Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Forest-grassland transitions : How livestock and fire shape grassy biomes
Bernardi, Rafael E. - \ 2017
University. Promotor(en): Marten Scheffer, co-promotor(en): Milena Holmgren Urba; Matías Arim. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463436212 - 129
forests - grasslands - fire - cattle - livestock - subtropics - south america - trees - bossen - graslanden - brand - rundvee - vee - subtropen - zuid-amerika - bomen

Plant associations are determined by complex interactions with their environment depending on resource availability, landscape features, and periodic disturbances that shape the structure and functions of these communities. Forests, savannas and grasslands extend across the global land surface, contribute to planetary processes and provide ecosystems services sustaining local production. However, the factors that explain the distribution of trees and determine these biomes are still not well understood. In this thesis, long-standing questions about the origins and distribution of these ecosystems are discussed in light of new evidence suggesting that a feedback of fire and grasses may maintain forests, savannas and grasslands as alternative tree cover states. I also address how anthropogenic land use, including the introduction of livestock, may be affecting these dynamics, particularly in the neotropics, with consequences in terms of potential transitions in tree cover regimes.

I analyze the distribution of trees in the grasslands of subtropical South America, looking at what may determine current tree cover and change dynamics (Chapters 2 & 3). The results suggest that, in non-cultivated areas, the expansion of trees into grasslands is likely limited by fire, livestock and precipitation, and that livestock likely reduces fire frequency (Chapter 2). The analyses also suggest that in the Uruguayan Campos of southeastern South America, where fire frequency is low and livestock densities are high, a release in livestock density may cause a moderate expansion of forests into grasslands (Chapter 3). To understand the consequences of a potential transition to higher tree cover by increasing precipitation, I looked at the effects of tree cover in subtropical rangelands (Chapter 5). The results indicated that isolated trees can improve the forage quality and abundance of these rangelands, with potential benefits in terms of biodiversity and ecosystem services. Lastly, I analyzed correlational patterns relating livestock density to vegetation structure across the global tropics and subtropics (Chapter 4), in an attempt to generalize the findings of Chapter 2. The results indicate that extensive livestock systems reduce fire frequency and impact vegetation structure, maintaining savannas and grasslands with low tree cover, low fire frequency and a higher presence of shrubs and dwarf trees.

Modelling the dynamic interactions between food production and ecosystem services : a case study in Benin
Duku, C. - \ 2017
University. Promotor(en): Lars Hein, co-promotor(en): S.J. Zwart. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463431613 - 141
ecosystem services - modeling - food production - case studies - hydrology - irrigation - forests - woodlands - climatic change - nature conservation - food security - benin - ecosysteemdiensten - modelleren - voedselproductie - gevalsanalyse - hydrologie - irrigatie - bossen - bosgebieden - klimaatverandering - natuurbescherming - voedselzekerheid

Given the high levels of food insecurity and the loss of vital ecosystem services associated with deforestation, countries in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) face a major dilemma. How can they produce enough food in a changing climate to feed an increasing population while protecting natural forests and woodlands that provide a wide array of ecosystem services beneficial to livelihoods? Thus, the objectives of this thesis are twofold. First, to further enhance the understanding of the dynamic interactions between food production, and natural and semi-natural ecosystems with a case study in Benin. Second, to further enhance the understanding of how hydrological ecosystem services can be captured in an accounting framework. Understanding hydrological ecosystem services is key to understanding the multi-directional relationship between food production and ecosystem services supply from natural and semi-natural ecosystems. First, I examine how a spatially explicit ecohydrological model can be used to analyse multiple hydrological ecosystem services in line with the ecosystem accounting framework. The hydrological ecosystem services include crop water supply for rainfed agriculture, household water supply (both groundwater supply and surface water supply), water purification, and soil erosion control. Second, I develop a general modelling approach for analysing the effects of deforestation on the availability of water for irrigation at the watershed level, and I apply the approach to the Upper Oueme watershed in Benin. Third, I analyse the impact of climate change on agricultural intensification options. Finally, I quantify trade-offs between per capita food availability and protecting forests and woodlands at different levels of yield increases taking into account climate change, population growth. This thesis shows that the integration of hydrological ecosystem services into an accounting framework can provide relevant information at appropriate scales suitable for decision-making. It is empirically feasible to distinguish between service capacity and service flow of hydrological ecosystem services. This requires appropriate decisions regarding physical and mathematical representation of ecohydrological processes, spatial heterogeneity of ecosystems, temporal resolution, and required model accuracy. This thesis also shows that opportunities for irrigation expansion depend on conservation of forests and woodlands in the headwaters of the rivers feeding the irrigation scheme. Opportunities for agricultural intensification in SSA are likely to diminish with climate change, hence increasing pressure to expand cultivated areas in order to meet increasing food demand. Climate change will lead to substantial reductions in; exploitable yield gaps for major food crops, rainfed cropland areas that can support the cultivation of two or more crops per year, and water availability for irrigation expansion. Furthermore, in the far future crop yields will have to increase at a faster rate than has been recorded over the past two and half decades in order to maintain current levels of per capita food availability. Failure to achieve the required levels of yield increases is likely to lead to the conversion of substantial areas of forests and woodlands for crop cultivation. Based on the results of this thesis, four main recommendations to help address the dual challenge of food security and ecosystem protection in Benin and the larger SSA region are made: (i) promote a precautionary approach to forest and woodland conservation, (ii) promote cross-sectoral policy coherence and consultations, (iii) promote the development of satellite ecosystem accounts consistent with national accounts, and (iv) identify, evaluate and implement adaptation and resilience measures to reduce agricultural vulnerability to climate change.

The role of forests in climate change mitigation : a discursive-institutional analysis of REDD+ MRV
Ochieng, Robert M. - \ 2017
University. Promotor(en): Bas Arts; Martin Herold, co-promotor(en): Ingrid Visseren-Hamakers; M. Brockhaus. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463431712 - 172
forests - climatic change - mitigation - forest monitoring - developing countries - deforestation - forestry - bossen - klimaatverandering - mitigatie - bosmonitoring - ontwikkelingslanden - ontbossing - bosbouw

Since the advent of professional forestry in the 17th century, forest monitoring has been part and parcel of forest management, and has been implemented in different forms in many European countries. The practice of forest monitoring was later exported to the European colonies, and has since been taken over and conducted by post-colonial governments in many developing countries. From an earlier focus on assessment of timber stocks, the practice has evolved to include assessments of other forest variables than timber. Despite this evolution, national forest monitoring has remained largely timber-oriented, and a closed system with little participation of actors outside the state forestry bureaucracy. However, the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) decision on reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation, and the role of conservation, sustainable management of forests and enhancement of forest carbon stocks in developing countries (REDD+) has opened up new discussions on forest monitoring in developing countries. Specifically, the global discourse on monitoring, reporting and verification (MRV) of REDD+ outcomes has introduced new ideas and demands on the scope and objectives of forest monitoring, the actors to be involved, and resources to be used. Taken together, the emergence of the REDD+ MRV discourse and associated ideas calls for change in the institutional arrangements for forest monitoring in developing countries. Furthermore, while these ideas and demands are determined and agreed upon in an international negotiation process, they need to be translated and implemented in highly diverse country-specific contexts, with country-specific actors, ideas, interests, and institutions. Translating the REDD+ MRV discourse and ideas into national institutional arrangements thus involves negotiation and contestation among national stakeholders.

This dissertation examines the performance of REDD+ MRV in terms of its implementation and institutionalization in developing countries, and the political processes by which such institutionalization occurs. Specifically, it examines (1) the institutional effectiveness of REDD+ MRV; (2) how the concept of REDD+ MRV and associated ideas have materialized in new institutional arrangements for forest monitoring in developing countries; and (3) how discursive processes of policymaking and the argumentation and contestation inherent in such processes enable or constrain institutionalization. With this, the dissertation contributes to the literature on REDD+ MRV by examining forest monitoring from a social science perspective. While current research on REDD+ MRV remains highly technical, since it is assumed that forest monitoring is a neutral, apolitical activity, this study argues that monitoring deforestation is also political, and contributes by highlighting the political contestation involved in implementing REDD+ MRV at the national level. The dissertation also contributes to scientific debates on the performance of international environment agreements at the national level, and how contestation and negotiation among domestic stakeholders enable or constrain their institutionalization at the national level.

Chapter 1 introduces the research presented in this dissertation. It provides an overview of the emergence of reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation in developing countries (REDD+) within the United Nations Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) as a climate mitigation strategy, and argues that the UNFCCC’s decisions on monitoring, reporting and verification (MRV) for REDD+ pose new ideas and demands for forest monitoring in developing countries. It elucidates the research that has been done on REDD+ MRV so far, identifies gaps in the existing literature on forest monitoring for REDD+, and delineates the objectives of the study. It discusses the theoretical basis and framework for the study, explaining how the main theoretical concept – discursive institutionalism – is combined with the Policy Arrangement Approach (PAA) to examine how REDD+ MRV has been shaped and institutionalized in new or reformed institutional arrangements for forest monitoring in developing countries, and discursive processes by which such institutionalization occurs. After presenting the conceptual framework, four research questions are outlined, namely:

1. What is the institutional effectiveness of REDD+ MRV in terms of its implementation in developing countries?

2. How have institutional arrangements for forest monitoring in Peru evolved, and how and to what extent has their evolution been shaped by international discourses on forests, especially REDD+ MRV?

3. How and to what extent has the concept of MRV become institutionalized in new or reformed institutional arrangements for forest monitoring in Indonesia, Peru and Tanzania, and how can differences in this extent of institutionalization across the countries be explained?

4. How has discursive politics enabled or constrained institutionalization of MRV in Indonesia, Peru and Tanzania?

The chapter then describes the study’s overall research design and methodology, and ends by outlining the structure of the dissertation.

Chapter 2 examines the institutional effectiveness of REDD+ MRV. The chapter draws on regime literature to conceptualize UNFCCC and its decisions on REDD+ MRV as an international institution or regime, and outlines the technical and good governance requirements for MRV. Drawing on Young and Levy’s (1999) framework for assessing effectiveness of international institutions, and building on UNFCCC and IPCC methodological guidelines for Land Use, Land Use Change and Forestry (LULUCF), and good governance literature, it develops criteria and indicators for assessing progress in implementing the identified technical and governance requirements for MRV. Three dimensions on which effectiveness of REDD+ MRV can be evaluated are developed: ‘owning technical methods for MRV’, ‘developing administrative competence’ and ‘integrating good governance’ in MRV. The framework is applied to assess and compare institutional effectiveness of REDD+ MRV in 13 REDD+ countries, based on a review of national and international documents. The Chapter shows that REDD+ countries have high to very high ownership of technical methods. However, the majority of the countries rank only low to moderate on administrative capacity and good governance. This means that although countries have started developing technical methods for MRV, they are yet to develop the competence necessary to administer MRV and to incorporate aspects of good governance in MRV. The chapter explains the scores and suggest ways of improving implementation of REDD+ MRV.

Chapter 3 examines how and to what extent global discourses and ideas on forests, especially the concept of REDD+ MRV, have shaped institutional arrangements for forest monitoring in developing countries, using the case of Peru. It draws on discursive institutionalism to conceptualize REDD+ MRV as a discourse and identify the ideas represented in the discourse. It then combines discursive institutionalism with the policy arrangement approach to craft a framework for examining the extent to which REDD+ MRV, and other global discourses, have shaped national institutional arrangements for forest monitoring in Peru. An analytical distinction is made between ‘shallow’ and ‘deep’ institutional change. The chapter identifies three distinct discourses – productivist forest philosophy, multiple-use and sustainable forest management philosophies and REDD+ MRV – that have shaped forest monitoring in Peru. The chapter shows that while all the three discourses have shaped the scope and objectives of forest monitoring, the actors involved, resources used, and rules governing forest assessments, none of them has led to ‘deep’ institutionalization of forest monitoring. On REDD+ MRV specifically, the chapter shows that it has expanded the scope and objectives of forest assessments in Peru, inspired the mobilization of new actors and resources, and spawned the development of new rules to govern forest monitoring. However, these institutional changes are not yet ‘deep’, since the new rules for forest inventories have not yet been formally adopted, and the agencies envisioned to implement forest monitoring have not been established. The chapter concludes that forest monitoring in general, and REDD+ MRV in particular, is only shallowly institutionalized in Peru.

Chapter 4 compares how and to what extent the concept of REDD+ MRV has institutionalized in Indonesia, Peru and Tanzania. To do so, the chapter draws on insights from discursive institutionalism operationalized by means of the policy arrangement approach to develop the analytical categories of ‘shallow’, ‘shallow-intermediate’, ‘deep-intermediate’ and ‘deep’ institutionalization, and uses these categories to examine the extent of institutionalization across the countries. The chapter shows that in all three countries, REDD+ MRV has institutionalized in new or revised aims, scope and strategies for forest monitoring, and the development of new agencies and mobilization of new actors and resources. New legislation to anchor forest monitoring in law, and procedures to institutionalize the roles of the various agencies, are also being developed. Nevertheless, the extent of institutionalization of MRV varies across the countries, with Indonesia experiencing ‘deep’ institutionalization, Peru ‘shallow-intermediate’, and Tanzania ‘intermediate-deep’ institutionalization. To explain the differences in institutionalization, the chapter examines the theoretical factors for discourse institutionalization and their manifestation in each country. It shows that the relatively ‘deep’ institutionalization of REDD+ MRV in Indonesia and Tanzania is due to the presence of all five factors for discourse institutionalization. Only one factor is found to be present in Peru, and the ‘shallow- intermediate’ institutionalization of REDD+ is largely due to the absence of other factors. Based on the findings and conclusions, the chapter draws lessons to inform institutionalization of MRV in other countries.

Chapter 5 examines how the discursive politics of MRV policymaking has enabled or constrained institutionalization of REDD+ MRV in Indonesia, Peru and Tanzania. To do this, it draws on the concept of discourse – understood as ideas and the interactive process of policymaking and public deliberation – to examine the actors involved in MRV policy development in the respective countries, and how the deliberation, argumentation and contestation among them (discursive politics) have enabled or constrained institutionalization. The chapter shows that in all countries, the methodologies to be used for MRV, the actors to be involved and their roles were contentious. However, it shows that in Indonesia and Tanzania, where there was a broad-based national discourse on MRV, and where policy actors agreed on the strategies to implement MRV and the role of different actors in forest monitoring, there is relatively ‘deep’ institutionalization compared to Peru, where such discourse and agreement were lacking. The chapter discusses how the discursive process facilitated institutionalization of REDD+ MRV in Indonesia and Tanzania and constrained the same in Peru. It concludes that how discursive politics is played matters in institutionalization.

Chapter 6 presents the conclusions on the study. It draws on the empirical chapters to answer the research questions, concluding that majority (60%) of the analysed countries has achieved at least a ‘moderate’ institutional effectiveness for MRV. Further, it concludes that the concept of REDD+ MRV has materialized in reformed institutional arrangements for forest monitoring in Indonesia, Peru and Tanzania, albeit to varying degrees. The chapter also concludes that forest monitoring for REDD+ is not only a technical activity, but is also political. Specifically, it concludes that decisions on what exactly is to be monitored and reported, by whom and using what methods are determined through political negotiations, and that how this political process is managed has a significant influence on how, and the extent to which, MRV is institutionalized. After drawing the conclusions, the chapter reflects on the key theoretical concepts used in the study by outlining how discursive institutionalism and the policy arrangement approach can be used to enrich one another. The chapter ends by outlining several policy recommendations. First, it recommends that while the development of new agencies to implement REDD+ MRV is necessary in some countries, care should be taken to avoid establishment of many agencies. Where possible, policy makers and donors should consider working with and strengthening existing agencies before deciding to establish new agencies. Second, it recommends that more investments be directed to organizing inclusive MRV policy coordination processes, since the politics involved in these processes determine the extent to which REDD+ MRV is institutionalized. Lastly, investments in policy coordination should be accompanied with investments in broader communicative political discourse to enlighten all REDD+ stakeholders on MRV policy processes and the strategies being proposed, while seeking the views and feedback these strategies. This is necessary if the proposed strategies are to be legitimate in the eyes of key REDD+ stakeholders.

Ecohydrologische systeemanalyse Liefstinghsbroek
Delft, S.P.J. van; Waal, R.W. de; Jansen, P.C. ; Bijlsma, R.J. ; Wegman, R.M.A. - \ 2017
Wageningen : Wageningen Environmental Research (Wageningen Environmental Research rapport 2790) - 133
ecohydrologie - hydrologie - vegetatie - natura 2000 - bossen - graslanden - historische geografie - groningen - ecohydrology - hydrology - vegetation - forests - grasslands - historical geography
Het Lieftinghsbroek in Oost-Groningen bestaat uit gevarieerd loofbos met enkele schraalgraslandjes in het dal van de Ruiten Aa. Het gebied is aangewezen voor Natura 2000 habitattypen bos en schraalland en is tevens bosreservaat. Om meer inzicht te krijgen in het effect van vernattingsmaatregelen in de directe omgeving van het gebied is een ecohydrologisch onderzoek uitgevoerd, waarbij geologisch/bodemkundige, hydrologische en vegetatiekundige gegevens verzameld zijn (uit literatuur en in het veld) en het historisch grondgebruik is beschreven. Voor de bossen is het gebied te nat geworden, of te zuur door het ontbreken van kwelinvloed. Ook voor Blauwgraslanden zijn de mogelijkheden beperkt. Er wordt aanbevolen aanvullende maatregelen te treffen om de sterke vernatting te verminderen door minder neerslagwater vast te houden in het gebied.
Administrative co-management in special use forests of Vietnam
Dung, Nguyen Kim - \ 2017
University. Promotor(en): Arthur Mol, co-promotor(en): Simon Bush. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462579866 - 183
forests - forest administration - forest management - nature conservation - environmental protection - vietnam - bossen - bosbeheer - bosbedrijfsvoering - natuurbescherming - milieubescherming

To protect its natural heritage and biodiversity, Vietnam has established a system of ‘special use forest’ (SUFs) which is “the backbone of the national protected areas”. The ineffective management of SUFs based solely on the state leads to a decline in biodiversity and density of the forests. Recognizing this, collaborative or ‘co’-management for SUFs is advocated to get more participation and shared responsibilities and rights between government and non-state actors. However, it is widely noted that co-management is a particularly great challenge in Vietnam because of the nature of strong state control, decades of SUF conflicts, and the lack of capacity and initiatives of communities to negotiate with the government in co-management arrangements. This PhD thesis questions the degree to which co-management can be put in Vietnamese SUFs and the degree of ‘adaptiveness’ it can engender. Conditions of the economic, political and social context surrounding SUFs becomes key to any understanding of how co-management can be implemented, including insights into how co-management may need to be amended to adjust to ‘fit’ the context of mono-organisational states.

Vochtige bossen, tussen verdrogen en nat gaan : OBN deskundigenteam Nat zandlandschap
Burg, A. van den; Bijlsma, R.J. ; Brouwer, E. ; Waal, R.W. de - \ 2016
VBNE, Vereniging van Bos- en Natuurterreineigenaren - 36 p.
bosbeheer - waterbeheer - bossen - bosecologie - ecohydrologie - grondwater - grondwaterstand - beekdalen - forest administration - water management - forests - forest ecology - ecohydrology - groundwater - groundwater level - brook valleys
Deze brochure is geschreven voor bos- en waterbeheerders, landschapsecologen en provinciale beleidsambtenaren, om hen te stimuleren de vochtige bossen met meer aandacht te bekijken. De brochure beschrijft om welke bostypen het gaat, hoe je deze kunt herkennen, in welke landschappen ze voorkomen en hoe ze functioneren.
Resilience of Amazonian forests : the roles of fire, flooding and climate
Monteiro Flores, B. - \ 2016
University. Promotor(en): Marten Scheffer, co-promotor(en): Milena Holmgren Urba; Jose de Attayde. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462578876 - 128 p.
forests - resilience of nature - fire - flooding - floods - climate - floodplains - vegetation - amazonia - bossen - veerkracht van de natuur - brand - inundatie - overstromingen - klimaat - stroomvlakten - vegetatie

The Amazon has recently been portrayed as a resilient forest system based on quick recovery of biomass after human disturbance. Yet with climate change, the frequency of droughts and wildfires may increase, implying that parts of this massive forest may shift into a savanna state. Although the Amazon basin seems quite homogeneous, 14% is seasonally inundated. In my thesis I combine analyses of satellite data with field measurements and experiments to assess the role of floodplain ecosystems in shaping the resilience of Amazonian forests.

First, I analyse tree cover distribution for the whole Amazon to reveal that savannas are relatively more common on floodplains. This suggests that compared to uplands, floodplains spend more time in the savanna state. Also, floodplain forests seem to have a tipping point at 1500 mm of annual rainfall in which forests may shift to savanna, whereas the tipping point for upland forests seems to be at 1000 mm of rainfall. Combining satellite and field measurements, I show that the higher frequency of savannas on floodplain ecosystems may be due to a higher sensitivity to fire. After a forest fire, floodplains lose more tree cover and soil fertility, and recover more slowly than uplands (chapter 2).

In floodplains of the Negro river, I studied the recovery of blackwater forests after repeated fires, using field data on tree basal area, species richness, seed availability, and herbaceous cover. Results indicate that repeated fires may easily trap blackwater floodplains in an open-vegetation state, due the sudden loss of forest resilience after a second fire event (chapter 3).

Analyses of the soil and tree composition of burnt floodplain forests, reveal that a first fire is the onset of the loss of soil fertility that intensifies while savanna trees dominate the tree community. A tree compositional shift happens within four decades, possibly accelerated by fast nutrient leaching. The rapid savannization of floodplain forests after fire implies that certain mechanisms such as environmental filtering may favor the recruitment of savanna trees over forest trees (chapter 4).

In chapter 5, I experimentally tested in the field the roles of dispersal limitation, and environmental filtering for tree recruitment in burnt floodplain forests. I combine inventories of seed availability in burnt sites with experiments using planted seeds and seedlings of six floodplain tree species. Repeated fires strongly reduce the availability of tree seeds, yet planted trees thrive despite degraded soils and high herbaceous cover. Moreover, degraded soils on twice burnt sites seem to limit the growth of most pioneer trees, but not of savanna trees with deeper roots. Our results suggest a limitation of forest trees to disperse into open burnt sites.

The combined evidence presented in this thesis support the hypothesis that Amazonian forests on floodplains are less resilient than forests on uplands, and more likely to shift into a savanna state. The lower ability of floodplains to retain soil fertility and recover forest structure after fire, may accelerate the transition to savanna. I also present some evidence of dispersal limitation of floodplain forest trees. Broad-scale analyses of tree cover as a function of rainfall suggest that savannas are likely to expand first in floodplains if Amazonian climate becomes drier. Savanna expansion through floodplain ecosystems to the core of the Amazon may spread fragility from an unsuspected place.

Oude bosgroeiplaatsen in Noord-Holland : een GIS-bestand van boslocaties aanwezig op de Topografische en Militaire Kaart van 1850
Bijlsma, R.J. ; Dorland, G.J. van - \ 2016
Wageningen : Alterra, Wageningen-UR (Alterra-rapport 2744) - 47
bossen - geschiedenis - kaarten - noord-holland - forests - history - maps
Dit rapport beschrijft en documenteert een GIS-bestand van oude bosgroeiplaatsen in de provincie Noord-Holland, afgeleid van kaartvlakken bos op de Topografische en Militaire Kaart (TMK) van omstreeks 1850. In totaal ligt er 8432 ha oude bosgroeiplaats in de provincie. Voor alle fysischgeografische regio’s in de provincie worden oude bosgroeiplaatsen beschreven aan de hand van gegevens uit het kadaster van 1832. Voor toepassing van het GIS-bestand in beleid en beheer is een vijfstappenplan opgesteld waarmee op grond van bronnen, terreinkenmerken, aandachtsoorten en kwaliteitskenmerken van de bosstructuur een oordeel kan worden gegeven over de huidige waarde van de oude bosgroeiplaats.
Optimising land use in Central Kalimantan Province, Indonesia : modelling ecosystem benefits and land use dynamics
Suwarno, Aritta - \ 2016
University. Promotor(en): Rik Leemans; Lars Hein, co-promotor(en): Hans-Peter Weikard. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462578739 - 156
land use - deforestation - decentralization - ecosystem services - ecosystems - forest policy - forests - modeling - kalimantan - indonesia - landgebruik - ontbossing - decentralisatie - ecosysteemdiensten - ecosystemen - bosbeleid - bossen - modelleren - indonesië

The rising global population has increased the demand for food, renewable energy and other materials. Yet at the same time to meet this demand requires land and the amount of available land is finite. Considering the importance of land and ecosystems in providing benefits for human, I conducted four independent research on the socio-economic and biophysical aspects of ecosystem service, in Central Kalimantan Province, Indonesia. The first three independent studies were used to understand ecosystem management under decentralised forest governance in Indonesia and its influence on ecosystems, ESs and the benefits that different beneficiaries receive. The fourth study combines the outcomes from the previous three studies to assess and select the most appropriate areas for conservation and community development. As the results, I show the applicability of the ecosystem services concept and land-use modelling in optimising land-use under certain decentralised forest governance systems. My thesis’ results were obtained through the application of methods and steps that integrated a comprehensive set of qualitative and quantitative analyses to support land-use optimisation in the Kapuas Protected Forest Management Unit. My results can inform decision makers on the options of land-use optimisation and the consequences of their management decisions regarding land-use intensification, nature conservation and local economic conditions. I show how land-use optimisation provides an important step in preventing further land degradation and ecosystem loss.

Boseigendom in Twente en Salland : resultaten van een enquête onder kleine boseigenaren in Twente en Salland
Clerkx, A.P.P.M. ; Hengeveld, G.M. ; Schelhaas, M. ; Helmink, A.T.F. - \ 2016
Wageningen : Alterra, Wageningen-UR (Alterra-rapport 2731) - 57 p.
bossen - bosbezit - bosbedrijfsvoering - biomassa - opbrengsten - salland - twente - forests - forest ownership - forest management - biomass - yields
In de regio Twente/Salland is onderzoek uitgevoerd naar het boseigendom en motivatie van boseigenaren. Alle eigenaren met bosbezit van ten minste 0,5 ha hebben een enquête ontvangen met persoonlijke vragen over de eigenaar, het eigendom, beheer en oogst. Daarnaast is gekeken hoe gevoelig de eigenaren zijn voor verschillende strategieën die gericht zijn op vergroting van de houten biomassaoogst uit hun bos. Met deze antwoorden is voor de regio een indeling in eigenaarsgroepen gemaakt. Voor elke groep is een schatting gemaakt van het effect van de mobilisatiestrategieën en de hoeveelheid extra te mobiliseren hout.
Ghana's high forests : trends, scenarios and pathways for future developments
Oduro, K.A. - \ 2016
University. Promotor(en): Frits Mohren; Bas Arts, co-promotor(en): B. Kyereh. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462577824 - 171 p.
forests - forest ecology - forest management - high forest system - forest resources - forestry - ghana - bossen - bosecologie - bosbedrijfsvoering - hoog opgaand bos - bosbestanden - bosbouw

Deforestation and forest degradation in the tropics have been receiving both scientific and political attention in recent decades due to its impacts on the environment and on human livelihoods. In Ghana, the continuous decline of forest resources and the high demand for timber have raised stakeholders concerns about the future timber production prospects in the country. The principal drivers of deforestation and forest degradation in Ghana are agricultural expansion (50%), wood harvesting (35%), population and development pressures (10%), and mining and mineral exploitation (5%). Various measures are being pursued that are targeted at addressing the drivers of deforestation and forest degradation and at increasing the forest resource base. Understanding the key driving forces behind current forest resource development trends will help to gain insights into the possible courses of action to take to improve the developments of the resources, especially where actions that are being taken today will have an impact on the forest resources for many years to come.

In this thesis, I used interdisciplinary research methods to provide insights into the current status of the forest resource base in Ghana and into its likely and possible future developments. I addressed 5 research questions: (1) What are the trends and changes associated with the growing stock in the timber production areas? (2) What driving forces account for current trends and future developments of timber resources in Ghana? (3) What different scenarios can be identified and how will these affect future developments of timber resources in the high forest zone? (4) What factors motivate farmers to engage in on-farm tree planting and management? (5) To what extent do the current trends of forest resources drive forest transition in Ghana?

National forest inventory data, timber harvesting data and forest plantation establishment data showed that the growing stock in both on- and off-reserve production areas have been declining since 1990. Ghana’s average forest growing stock of 40m3 per ha is much lower than the 195 m3 per ha for the Western and Central Africa sub-region. Timber harvesting records also indicate that, in recent decades, total timber harvests have mostly been substantially higher than the annual allowable cut, resulting in an increasing gap between national timber demand and supply, which drives illegal logging. Current plantation establishment efforts are not sufficient to bridge the gap between demand and supply of timber, partly due to low establishment rates and lack of appropriate management of newly established plantations. Forest governance system and resource demand are the two key driving forces that affect the current trends and future developments of forest resources in the high forest zone of Ghana. Four scenarios were developed: (1) legal forestry scenario with emphasis on improving the resource base to meet high demand; (2) forest degradation, which implies a business-as-usual scenario; (3) forest transition, with emphasis on expanding the resource base in response to environmental concerns; and (4) timber substitution scenario seeking to provide wood substitutes to conserve the resource base. Across two on-farm tree planting schemes, I found that financial benefits, educational campaigns by project teams, knowledge about current environmental issues, ownership of timber for family use and access to land, grants, farming inputs, seedlings, capacity building, and market for agricultural produce are the factors that motivated farmers to engage in on-farm tree planting and management. Currently, there is no strong force toward a forest transition through any of the five generic pathways (economic development; forest scarcity; globalization; state forest policy; and smallholder, tree-based land use intensification). This is because the existing trends of forest resources developments are either too small-scale or too ineffective. In order to accelerate a forest transition in Ghana, policy and management options should target measures that reduce current degradation of natural forests, increase the area and productivity of commercial forest plantations, promote sustainable forest management, and support and encourage forest conservation and integration of trees into farming systems.

Marteloscopen – studiemateriaal voor de praktijk
Ouden, J. den - \ 2016
Vakblad Natuur Bos Landschap 13 (2016)121. - ISSN 1572-7610 - p. 28 - 29.
bosbeheer - dunnen - proefvelden - bossen - experimentele bossen - bosbouwkundige handelingen - forest administration - thinning - experimental plots - forests - experimental forests - forestry practices
De afgelopen jaren zijn op diverse plekken in Nederland bossen ingericht als marteloscoop. De naam “marteloscoop” is afgeleid van het Franse martelage = hameren of blessen, en –scoop = kijken, onderzoeken. De marteloscoop “Oostereng” is officieel in gebruik genomen tijdens de jubileumbijeenkomst van Pro Silva Nederland op 8 oktober 2015. Het betreft een 0.5 ha grote douglasopstand uit 1961, waar in totaal 12 groepen een dunning hebben gesimuleerd. De algemene dunningsinstructie luidde: “Zet een dunning uit waarmee de houtteeltkundige waarde van de opstand zoveel mogelijk verhoogd wordt.”
Carbonizing forest governance: analyzing the consequences of REDD+ for multilevel forest governance
Vijge, M.J. - \ 2016
University. Promotor(en): Arthur Mol, co-promotor(en): Aarti Gupta. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462576445 - 178 p.
forest policy - governance - deforestation - environmental degradation - forests - carbon - bosbeleid - ontbossing - milieuafbraak - bossen - koolstof

Carbonizing forest governance:

Analyzing the consequences of REDD+ for multilevel forest governance

Marjanneke J. Vijge

Despite the fifty years of global action to combat deforestation and forest degradation, the world is still losing its forests at great scale. A recent governance initiative that has raised high expectations to address global deforestation is Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation (REDD+), negotiated under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). The idea of REDD+ is to compensate developing countries for their forest-related carbon emission reductions. Through REDD+, forests are governed for their carbon content. I therefore see REDD+ as the embodiment of what I call a “carbonization” of forest governance. This thesis analyzes the consequences of carbonization for multilevel forest governance. It studies whether carbonization leads to 1) a simplification of forest governance through a prime focus on carbon, or a focus on multiple carbon and non-carbon benefits; 2) a centralization or dispersion of authority; 3) a privileging of scientific knowledge—what I call a technicalization—or a diversity in the production and use of knowledge; and 4) a primary reliance on market instruments—what I refer to as marketization—or reliance on a mix of market and non-market instruments. I discuss whether REDD+ can be seen as a case of increased homogenization of environmental governance through simplification, centralization, technicalization, and/or marketization.

The research questions are as follows:

1. How does the carbonization of forest governance manifest itself at different levels, and with what consequences for multilevel forest governance?

2. What does this analysis of the consequences of carbonization reveal about the prospects of a homogenization of environmental governance?

This thesis uses discourses as proxies for how and with what consequences the carbonization of forest governance manifests itself. The thesis analyzes how REDD+ is being framed by policy actors and practitioners, and operationalized in policy, institutional and project developments and design. Triangulation of data is established through reliance on qualitative and quantitative research methods, including semi-structured interviews, surveys, reviews of primary and secondary literature, and direct and participant observation during field visits, project meetings and conferences.

Chapter 2 analyzes how carbonization manifests itself in UNFCCC policy debates and developments surrounding measuring, reporting and verification (MRV) systems that are centrally implicated in REDD+. This chapter shows that at the global level, REDD+ is framed as a mechanism to facilitate results-based compensation for carbon emission reductions, to be measured through national, state-based, expert-led MRV systems. The chapter argues that this may well induce a simplified focus on carbon, a technicalization of forest governance, and a centralization of authority in national state agencies responsible for measuring and accounting for forest carbon units. This might marginalize non-carbon forest services and empower certain groups of actors such as technical experts at the cost of, for example, local communities. Who will be empowered through REDD+, however, ultimately depends on the context-specific operationalization and implementation of REDD+ at the national and local level.

Chapter 3 contains an in-depth case study of how carbonization manifests itself in the Green India Mission (GIM), the cornerstone of India’s national REDD+ strategy. The chapter shows that the GIM frames REDD+ as an opportunity to synergistically generate carbon and non-carbon benefits, and promote a further devolution of authority in Indian forest governance to local communities. Chapter 3 nevertheless concludes that this is not likely to be realized without significant investments in benefit-sharing mechanisms and biodiversity and community-based monitoring systems in India.

Chapter 4 presents the in-depth case study of the first REDD+ pilot project in India. The chapter analyzes the prominence of REDD+-related discourses among stakeholders and in project design. The chapter shows that the manifestation of carbonization at project level can be very different from the dominant framing of REDD+ at the global level as a carbon-centric, centralized and technocratic mechanism. The project case study shows how the carbonization of forest governance might become a vehicle to generate multiple carbon and non-carbon benefits, diversify the production and use of knowledge and the types of actors involved therein, disperse authority among actors involved in forest governance, and diversify reliance on both market- and fund-based finances.

Chapter 5 contains a cross-country comparative analysis of the prominence of REDD+-related discourses among national policy actors and in national REDD+ policy documents of seven countries: Cameroon, Indonesia, Nepal, Papua New Guinea, Vietnam, Peru and Tanzania. The chapter shows that though REDD+ is mostly framed as a mechanism to generate carbon and non-carbon benefits, most countries pay very little attention to non-carbon monitoring. Almost all countries lay out detailed plans to diversify the production and use of knowledge through the involvement of local communities in REDD+ MRV systems, but currently lack the institutional capacity to implement such plans. Almost all REDD+ policy documents plan for a national state agency to account for and distribute REDD+ payments. There is, however, strikingly little discussion of how to finance REDD+. The chapter argues that a simplification, a centralization and, to a lesser extent, a technicalization of national forest governance are possible consequences of carbonization.

The concluding chapter shows that carbonization of forest governance manifests itself differently at different levels of governance, with varying consequences for multilevel forest governance. Though homogenization does not yet occur, it may happen in the long run due to the centralization of authority that countries envision in accounting for and distributing REDD+ payments, as well as countries’ capacity gaps in non-carbon and community-based monitoring, which make a simplification and technicalization of national forest governance possible consequences of REDD+. In answering the second research question regarding the prospects of a homogenization of environmental governance, the case of REDD+ shows that developing countries retain authority to design policies, but in diversified ways. I argue that though diversity in policies and practices exist, this goes hand in hand with—and sometimes even flows from—efforts to homogenize in order to measure and regulate environmental outcomes at central (global and/or national) levels. As such, the challenges facing global environmental governance lie not only in measuring and controlling environmental outcomes, but also in managing the diversity and fragmentation that arise from these efforts.

Arme bossen verdienen beter : OBN Deskundigenteam Droog zandlandschap
Burg, A. Van den; Bijlsma, R.J. ; Bobbink, R. - \ 2015
VBNE, Vereniging van Bos- en Natuurterreineigenaren - 24 p.
bossen - bosbeheer - zandgronden - zure regen - voedingsstoffenbeschikbaarheid - biodiversiteit - verzuring - voedingsstoffenbalans - verstoorde bossen - bosecologie - forests - forest administration - sandy soils - acid rain - nutrient availability - biodiversity - acidification - nutrient balance - disturbed forests - forest ecology
Bossen van het droog zandlandschap van Noordwest- Europa staan bekend als ‘arme bossen’. Het landschap waarin ze voorkomen was tot in de 20ste eeuw overwegend een heidelandschap. Op de voedselarme heide- en stuifzandbodems zijn vanaf 1900 vooral naaldbossen geplant. Inmiddels zijn in deze voormalige plantages volop kenmerken aanwezig van oudere, meer natuurlijke bossen, zoals dikke levende en dode bomen, natuurlijke verjonging van inheemse loofbomen en een gevarieerd lichtklimaat. Veel soorten hebben sterk geprofiteerd van deze natuurlijke ontwikkeling die nog steeds doorzet. In de loop van 20ste eeuw zijn echter eerst zwaveldepositie (‘zure regen’) en later ook stikstofdepositie een grote negatieve invloed gaan uitoefenen op het landschap. Dit raakt niet alleen de biodiversiteit, maar ook de hout- en biomassaproductie en daarmee de duurzaamheid van het bosgebruik. We hebben directe gevolgen vastgesteld voor soorten en nutriëntenvoorraden in de bodem en indirecte effecten op concurrentieverhoudingen en voedselketens. Er zijn echter ook onzekerheden en belangrijke kennisleemten waar het gaat om de precieze mechanismen, het experimenteel vastleggen van oorzaak-gevolg relaties en mogelijke oplossingsrichtingen. De achtergronden van deze problematiek in droge bossen staan centraal in deze brochure.
Tropical forests in a changing world
Zuidema, P.A. - \ 2015
Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462573765 - 24 p.
tropical forests - forests - forest ecology - climatic change - forest management - tropische bossen - bossen - bosecologie - klimaatverandering - bosbedrijfsvoering
Negen vragen over ecologie van bosbodems
Jong, J.J. de; Waal, R.W. de; Al, Erwin - \ 2015
Vakblad Natuur Bos Landschap 12 (2015)119. - ISSN 1572-7610 - p. 18 - 21.
natuurbeheer - bosbeheer - bodemecologie - bodembeheer - bodemkwaliteit - bossen - nature management - forest administration - soil ecology - soil management - soil quality - forests
Een goed functionerende bodem van het bos is een van de belangrijke pijlers voor duurzaam bosbeheer. Een bosbeheerder leert dan ook al vroeg in zijn opleiding dat het zijn verantwoordelijkheid is om de mogelijkheden van de bodem voor de ontwikkeling van bos niet aan te tasten maar zo mogelijk te verbeteren. Een bosbodem kan zich daarbij onafhankelijk van het moedermateriaal op den duur ontwikkelen tot een drager van een bijzonder rijk ecosysteem. Bekend zijn de tropische regenwouden, waar het moedermateriaal extreem arm is, maar waar het bos zich op een flinterdunne laag bosbodem in ongekende dimensies en soortenrijkdom weet te handhaven en te ontwikkelen. Ook voor de gematigde streken bestaan voorbeelden van oude rijke bossen op ondergrond waar je dat in eerste instantie niet zou verwachten, zoals in het zuidoosten van Finland en in Bialowieza. Een vraag die hier centraal staat is: wat maakt nu dat die bosbodems zich zo kunnen ontwikkelen en hoe kan je daar als beheerder zo goed mogelijk op inspelen? Aan de hand van onderstaande negen vragen met antwoorden geven we u hierin meer inzicht.
Oogst in het Nederlandse bos : Analyse van niet-geoogste plots uit de Zesde Nederlandse Bosinventarisatie
Clerkx, A.P.P.M. ; Schelhaas, M. ; Zwart, J. - \ 2015
Alterra, Wageningen-UR (Alterra-rapport 2610) - 33 p.
forestry - forest inventories - forest management - forests - netherlands - bosbouw - bosinventarisaties - bosbedrijfsvoering - bossen - nederland
Vanuit de overheid zijn al sinds de jaren 80 van de vorige eeuw acties genomen om de oogst in het
Nederlandse bos te promoten, maar het niveau van de oogst is al enkele decennia min of meer
constant. Uit de Zesde Nederlandse Bosinventarisatie is gebleken dat op ruim 40% van de punten niet
is geoogst sinds de inventarisatie van het Meetnet Functievervulling. De eigenaren van deze punten
zijn gevraagd naar de redenen waarom daar niet is geoogst en wanneer zij wel over zullen gaan op
oogst. Met deze gegevens is een schatting gemaakt van de hoeveelheid hout die mogelijk meer zal
kunnen worden geoogst
Pan-European strategy for genetic conservation of forest trees and establishment of a core network of dynamic conservation units
Vries, S.M.G. de; Alan, Murat ; Bozzano, Michele ; Burianek, Vaclav - \ 2015
Rome : EUFORGEN - ISBN 9789292550295 - 40 p.
forest administration - forests - forest trees - genetic diversity - trees - nature conservation - bosbeheer - bossen - bosbomen - genetische diversiteit - bomen - natuurbescherming
The diversity of forests, at the level of species and at the level of genetic diversity within species, is an important resource for Europe. Over the past several decades European countries have made considerable efforts to conserve the genetic diversity of tree species. According to the EUFGIS portal, there are more than 3200 genetic conservation units which harbour more than 4000 populations of about 100 tree species. An earlier analysis of the EUFGIS information revealed significant gaps in the conservation efforts in terms of the species covered and the geographical distribution of the units within the species’ ranges. Subsequently, the EUFORGEN Steering Committee established a working group to develop the pan-European genetic conservation strategy for forest trees. The process followed by the working group and its results are presented in this report
A new role for forests and the forest sector in the EU post-2020 climate targets
Nabuurs, G.J. ; Delacote, Philippe ; Ellison, David ; Hanewinkel, Marc ; Lindner, Marcus ; Nesbit, Martin ; Ollikainen, Markku ; Savaresi, Annalisa - \ 2015
European Forest Institute (From Science to Policy 2) - ISBN 9789525980202 - 30 p.
forestry - environmental policy - land use - european union - carbon sequestration - forests - biomass production - biobased economy - bosbouw - milieubeleid - landgebruik - europese unie - koolstofvastlegging - bossen - biomassa productie
We are living in a time of accelerated changes and unprecedented global challenges: energy security, natural resource scarcity, biodiversity loss, fossil-resource dependence and climate change. Yet the challenges also demand new solutions and offer new opportunities. The cross-cutting nature of forests and the forest-based sector provides a strong basis to address these interconnected societal challenges, while supporting the development of a European bioeconomy. The |European Forest Institue is an unbiased, science-based international organisation that provides the best forest science knowledge and information for better informed policy making. EFI provides support for decision-takers, policy makers and institutions, bringing together cross-boundery scientific knowledge and expertise to strengthen science-policy dialogue.
De Keizersmantel als indicator voor het herstel van lichte en viooltjesrijke hellingbossen
Omon, B. ; Veling, K. ; Wallis de Vries, M.F. - \ 2015
De Levende Natuur 116 (2015)5. - ISSN 0024-1520 - p. 204 - 207.
bosgebieden - bossen - soortenrijkdom - fauna - lepidoptera - nymphalidae - waardplanten - ecosystemen - habitats - zuid-limburg - bosbeheer - natuurbeheer - woodlands - forests - species richness - host plants - ecosystems - forest administration - nature management
Een deel van de soorten die eens kenmerkend waren voor de hellingbossen in Zuid-Limburg is afgenomen of zelfs verdwenen. Het dichtgroeien van de bossen na het beëindigen van hakhoutbeheer zou een verklaring kunnen zijn, maar is dat ook zo? In dit artikel worden de ecologische eisen van de fauna van hellingbossen besproken aan de hand van de Keizersmantel. Ingegaan wordt op de vraag in welke mate de ecologische randvoorwaarden voor de Keizersmantel worden bepaald door het aanbod van waardplanten en door het microklimaat.
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