de inventarisatie van het Meetnet Functievervulling. De eigenaren van deze punten
zijn gevraagd naar de redenen waarom daar niet is geoogst en wanneer zij wel over zullen gaan op
oogst. Met deze gegevens is een schatting gemaakt van de hoeveelheid hout die mogelijk meer zal
kunnen worden geoogst
A new role for forests and the forest sector in the EU post-2020 climate targets
Nabuurs, G.J. ; Delacote, Philippe ; Ellison, David ; Hanewinkel, Marc ; Lindner, Marcus ; Nesbit, Martin ; Ollikainen, Markku ; Savaresi, Annalisa - \ 2015
European Forest Institute (From Science to Policy 2) - ISBN 9789525980202 - 30 p.
forestry - environmental policy - land use - european union - carbon sequestration - forests - biomass production - biobased economy - bosbouw - milieubeleid - landgebruik - europese unie - koolstofvastlegging - bossen - biomassa productie
We are living in a time of accelerated changes and unprecedented global challenges: energy security, natural resource scarcity, biodiversity loss, fossil-resource dependence and climate change. Yet the challenges also demand new solutions and offer new opportunities. The cross-cutting nature of forests and the forest-based sector provides a strong basis to address these interconnected societal challenges, while supporting the development of a European bioeconomy. The |European Forest Institue is an unbiased, science-based international organisation that provides the best forest science knowledge and information for better informed policy making. EFI provides support for decision-takers, policy makers and institutions, bringing together cross-boundery scientific knowledge and expertise to strengthen science-policy dialogue.
Omvang van het Nederlandse bos- en houtcomplex : Productiewaarde, toegevoegde waarde en werkgelegenheid in 2010-2012
Silvis, H.J. ; Verhoog, A.D. ; Voskuilen, M.J. - \ 2015
Wageningen : LEI Wageningen UR (Nota / LEI 2015-060) - 28
bosbouw - houthandel - houtteelt - economische analyse - werkgelegenheid - nederland - forestry - timber trade - silviculture - economic analysis - employment - netherlands
Deze notitie raamt de economische betekenis van en werkgelegenheid in het Nederlandse bos- en houtcomplex in de periode 2010-2012. Inzicht hierin is van belang om maatschappelijk gerichte initiatieven van het complex te kunnen beoordelen op hun economische effecten
Op pad met... Jolanda van Hasselt in Zundert : themanummer over kennisco-creatie in wetenschapswinkelprojecten
Beunen, R. ; Hazeleger, B. - \ 2015
Landschap : tijdschrift voor Landschapsecologie en Milieukunde 32 (2015)3. - ISSN 0169-6300 - p. 128 - 132.
natuurbeheer - bosbouw - bosbeheer - biodiversiteit - landschap - kennisoverdracht - kennisvalorisatie - samenwerking - nature management - forestry - forest administration - biodiversity - landscape - knowledge transfer - knowledge exploitation - cooperation
Jolanda van Hasselt heeft de ambitie om de biodiversiteit van het intensief gebruikte landschap in Zundert te vergroten. Ze verdient haar brood als boomteler, is actief binnen de coöperatieve boomkwekerijvereniging Treeport en zat jarenlang in het bestuur van het Vogelrevalidatiecentrum. Met die dubbele pet op probeert ze de kloof tussen boomkwekers en ‘natuurvorsers’ te overbruggen. Eenvoudig is dat niet, maar het onderzoek dat de Wageningse Wetenschapswinkel in Zundert uitvoerde geeft haar daarbij een steun in de rug.
Bedrijfsuitkomsten in de Nederlandse particuliere bosbouw over 2013
Silvis, H.J. ; Voskuilen, M.J. - \ 2015
Wageningen : LEI Wageningen UR (Rapport / LEI 2015-067) - ISBN 9789086157105 - 58
bosbouweconomie - bosbouw - houtproductie - particuliere bosbouw - nederland - forest economics - forestry - timber production - private forestry - netherlands
In opdracht van het ministerie van Economische Zaken geeft dit rapport een overzicht van de bedrijfsresultaten van particuliere bosbedrijven in 2013. Een en ander wordt geplaatst tegen de achtergrond van de ontwikkelingen in voorgaande jaren. Het reguliere rapport is dit jaar aangevuld met een katern over de economische betekenis van het Nederlandse bos- en houtcomplex.
Adaptive collaborative governance of Nepal's community forests: shifting power, strenghtening livelihoods
McDougall, C.L. - \ 2015
University. Promotor(en): Cees Leeuwis, co-promotor(en): J.L.S. Jiggins. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462572881 - 322
bewonersparticipatie - governance - sociale samenwerking - sociaal leren - natuurlijke hulpbronnen - bosbouw - gemeenschappen - middelen van bestaan - adaptatie - sociaal kapitaal - vrouwen - armoede - nepal - community participation - social cooperation - social learning - natural resources - forestry - communities - livelihoods - adaptation - social capital - women - poverty

Short Summary

Cynthia McDougall--PhD Dissertation

Knowledge, Technology, &Innovation Chairgroup (WASS)

Adaptive collaborative governance of Nepal’s community forests: Shifting power, strengthening livelihoods

Community-based natural resource governance has taken root around the globe. And, yet, as demonstrated by community forestry in Nepal, such programmes have generally not yet lived up to their goals and expectations. After decades of implementation, community forestry in Nepal faces several key challenges. Central to these challenges are: the need to increase equity in community forest user group decision making and benefit sharing; and, to increase the livelihood benefits from community forestry overall. The research project on which this study is based sought to address these challenges at the community forest user group scale. The research objective was to contribute empirically-based insights regarding if and how adaptive collaborative governance of community forests in Nepal can constructively influence engagement, livelihoods, social capital and conflict—especially in regard to women and the poor. Further, the research aimed to elucidate the underlying issue of power in community-based natural resource governance. In particular, it sought to contribute deeper, theoretically-based understanding of the persistence of power imbalances in community forestry, and of the potential of adaptive collaborative governance to shift such imbalances.

Om de biomassadoelen van het energieakkoord te halen is visie en beleid nodig op het mobiliseren van biomassa
Nabuurs, G.J. ; Elbersen, B.S. ; Reumermann, P. ; Elbersen, W. - \ 2014
Wageningen : Alterra, Wageningen-UR
bio-energie - energiebeleid - biomassa - conferenties - biobased economy - bosbouw - houtproductie - bioenergy - energy policy - biomass - conferences - forestry - timber production
Kort verslag van de workshop.
Mainstreaming biodiversity where it matters most
Karlsson-Vinkhuyzen, S.I.S.E. ; Boelee, E. ; Cools, J. ; Visseren-Hamakers, I.J. ; Hoof, L.J.W. van; Hospes, O. ; Kok, M. ; Peerlings, J.H.M. ; Podvin, K.J. ; Tatenhove, J.P.M. van; Termeer, C.J.A.M. - \ 2014
Wageningen & Bilthoven : Wageningen University & PBL Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency - ISBN 9789462573840 - 180
biodiversiteit - bosbouw - visserij - palmoliën - mangroves - wereld - biodiversity - forestry - fisheries - palm oils - world
This report presents the result of applying the framework in five cases in or on the cross roads between agriculture, forestry and fisheries where considerable pressure on biodiversity is exerted. The cases were selected based on several criteria with the aim that they together cover as broad span as possible of: Relevance for biodiversity (from having very clear impacts to much more uncertain impacts) Governance levels (including both local, national, global levels) Governance context (type of actors, type of norms etc.) Regions (continents and eco‐climatic zones)
Governing Congo Basin forests in a changing climate: actors, discourses and institutions for adaptation and mitigation
Somorin, O.A. - \ 2014
University. Promotor(en): Bas Arts, co-promotor(en): Ingrid Visseren-Hamakers; D.J. Sonwa. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462571280 - 250
bossen - klimaatverandering - adaptatie - mitigatie - beleid - bosbouw - bosbeleid - congo - forests - climatic change - adaptation - mitigation - policy - forestry - forest policy

Governing Congo Basin Forests in a Changing Climate: Actors, Discourses and Institutions for Adaptation and Mitigation

OA Somorin

Abstract

The thesis deals with the central question of the governance processes of making tropical forests deliver climate change adaptation and mitigation outcomes of sustainable livelihoods, biodiversity conservation and enhanced carbon stocks. Using the case of the Congo Basin forests, it analyzes the nexus between forest and climate change, particularly on the governance processes of using the forests to respond to climate change. The thesis questions the dominant frames and discourses shaping the policymaking processes of adaptation and mitigation strategies in the Congo Basin. The research is informed by past (and still current) debates among different actors on the forms of institutional and policy frameworks required for policy making on adaptation and mitigation in the Congo, given the region’s context of weak human and governance capacities.

Drawing from the theoretical perspective of discursive institutionalism which takes into account the institutional context in which discourses emerge and the way in which they are institutionalized in social practices. Conceptually, the thesis employs the analytical elements of discursive institutionalism: discourses, actors and institutions in terms of their consequences for governance process analysis. The focus is to understand the types of actors involved along with their capacity and competence to contribute to the policy processes; the overarching global to local discourses on the issues; and the institutional structures considered relevant for adaptation and mitigation in the Congo Basin.

Despite the framing of adaptation as a priority for the Congo Basin region due to the high vulnerability (and low adaptive capacity) of the population to climate risks, the thesis finds more significant policy attention is rather given to mitigation. The dominance of the mitigation discourses is largely due to elements of financial resources, knowledge and influence employed by their actor coalitions to advance the policymaking process. While mitigation policy debates among state and non-state actors on institutional and governance frameworks exist at the national level, adaptation strategies including sustaining food security, income generation and livelihood diversification, are already in practice at the local levels. Ultimately, policy actors’ interest to match the multiple opportunities that mitigation offers with the priorities of adaptation underlines the deliberate actions towards fostering synergy. The thesis concludes that the future of the Congo Basin forests under a changing climate lies in how the actors are able to develop policy frameworks and governance arrangements to foster mitigative adaptation and adaptive mitigation.

The governance capacity of forest land allocation policy in Vietnam
Thi Kim Phung, D. - \ 2014
University. Promotor(en): Bas Arts, co-promotor(en): Ingrid Visseren-Hamakers. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462570740 - 201
bosbeleid - bosbouw - governance - overheidsbeleid - toewijzing - vietnam - forest policy - forestry - government policy - allocation

The issue of what drives and sustains collective action is pertinent to natural resource management, given the continuing depletion of public goods around the world. The issue is especially important for forestry. Since the early 1980s, forest devolution has become a major trend in forestry reforms in the developing world. It is held that involving local people in forestry and enabling them to benefit from forests will generate sustainable forest management. However, the devolution of forest rights from the central state to local actors has had varied effects. This disparity has inspired a great volume of literature on factors behind the effects of forest devolution. However, there is still a lack of knowledge of various governance aspects in forest devolution processes, and particularly of how actors define the collective goals, how they interact and what their strategies in forest devolution are.

The research presented in this thesis contributes to filling these knowledge gaps by studying a specific forest devolution policy, namely the policy of forest land allocation (FLA) in Vietnam. By involving local people in forestry, the policy is expected to improve both forest condition and local livelihoods. Although a considerable number of studies have provided insights into the effects of FLA, they were mainly carried out in the central highlands and northwest uplands of Vietnam and focused on forest-related factors. Not much attention has been paid to governance in the FLA policy. Although studies have paid attention to local people in the policy, local perspectives on the policy have not been thoroughly examined.

The overall aim of the present study was to gain in-depth knowledge of the effects of the FLA policy by assessing its governance capacity in different regions of Vietnam. Since what constitutes governance capacity is still under discussion in the governance literature, the secondary aim was to develop a framework for assessing the governance capacity of the policy. The first research aim was operationalized into the following three research questions:

How did the FLA policy in Vietnam come about, and to what extent did national forestry discourses influence the policy?To what extent has the FLA policy had the capacity to involve actors, particularly local people, in different regions of Vietnam; and what factors have determined this capacity?What has been the performance of the FLA policy in different regions of Vietnam, and what factors have determined this performance?

To achieve the second research aim, a framework was developed to guide the assessment of governance capacity.

The research employed the nested approach to case studies, which situates the FLA policy under the general case of Vietnam’s forestry reforms, which in the past 20 years have been characterized by changing forestry discourses. The case of the FLA policy includes three nested cases in three regions of Vietnam (southeast lowlands, central highlands and northwest uplands). Fieldwork was carried out in three provinces (Tay Ninh, Dak Lak and Lao Cai). Data collection included a literature review, document analysis, semi-structured interviews, a questionnaire survey and personal observations. In total, 152 key informants were selected by snowball and saturation sampling. These informants were policy and decision makers, officials in forestry and land management sectors, representatives of provincial governments and local authorities, forest owners and forestry contractors, and local villagers. The survey involved 288 forestry contractors or forest owners. Data from different sources was triangulated before processing. The method of Miles and Huberman (1984) was applied to analyze qualitative data. Simple statistics with frequencies and cross tabulation were employed to analyze data from the questionnaires.

This thesis consists of six chapters. Chapter 1 provides an overview of the thesis. Chapter 2 analyzes the discursive background against which the FLA policy has been developed. The framework that was developed to guide the assessment of the governance capacity of the FLA policy is presented in Chapter 3. The framework is based on the theoretical perspectives of the policy arrangement approach. Governance capacity consists of institutional capacity – namely the degree to which rules and procedures enable actors to work together in order to solve collective problems – and governance performance, that is, whether a policy arrangement actually achieves collective goals. The framework consists of three elements: enabling rules of the game, converging discourses and facilitating resource mobilization. These elements are further operationalized as relevant aspects and criteria for the assessment of the governance capacity of the FLA policy. Institutional capacity is assessed in terms of four criteria: codification of rights, venues, open attitudes and resource availability. Governance performance is evaluated according to four criteria: the practising of property rights, social learning, forest condition and contribution of the policy to local people’s income. Chapter 4 and Chapter 5 apply the framework to assess the governance capacity of the FLA policy. Chapter 6 synthesizes the study’s findings and presents theoretical and methodological reflections on forest devolution and governance capacity

The thesis yields in the three key conclusions on the governance capacity of the FLA policy in Vietnam. First, the two national forestry discourses, namely forestry socialization and sustainable forest management, under Vietnam’s forestry reforms since 1991, have shaped the development of the FLA policy over the past 20 years. By maintaining the leading role state actors in forest land allocation, they advocate the restricted access to forest lands and limited property rights of non-state actors involved in the policy. Second, the institutional capacity of the FLA policy is low because of the limited codification of rights, rather symbolic venues for actors’ deliberation, local people’s low interest in forest rehabilitation, and the limited availability of forests, funding and information for forest rehabilitation. Third, trade-offs between the achievement of the two policy goals (improving the forest condition and local incomes from forests) have shaped the low governance performance of the FLA policy. These trade-offs result from the combined influences of social learning and property rights on actors’ cooperation in the policy. On the basis of these conclusions, the thesis goes on to discuss the key factors that determine the effects of forest devolution (property rights, social learning and external factors), and the interlinkage between the institutional capacity and governance performance of FLA policy. The thesis then evaluates the strengths, shortcomings, and applicability the governance capacity framework. After reflecting on the research methods used in the study, the thesis draws out policy implications for the FLA policy and forest devolution. Besides the improvements of property rights, clear shared responsibilities of actors involved are crucial to promote more active involvement of non-state actors, particularly local people. Local meetings should facilitate a true deliberation that allow actors to reach some reconciliation concerning the collective goals. Other technical and policy measures to improve the values of forests (such as NTFPs and environmental services) are of special importance to sustain and increase actors’ income from forests. Macro policy planning should pay more attention to the possible trade-offs among different land uses and frequent reviews and revisions of the policy are necessary to keep up with changes in both the broader socioeconomic contexts and the local conditions. For forest devolution, the institutional design of forest devolution should take into consideration not only property rights but also other governance issues, and encompass both substantive and organizational aspects of forest devolution. More attention should be paid to the combined impacts of property rights and social learning on resource uses and resource conservation. Especially, the thesis shows that the changing governance in forest devolution is not a ‘hollowing out’ of the state in forestry. State actors both at the central and provincial levels still play important roles in forest devolution.

Las concesiones forestales comunitaris de Guatemala: de territorios en disputa a territorialidades ensambladas
Reyes, E.V. - \ 2014
University. Promotor(en): Georg Frerks, co-promotor(en): Alberto Arce. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789461738486 - 221
bosbouw - plattelandsontwikkeling - regionale planning - sociale structuur - conservering - concessies - sociale factoren - forestry - rural development - regional planning - social structure - conservation - concessions - social factors
Investeren, besparen en verwaarden : een essay over drie jaar beleidsondersteunend onderzoek naar de waarde van groen, met een doorkijk naar de toekomst
Heide, C.M. van der; Overbeek, M.M.M. - \ 2014
Wageningen : LEI Wageningen UR (Rapport LEI 14-007) - 54
bosbouw - houtteelt - natuurbeheer - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - communities of practice - natuurbeleid - economische analyse - forestry - silviculture - nature management - sustainability - nature conservation policy - economic analysis
De term 'groen' in de titel van het BO-thema kan op verschillende manieren worden geïnterpreteerd, variërend van (bestaande en nieuwe) natuurgebieden, biodiversiteit, en omgevingskwaliteit tot aan houtproductiepotentie. Onderzoek naar de waarde van groen is dus subjectief, meervoudig en contextgebonden (gebonden aan plaats, tijd en taal), en daarmee ook divers en uiteenlopend. De focus van 'Waarde van Groen' op het directe nut van groen kan niet verhullen dat de waarde van groen moeilijk te meten is. Bedrijven en ondernemingen zijn gericht op activiteiten die kostendekkend, zo mogelijk winstgevend, zijn. Dit resulteert in een bedrijfsvoering die wel functioneel is voor de eigen organisatie maar niet per se voor de maatschappij als geheel. Kosten van het ondernemen worden dan afgewenteld op de samenleving. Vervuiling en aantasting van natuurgebieden is daarvan een voorbeeld. Jarenlang bestond in Nederland de illusie dat we voor altijd economische vooruitgang zouden kennen. Sinds het begin van de financiële crisis in 2008 ligt dat idee nu achter ons. Het natuurbeleid is daarvan afhankelijk.
Greenhouse gas reporting of the LULUCF sector for the UNFCCC and Kyoto Protocol : background to the Dutch NIR 2013
Arets, E.J.M.M. ; Hoek, K.W. van der; Kramer, H. ; Kuikman, P.J. ; Lesschen, J.P. - \ 2013
Wageningen : Wettelijke Onderzoekstaken Natuur & Milieu (WOt-technical report 1) - 96
graslanden - bouwland - bosbouw - landgebruik - emissiereductie - broeikasgassen - methodologie - milieubeleid - monitoring - grasslands - arable land - forestry - land use - emission reduction - greenhouse gases - methodology - environmental policy
This report provides a complete description and background information of the Dutch National System for Greenhouse gas Reporting of the LULUCF sector and the Dutch LULUCF submission under the Kyoto Protocol for the 2013 submission of The Netherlands. The 2013 submission reports greenhouse gas emissions over the year 2011. It includes detailed description of the methodologies used to calculate activity data and emissions and it gives the full text of the NIR-II for KP-LULUCF, as well as a description of the table-by-table methodologies, choices and motivations. In 2011 afforestation and reforestation activities produced a sink of 458.66 Gg CO2 equivalents while deforestation caused an emission of 838.67 Gg CO2 equivalents. These values were based on changes in above-and belowground biomass, dead wood, litter and soil (mineral as well as organic), and agricultural lime application on deforested areas
Large-scale bioenergy and oil forestry programs in rural China : an institutional analysis
Li, Jia - \ 2013
University. Promotor(en): Arthur Mol, co-promotor(en): Bettina Bluemling; Liesbeth Dries. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789461738165 - 191
bosbouw - eigendomsrechten - stakeholders - governance - participatie - boeren - bio-energie - china - forestry - property rights - participation - farmers - bioenergy

Liquid biofuel from oil crops are broadly promoted globally, among which biofuel from perennial wood species, as well as from bushes and small trees such as jatropha. In China, oil-bearing small trees, which mainly grow on slope land, are applied as so-called bioenergy and oil forests for liquid biofuel production. The national government in China has devised a series of laws and policies to promote bioenergy and oil forest programs. In this study, the focus is on jatropha and camellia programs. Similar as other afforestation programs, bioenergy and oil forest programs may face similar institutional problems in their implementation. In addition, China experienced decentralization in forestry sectors. In investigating the institutional problems China faces in implementing bioenergy and oil forestry programs, this research concentrates on the role of three institutions: property rights, the governance structure and farmer incentives. The general objective of this research is to investigate how these three institutions impact on the implementation of large-scale bioenergy and oil forestry programs, and whether and how these institutions enable, constrain and condition farmers’ participation in these programs. Both qualitative institutional analyses and quantitative econometric analyses are employed, based on empirical fieldwork in China. The study has led to a number of interesting insights related to each of the three institutional aspects.

First, good governance, which includes stakeholder participation, plays a crucial role in the success of large-scale forestry programs. As forestry entails a long-term investment, how to set-up good and sustainable governance architecture is very important, but also challenging. The research shows that large-scale bioenergy and oil forestry programs in China are moving from government-organized, centralized, top-down governance architectures to multi-level and multi-actor governance arrangements, which involve market-based mechanisms and private actors such as private companies, NGOs, international agencies, communities and individual farmers. Large bioenergy and oil forestry programs in China can be distinguished as those driven and implemented by the government and those driven and implemented by market arrangements. As such, this structure confirms that new roles and interaction patterns between government and markets are present in contemporary transitional China. Another finding is that jatropha’s failure in China can be attributed to the institutional environment, such as poor implementation and enforcement of monitoring and sanctioning rules. Rules to prevent the withdrawal of a company and executing such rules are crucial to keep companies committed. Finally, convergent “time perspectives” of different actors in forestry institutional arrangements is important in the success of large-scale forestry programs.

The second set of results relates to the role of property rights and property rights reform. Since 2003, there is a new trend of devolution in forest tenure in China. Five different forest tenure regimes have been identified in this research: Collective, Collective-Individual, Company, Partnership, and Individual. The study indicates that the devolution process in tenure reform redistributed the user rights to local stakeholders. It also confirms that the de-collectivization process and the tenure reform have resulted in a diversification of management forms. Based on the New Property Rights Theory, it is hypothesized that the five forest tenure regimes differ in terms of residual control and income rights, implying different degrees of tenure security for farm households. The research findings confirm that in general tenure regimes with higher degrees of tenure security trigger higher household investment. Furthermore, the risk of future expropriation negatively affects farmers’ participation in forestry projects.

Finally, the study addresses the question of farmer incentives and benefits. For large-scale forestry projects engaging smallholders in forestry is vital for the success of the project, with respect to a balanced socio-economic development in poor rural areas and guaranteed long-term success. Forestry development potentially improves the livelihoods of famers by increasing their income, and poverty alleviation has always been an important objective of bioenergy and oil forestry programs. Although these programs often provide financial support and technical services, some farmers are still not able to join. For instance, the participation rate of farmers in the camellia program was only 37%. Moreover, the participation level varied among counties and villages, because farmers’ participation is still constrained by their capacity in terms of wealth, labour endowment and education. Finally, forestry programs generate different benefit distribution impacts on farm households under different forest project implementation regimes. Results show that five implementation regimes of camellia plantations can be distinguished, i.e. Individual, Partnership, Collective-Individual, Collective, Company, each having their own specifics of project access and benefit distribution among smallholders. Collective-individual, Collective, and Company forest implementation regimes perform better in terms of program access and equal benefit distribution than Individual and Partnership regimes. But also for the former three regimes, village leaders and companies may seize substantial project benefit reducing the benefits to and marginal smallholders.

Begrippenlijst biomassa uit bossen : Engels - Nederlands, Nederlands - Engels
Jong, J.J. de; Briel, J. van den - \ 2013
Wageningen : Alterra, Wageningen-UR - 77
bosbouw - biomassa - biomassa productie - bosbeheer - bio-energie - verklarende woordenlijsten - biobased economy - forestry - biomass - biomass production - forest administration - bioenergy - glossaries
Er is in de bosbouw wereldwijd een ontwikkeling gaande naar een intensivering van de oogst in bossen. Naast de gebruikelijke oogst van stamhout wordt steeds meer ook het dunnere takhout en tophout geoogst, dat voorheen in het bos achter bleef. Dat materiaal wordt veelal gebruik om energie mee op te wekken. De oogst van dit tak- en tophout vergt een andere aanpak dan dat van stamhout, en er wordt daarom internationaal veel onderzoek naar gedaan. Ook de verwerking en benutting van het hout is onderwerp van onderzoek. Doordat het een relatief nieuw onderwerp van onderzoek is, ontstaat er nogal eens verwarring over de gebruikte begrippen de onderzoeksmethoden. Daarom is onlangs een COST-actie (FP0902 Development and harmonisation of new operational research and assessment procedures for sustainable forest biomass supply) uitgevoerd, met het doel om begrippen en methoden te harmoniseren en gegevensuitwisseling te verbeteren. Nederland heeft in die COST-actie geparticipeerd. Een van die producten van die COST-actie is een lijst van begrippen, definities en eenheden gerelateerd aan het gebruik van biomassa uit bossen voor energie. Die lijst is opgesteld in het Engels. Diverse landen hebben de lijst vertaald in hun eigen taal en diverse vertalingen komen beschikbaar op http://www.forestenergy.org. De Nederlandse vertaling van die lijst is in dit document weergegeven.
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