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    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

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The role of forests in climate change mitigation : a discursive-institutional analysis of REDD+ MRV
Ochieng, Robert M. - \ 2017
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Bas Arts; Martin Herold, co-promotor(en): Ingrid Visseren-Hamakers; M. Brockhaus. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463431712 - 172
forests - climatic change - mitigation - forest monitoring - developing countries - deforestation - forestry - bossen - klimaatverandering - mitigatie - bosmonitoring - ontwikkelingslanden - ontbossing - bosbouw

Since the advent of professional forestry in the 17th century, forest monitoring has been part and parcel of forest management, and has been implemented in different forms in many European countries. The practice of forest monitoring was later exported to the European colonies, and has since been taken over and conducted by post-colonial governments in many developing countries. From an earlier focus on assessment of timber stocks, the practice has evolved to include assessments of other forest variables than timber. Despite this evolution, national forest monitoring has remained largely timber-oriented, and a closed system with little participation of actors outside the state forestry bureaucracy. However, the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) decision on reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation, and the role of conservation, sustainable management of forests and enhancement of forest carbon stocks in developing countries (REDD+) has opened up new discussions on forest monitoring in developing countries. Specifically, the global discourse on monitoring, reporting and verification (MRV) of REDD+ outcomes has introduced new ideas and demands on the scope and objectives of forest monitoring, the actors to be involved, and resources to be used. Taken together, the emergence of the REDD+ MRV discourse and associated ideas calls for change in the institutional arrangements for forest monitoring in developing countries. Furthermore, while these ideas and demands are determined and agreed upon in an international negotiation process, they need to be translated and implemented in highly diverse country-specific contexts, with country-specific actors, ideas, interests, and institutions. Translating the REDD+ MRV discourse and ideas into national institutional arrangements thus involves negotiation and contestation among national stakeholders.

This dissertation examines the performance of REDD+ MRV in terms of its implementation and institutionalization in developing countries, and the political processes by which such institutionalization occurs. Specifically, it examines (1) the institutional effectiveness of REDD+ MRV; (2) how the concept of REDD+ MRV and associated ideas have materialized in new institutional arrangements for forest monitoring in developing countries; and (3) how discursive processes of policymaking and the argumentation and contestation inherent in such processes enable or constrain institutionalization. With this, the dissertation contributes to the literature on REDD+ MRV by examining forest monitoring from a social science perspective. While current research on REDD+ MRV remains highly technical, since it is assumed that forest monitoring is a neutral, apolitical activity, this study argues that monitoring deforestation is also political, and contributes by highlighting the political contestation involved in implementing REDD+ MRV at the national level. The dissertation also contributes to scientific debates on the performance of international environment agreements at the national level, and how contestation and negotiation among domestic stakeholders enable or constrain their institutionalization at the national level.

Chapter 1 introduces the research presented in this dissertation. It provides an overview of the emergence of reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation in developing countries (REDD+) within the United Nations Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) as a climate mitigation strategy, and argues that the UNFCCC’s decisions on monitoring, reporting and verification (MRV) for REDD+ pose new ideas and demands for forest monitoring in developing countries. It elucidates the research that has been done on REDD+ MRV so far, identifies gaps in the existing literature on forest monitoring for REDD+, and delineates the objectives of the study. It discusses the theoretical basis and framework for the study, explaining how the main theoretical concept – discursive institutionalism – is combined with the Policy Arrangement Approach (PAA) to examine how REDD+ MRV has been shaped and institutionalized in new or reformed institutional arrangements for forest monitoring in developing countries, and discursive processes by which such institutionalization occurs. After presenting the conceptual framework, four research questions are outlined, namely:

1. What is the institutional effectiveness of REDD+ MRV in terms of its implementation in developing countries?

2. How have institutional arrangements for forest monitoring in Peru evolved, and how and to what extent has their evolution been shaped by international discourses on forests, especially REDD+ MRV?

3. How and to what extent has the concept of MRV become institutionalized in new or reformed institutional arrangements for forest monitoring in Indonesia, Peru and Tanzania, and how can differences in this extent of institutionalization across the countries be explained?

4. How has discursive politics enabled or constrained institutionalization of MRV in Indonesia, Peru and Tanzania?

The chapter then describes the study’s overall research design and methodology, and ends by outlining the structure of the dissertation.

Chapter 2 examines the institutional effectiveness of REDD+ MRV. The chapter draws on regime literature to conceptualize UNFCCC and its decisions on REDD+ MRV as an international institution or regime, and outlines the technical and good governance requirements for MRV. Drawing on Young and Levy’s (1999) framework for assessing effectiveness of international institutions, and building on UNFCCC and IPCC methodological guidelines for Land Use, Land Use Change and Forestry (LULUCF), and good governance literature, it develops criteria and indicators for assessing progress in implementing the identified technical and governance requirements for MRV. Three dimensions on which effectiveness of REDD+ MRV can be evaluated are developed: ‘owning technical methods for MRV’, ‘developing administrative competence’ and ‘integrating good governance’ in MRV. The framework is applied to assess and compare institutional effectiveness of REDD+ MRV in 13 REDD+ countries, based on a review of national and international documents. The Chapter shows that REDD+ countries have high to very high ownership of technical methods. However, the majority of the countries rank only low to moderate on administrative capacity and good governance. This means that although countries have started developing technical methods for MRV, they are yet to develop the competence necessary to administer MRV and to incorporate aspects of good governance in MRV. The chapter explains the scores and suggest ways of improving implementation of REDD+ MRV.

Chapter 3 examines how and to what extent global discourses and ideas on forests, especially the concept of REDD+ MRV, have shaped institutional arrangements for forest monitoring in developing countries, using the case of Peru. It draws on discursive institutionalism to conceptualize REDD+ MRV as a discourse and identify the ideas represented in the discourse. It then combines discursive institutionalism with the policy arrangement approach to craft a framework for examining the extent to which REDD+ MRV, and other global discourses, have shaped national institutional arrangements for forest monitoring in Peru. An analytical distinction is made between ‘shallow’ and ‘deep’ institutional change. The chapter identifies three distinct discourses – productivist forest philosophy, multiple-use and sustainable forest management philosophies and REDD+ MRV – that have shaped forest monitoring in Peru. The chapter shows that while all the three discourses have shaped the scope and objectives of forest monitoring, the actors involved, resources used, and rules governing forest assessments, none of them has led to ‘deep’ institutionalization of forest monitoring. On REDD+ MRV specifically, the chapter shows that it has expanded the scope and objectives of forest assessments in Peru, inspired the mobilization of new actors and resources, and spawned the development of new rules to govern forest monitoring. However, these institutional changes are not yet ‘deep’, since the new rules for forest inventories have not yet been formally adopted, and the agencies envisioned to implement forest monitoring have not been established. The chapter concludes that forest monitoring in general, and REDD+ MRV in particular, is only shallowly institutionalized in Peru.

Chapter 4 compares how and to what extent the concept of REDD+ MRV has institutionalized in Indonesia, Peru and Tanzania. To do so, the chapter draws on insights from discursive institutionalism operationalized by means of the policy arrangement approach to develop the analytical categories of ‘shallow’, ‘shallow-intermediate’, ‘deep-intermediate’ and ‘deep’ institutionalization, and uses these categories to examine the extent of institutionalization across the countries. The chapter shows that in all three countries, REDD+ MRV has institutionalized in new or revised aims, scope and strategies for forest monitoring, and the development of new agencies and mobilization of new actors and resources. New legislation to anchor forest monitoring in law, and procedures to institutionalize the roles of the various agencies, are also being developed. Nevertheless, the extent of institutionalization of MRV varies across the countries, with Indonesia experiencing ‘deep’ institutionalization, Peru ‘shallow-intermediate’, and Tanzania ‘intermediate-deep’ institutionalization. To explain the differences in institutionalization, the chapter examines the theoretical factors for discourse institutionalization and their manifestation in each country. It shows that the relatively ‘deep’ institutionalization of REDD+ MRV in Indonesia and Tanzania is due to the presence of all five factors for discourse institutionalization. Only one factor is found to be present in Peru, and the ‘shallow- intermediate’ institutionalization of REDD+ is largely due to the absence of other factors. Based on the findings and conclusions, the chapter draws lessons to inform institutionalization of MRV in other countries.

Chapter 5 examines how the discursive politics of MRV policymaking has enabled or constrained institutionalization of REDD+ MRV in Indonesia, Peru and Tanzania. To do this, it draws on the concept of discourse – understood as ideas and the interactive process of policymaking and public deliberation – to examine the actors involved in MRV policy development in the respective countries, and how the deliberation, argumentation and contestation among them (discursive politics) have enabled or constrained institutionalization. The chapter shows that in all countries, the methodologies to be used for MRV, the actors to be involved and their roles were contentious. However, it shows that in Indonesia and Tanzania, where there was a broad-based national discourse on MRV, and where policy actors agreed on the strategies to implement MRV and the role of different actors in forest monitoring, there is relatively ‘deep’ institutionalization compared to Peru, where such discourse and agreement were lacking. The chapter discusses how the discursive process facilitated institutionalization of REDD+ MRV in Indonesia and Tanzania and constrained the same in Peru. It concludes that how discursive politics is played matters in institutionalization.

Chapter 6 presents the conclusions on the study. It draws on the empirical chapters to answer the research questions, concluding that majority (60%) of the analysed countries has achieved at least a ‘moderate’ institutional effectiveness for MRV. Further, it concludes that the concept of REDD+ MRV has materialized in reformed institutional arrangements for forest monitoring in Indonesia, Peru and Tanzania, albeit to varying degrees. The chapter also concludes that forest monitoring for REDD+ is not only a technical activity, but is also political. Specifically, it concludes that decisions on what exactly is to be monitored and reported, by whom and using what methods are determined through political negotiations, and that how this political process is managed has a significant influence on how, and the extent to which, MRV is institutionalized. After drawing the conclusions, the chapter reflects on the key theoretical concepts used in the study by outlining how discursive institutionalism and the policy arrangement approach can be used to enrich one another. The chapter ends by outlining several policy recommendations. First, it recommends that while the development of new agencies to implement REDD+ MRV is necessary in some countries, care should be taken to avoid establishment of many agencies. Where possible, policy makers and donors should consider working with and strengthening existing agencies before deciding to establish new agencies. Second, it recommends that more investments be directed to organizing inclusive MRV policy coordination processes, since the politics involved in these processes determine the extent to which REDD+ MRV is institutionalized. Lastly, investments in policy coordination should be accompanied with investments in broader communicative political discourse to enlighten all REDD+ stakeholders on MRV policy processes and the strategies being proposed, while seeking the views and feedback these strategies. This is necessary if the proposed strategies are to be legitimate in the eyes of key REDD+ stakeholders.

Remote sensing of land use and carbon losses following tropical deforestation
Sy, V. de - \ 2016
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Martin Herold, co-promotor(en): Jan Clevers; L. Verchot. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462578036 - 142 p.
remote sensing - tropical forests - land use - carbon - losses - environmental degradation - forest monitoring - tropische bossen - landgebruik - koolstof - verliezen - milieuafbraak - bosmonitoring

The new Paris Agreement, approved by 195 countries under the auspice of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), calls for limiting global warming to “well below" 2°Celsius. An important part of the climate agreement relates to reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation, and enhancing carbon stocks (REDD+) in non-Annex I (mostly developing) countries. Over the last decades the growing demand for food, fibre and fuel has accelerated the pace of forest loss. In consequence, tropical deforestation and forest degradation are responsible for a large portion of global carbon emissions to the atmosphere, and destroy an important global carbon sink that is critical in future climate change mitigation.

Within the REDD+ framework, participating countries are given incentives to develop national strategies and implementation plans that reduce emissions and enhance sinks from forests and to invest in low carbon development pathways. For REDD+ activities to be effective, accurate and robust methodologies to estimate emissions from deforestation and forest degradation are crucial. Remote sensing is an essential REDD+ observation tool, and in combination with ground measurements it provides an objective, practical and cost-effective solution for developing and maintaining REDD+ monitoring systems. The remote sensing monitoring objective for REDD+ is not only to map deforestation but also to support policy formulation and implementation. Identifying and addressing drivers and activities causing forest carbon change is crucial in this respect. Despite the importance of identifying and addressing drivers, quantitative information on these drivers, and the related carbon emissions, is scarce at the national level.

The main objective of this thesis is to explore the role of remote sensing for monitoring tropical forests for REDD+ in general, and for assessing land use and related carbon emissions linked to drivers of tropical deforestation in particular. To achieve this, this thesis investigates the following research questions:

What is the current role and potential of remote sensing technologies and methodologies for monitoring tropical forests for REDD+ and for assessing drivers of deforestation?

What is the current state of knowledge on drivers of deforestation and degradation in REDD+ countries?

What are land use patterns and related carbon emissions following deforestation, capitalising on available land use and biomass remote sensing data?

The research conducted in this PhD thesis contributes to the understanding of the role of remote sensing in forest monitoring for REDD+ and in the assessment of drivers of deforestation. In addition, this thesis contributes to the improvement of spatial and temporal quantification of land use and related carbon emissions linked to drivers of tropical deforestation. The results and insights described herein are valuable for ongoing REDD+ forest monitoring efforts and capacity development as REDD+ moves closer to becoming an operational mitigation mechanism.

Interactive community-based tropical forest monitoring using emerging technologies
Pratihast, A.K. - \ 2015
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Martin Herold, co-promotor(en): L. Ribbe; Sytze de Bruin; Valerio Avitabile. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462574786 - 164
tropische bossen - bosmonitoring - remote sensing - satellietbeelden - monitoring - technologie - sociale netwerken - geografische informatiesystemen - participatie - tropical forests - forest monitoring - satellite imagery - technology - social networks - geographical information systems - participation

Forests cover approximately 30% of the Earth’s land surface and have played an indispensable role in the human development and preserving natural resources. At the moment, more than 300 million people are directly dependent on these forests and their resources. Forests also provide habitats for a wide variety of species and offer several ecological necessities to natural and anthropological systems. In spite of this importance, unprecedented destruction of tropical forest cover has been witnessed over the past four decades. Annually, approximately 2.1x105 hectares of forests are lost, with serious negative consequences on the regulation of the world’s climate cycle, biodiversity and other environmental variables. To mitigate these consequences, the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) has requested the developing countries to adapt new policy in reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD+). Under this policy, countries have been mandated to engage local communities and indigenous groups as critical stakeholders in the design and implementation of a national forest monitoring system (NFMS) that supports measuring, reporting and verification (MRV) of actions and achievements of REDD+ activities.

Current schemes for tropical monitoring are based on remote sensing and field measurements which typically originate from national forest inventories. Remotely sensed imagery has been considered as the principal data source used to calculate forest area change across large areas, assess rates of deforestation and establish baselines for national forest area change databases. Advancements in medium and high resolution satellites, open data policies, time-series analysis methods and big data processing environments are considered valuable for deforestation monitoring at local to global scales. However, cloud cover, seasonality and the restricted spatial and temporal resolution of remote sensing observations limits their applicability in the tropics. Enhancing the interpretation of remote sensing analysis require substantial ground verification and validation. Accomplishing these tasks through national forest inventory data is expensive, time-consuming and difficult to implement across large spatial scales.

Next to remote sensing, community-based monitoring (CBM) has also demonstrated potential in the collection and interpretation of forest monitoring data. However effective implementation of community-based forest monitoring systems is currently lacking due to two reasons: 1) the role of communities in NFMS is unclear and 2) tools that can support local communities to explore opportunities and facilitate forest monitoring are still scarce. This thesis addresses these two issues by proposing technical solutions (computer and geo-information science) and assessing the capacities and needs of communities in developing countries with a REDD+ implementation and forest monitoring context.

The main goal of this thesis, therefore, is to develop an approach that combines emerging technologies and community-based observations for tropical forest monitoring. To accomplish the main goal, four specific research questions were formulated: 1) What are the potentials to link community-based efforts to national forest monitoring systems? 2) How can information and communication technologies (ICTs) support the automation of community data collection process for monitoring forest carbon stocks and change activities using modern handheld devices? 3) What is the accuracy and compatibility of community collected data compared to other data (e.g., optical remote sensing and expert field measurements) for quantifying forest carbon stocks and changes? and 4) What is a suitable design for an interactive remote sensing and community-based near real-time forest change monitoring system and how can such system be operationalized?

In Chapter 2, scientific literature and 28 readiness preparation proposals from the World Bank Forest Carbon Partnership Facility are reviewed to better define the role and technical conditions for CBM. Based on this review, a conceptual framework was developed under which CBM can contribute as a dedicated and independent stream of measuring and monitoring data to national level forest monitoring efforts. The following chapters are built upon this framework.

Chapter 3 describes a process of designing and implementing an integrated data collection system based on mobile devices that streamlines the community-based forest monitoring data collection, transmission and visualization process. The usability of the system is evaluated in the Tra Bui commune, Quang Nam province, Central Vietnam, where forest carbon and change activities were measured by different means such as local, regional and national experts and high resolution satellite imagery. The results indicate that the local communities were able to provide forest carbon measurements with accuracy comparable to that of expert measurements at lower costs. Furthermore, the results show that communities are more effective in detecting small scale forest degradation caused by subsistence fuelwood collection and selective logging than image analysis using SPOT imagery.

To support the findings of chapter 3, the data acquisition form (mostly activity data related to forest change) for mobile device was further improved in chapter 4. The system was tested by thirty local experts in the UNESCO Kafa Biosphere Reserve, Ethiopia. High resolution satellite imagery and professional measurements were combined to assess the accuracy and complementary use of local datasets in terms of spatial, temporal and thematic accuracy. Results indicate that the local communities were capable of describing processes of change associated with deforestation, forest degradation and reforestation, in terms of their spatial location, extent, timing and causes within ten administrative units. Furthermore, the results demonstrate that communities offer complementary information to remotely sensed data, particularly to signal forest degradation and mapping deforestation over small areas. Based on this complementarity, a framework is proposed for integrating local expert monitoring data with satellite-based monitoring data into a NFMS in support of REDD+ MRV and near real-time forest change monitoring.

Having identified the framework for integrated monitoring systems in chapter 4, chapter 5 describes an interactive web-based forest monitoring system using four levels of geographic information services: 1) the acquisition of continuous data streams from satellite and community-based monitoring using mobile devices, 2) near real-time forest disturbance detection based on satellite time-series, 3) presentation of forest disturbance data through a web-based application and social media and 4) interaction of the satellite-based disturbance alerts with the end-user communities to enhance the collection of ground data. The system was developed using open source technologies and has been implemented together with local experts in UNESCO Kafa Biosphere Reserve, Ethiopia. The results show that the system was able to provide easy access to information on forest change and considerably improve the collection and storage of ground observation by local experts. Social media lead to higher levels of user interaction and noticeably improved communication among stakeholders. Finally, an evaluation of the system confirmed its usability in Ethiopia.

Chapter 6 presents the final conclusions and provides recommendations for further research. The overall conclusion is that the emerging technologies, such as smartphones, Web-GIS and social media, incorporated with user friendly interface improve the interactive participation of local communities in forest monitoring and decrease errors in data collection. The results show that CBM can provide data on forest carbon stocks, forest area changes as well as data that help to understand local drivers of emissions. The thesis also shows, in theory and in practice, how local data can be used to link with medium and high resolution remote sensing satellite images for an operational near real-time forest monitoring system at a local scale. The methods presented in this thesis are applicable to a broader geographic scope. Hence, this thesis emphasizes that policies and incentives should be implemented to empower communities and to create institutional frameworks for community-based forest monitoring in the tropics.

Combining SAR and optical satellite image time series for tropical forest monitoring
Reiche, J. - \ 2015
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Martin Herold, co-promotor(en): Dirk Hoekman; Jan Verbesselt. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462573130 - 151
satellietbeelden - satellieten - satellietkarteringen - tropische bossen - bosmonitoring - tijdreeksen - satellite imagery - satellites - satellite surveys - tropical forests - forest monitoring - time series

Tropical forests are the largest of the global forest biomes and play a crucial role in the global carbon, hydrological and biochemical cycles. Increasing demand for resources rapidly increases the pressure on tropical forests. As a result tropical regions have been undergoing rapid changes in forest cover in recent decades. These changes are the second largest contributor of greenhouse gas emissions in the atmosphere. Spatially and timely consistent detection of tropical deforestation and forest degradation is fundamental to reliably estimate greenhouse gas emissions, and to successfully implement climate mechanisms like reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD+).

To assess historical and future changes in forest cover, satellite remote sensing at medium resolution scale constitutes a powerful tool. Reviewing satellite-based optical and Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) efforts for tropical forest monitoring revealed that operationalised optical-based approaches exist, but frequent cloud cover limits their applicability in the tropics. SAR remote sensing has also demonstrated its capability, but the observation frequency of SAR imagery and appropriate time series methods are limited. Research has indicated there is potential for multi-sensor approaches to overcome the limitations of the single-sensors, but so far developments are restricted to mapping approaches. This thesis addressed the need for advancing multi-sensor methods that combine time series imagery from medium resolution SAR and optical satellites to improve tropical forest monitoring. The main scientific contributions include the introduction of three novel SAR-optical approaches, two of them capable of exploiting the full observation density of time series. Furthermore, an approach for multi-model land cover dependent SAR slope correction was proposed.

Chapter 2 introduced an approach for feature level fusing of multi-temporal L-band SAR and optical forest disturbance information. Using Landsat and ALOS PALSAR imagery from 2007 and 2010, we applied the approach to map forest land cover and to detect deforestation and forest degradation of a persistently cloud covered mining region in Central Guyana. By making use of the complementarities of Landsat and ALOS PALSAR, we demonstrated the reduction of Landsat (cloud cover, Landsat 7 scan line corrector error) and PALSAR data gaps (SAR layover and shadow in mountainous area) to a negligible amount.

Chapter 3 described a practical approach for multi-model land cover dependent slope correction of SAR images that can handle a wide range of terrain and topographic conditions. We corrected ALOS PALSAR images of two topographically complex sites in Fiji (study site of Chapter 4 and 5) and Brazil and showed that the remaining slope effects for the multi-model case are marginal for all land cover types. Particularly, this improves the detection of forest degradation and biomass changes. Considering the large change in the L-band backscatter signal caused by the removal of forest, however, remaining slope effects are already sufficiently small after applying a single-model approach already.

Chapter 4 presented a novel multi-sensor time series correlation and fusion (MulTiFuse) approach that was applied to fuse Landsat NDVI and ALOS PALSAR time series. The fused Landsat-PALSAR time series was used in a change detection framework to detect deforestation at a managed forest site in Fiji for the period 01/2008 - 09/2010. We tested the impact of persistent cloud cover in the tropics by increasing the per-pixel missing data percentage of the Landsat time series in a stepwise manner. The results were evaluated against three-monthly reference data that covered the entire study area. For the Landsat-only case, a very strong decrease in spatial and temporal accuracies were observed for increasing Landsat missing data. This highlights the vulnerability of tropical forest monitoring systems that rely only on optical data. In contrast, the results for the fused Landsat-PALSAR case remained high with increasing missing data and were observed to be always above the accuracies for the Landsat- and PALSAR-only cases.

To address the need for near real-time monitoring systems at medium resolution scale, Chapter 5 introduced a Bayesian change detection approach to combine SAR and optical time series for near real-time deforestation detection. We applied the approach in a simulated near real-time scenario using Landsat NDVI and ALSO PALSAR time series already used in Chapter 4. Once a new image of either of the two time series was available, the probability of deforestation was calculated immediately and deforestation events were indicated. These near real-time capabilities are essential to support timely action against illegal forest activities. Spatial and temporal accuracies for the fused Landsat-PALSAR case were consistently higher than those of the Landsat- and PALSAR-only cases, even for increasing Landsat missing data.

With these studies we demonstrated the potential of SAR-optical time series approaches to use the historical and upcoming streams of medium resolution optical and SAR satellite image time series for improving forest monitoring in the tropics.

Terrestrial laser scanning for forest monitoring
Calders, K. - \ 2015
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Martin Herold, co-promotor(en): Harm Bartholomeus; Jan Verbesselt. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462571778 - 140
bosmonitoring - monitoring - bossen - lasers - scannen - remote sensing - forest monitoring - forests - scanning
Remote sensing data worden beschouwd als één van de belangrijkste databronnen voor het observeren van uitgestrekte bosgebieden. Het belangrijkste doel van dit proefschrift is om het potentieel van terrestrische LiDAR voor het monitoren van bossen te onderzoeken en om methoden te ontwikkelen voor het afleiden van accurate in-situ referentiedata voor bos monitoring.
Space-born spectrodirectional estimation of forest properties
Verrelst, J. - \ 2010
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Michael Schaepman, co-promotor(en): Jan Clevers; B. Koetz. - [S.l. : S.n. - ISBN 9789085856214 - 152
bossen - bosecologie - achteruitgang, bossen - gezondheidstoestand van het bos - bosinventarisaties - remote sensing - spectrometrie - bosbedrijfsvoering - bosmonitoring - bosstructuur - nabij infrarood spectroscopie - geïntegreerd bosbeheer - forests - forest ecology - forest decline - forest health - forest inventories - spectrometry - forest management - forest monitoring - forest structure - near infrared spectroscopy - integrated forest management
With the upcoming global warming forests are under threat. To forecast climate change impacts and adaptations, there is need for developing improved forest monitoring services, which are able to record, quantify and map bio-indicators of the forests’ health status across the globe. In this context, Earth observation (EO) can provide a substantial amount of up-to-date information about the biochemical and structural conditions of our forests at a local-to-global scale. Among the optical EO instruments in space, one of the most innovative instruments is the experimental Compact High Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (CHRIS) on board the PROBA-1 (Project for On Board Autonomy) satellite. CHRIS is capable of sampling reflected radiation at five viewing angles over the visible and near-infrared (VNIR) region of the solar spectrum with a relatively high spatial resolution (~17 m). The as such acquired spectrodirectional (combined multi-angular and spectroscopy) data may lead to new opportunities for space-based forest monitoring applications, yet the added value of canopy reflectance anisotropy measured over the whole VNIR spectral region is largely unknown. This is why the use of space-borne spectrodirectional data of a forested target has been investigated in this thesis.
Dinámica de la biomasa en áreas de manejo forestal sujetas a diferentes intensidades de aprovechamiento.
Mostacedo, B. ; Villegas, Z. ; Licona, J.C. ; Alarcón, A. ; Leaño, C. ; Peña-Claros, M. ; Poorter, L. - \ 2008
Santa Cruz de la Sierra, Bolivia : Instituto Boliviano de Investigación Forestal (Documento t├®cnico / Instituto Boliviano de Investigacion Forestal (IBIF) 3)
biomassa - tropische bossen - groei - houtkap - bosmonitoring - biomass - tropical forests - growth - logging - forest monitoring
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