Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

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    We will mail you new results for this query: keywords==bovine mastitis
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Ayurvedische kruiden bij Hollandse koeproblemen : een verslag van een praktijkproef in Overijssel
Groot, M.J. ; Raeijmaeckers, L. ; Thybaut, R. ; Nij Bijvank, H. ; Vreriks, M. ; Hooft, K. van 't - \ 2015
Wageningen : RIKILT Wageningen UR (RIKILT rapport 2015.001) - 35
rundvee - melkveehouderij - rundermastitis - antibiotica - overijssel - india - medisch onderzoek - on-farm research - proefprojecten - diergezondheid - geneeskrachtige kruiden - cattle - dairy farming - bovine mastitis - antibiotics - medical research - pilot projects - animal health - herbal drugs
Dit rapport beschrijft een proef met een Ayurvedisch recept tegen mastitis bij Nederlandse koeien met hoog celgetal. De proef is opgezet naar aanleiding van een werkbezoek aan India van een groep dierenartsen en boeren uit Overijssel in april 2014, in het kader van een uitwisselingsproject van Oxfam Novib over reductie van antibiotica in de melkveehouderij. In het kader van de reductie van het antibioticagebruik, de verhoging van de diergezondheid en het dierwelzijn is een pilotproef opgezet bij boeren in Overijssel om te onderzoeken of deze middelen ook onder Nederlandse omstandigheden werkzaam zijn.
Udder Hygiene Analysis tool
Borkent, H. ; Bos, I. ; Fleuren, M.M.L. ; Middeldorp, M. - \ 2013
UHC - 61
melkkoeien - uiers - rundermastitis - diergezondheid - melkveehouderij - dairy cows - udders - bovine mastitis - animal health - dairy farming
In this report, the pilot of UHC is described. The main objective of the pilot is to make farmers more aware of how to increase udder health in dairy herds. This goes through changing management aspects related to hygiene. This report firstly provides general information about antibiotics and the processes that influence udder health. Secondly, six subjects are described related to udder health. Thirdly, the tools (checklists and roadmap) are shown and fourthly, advises that are written by UHC are presented. Finally, the evaluation of the farmers is included.
Early host response in the mammary gland after experimental Streptococcus uberis challenge in heifers
Greeff, A. de; Zadoks, R.N. ; Ruuls, L. ; Toussaint, M. ; Nguyen, T.K. ; Downing, A. ; Rebel, J.M.J. ; Stockhofe-Zurwieden, N. ; Smith, H.E. - \ 2013
Journal of Dairy Science 96 (2013)6. - ISSN 0022-0302 - p. 3723 - 3736.
innate immune-response - lipopolysaccharide-binding protein - clinical mastitis - intramammary infections - staphylococcus-aureus - lipoteichoic acid - bovine mastitis - dairy-cattle - 2 strains - epidemiology
Streptococcus uberis is a highly prevalent causative agent of bovine mastitis, which leads to large economic losses in the dairy industry. The aim of this study was to examine the host response during acute inflammation after experimental challenge with capsulated Strep. uberis. Gene expression in response to Strep. uberis was compared between infected and control quarters in 3 animals. All quarters (n=16) were sampled at 16 different locations. Microarray data showed that 239 genes were differentially expressed between infected and control quarters. No differences in gene expression were observed between the different locations. Microarray data were confirmed for several genes using quantitative PCR analysis. Genes differentially expressed due to early Strep. uberis mastitis represented several stages of the process of infection: (1) pathogen recognition; (2) chemoattraction of neutrophils; (3) tissue repair mechanisms; and (4) bactericidal activity. Three different pathogen recognition genes were induced: ficolins, lipopolysaccharide binding protein, and toll-like receptor 2. Calgranulins were found to be the most strongly upregulated genes during early inflammation. By histology and immunohistochemistry, we demonstrated that changes in gene expression in response to Strep. uberis were induced both in infiltrating somatic milk cells and in mammary epithelial cells, demonstrating that the latter cell type plays a role in milk production as well as immune responsiveness. Given the rapid development of inflammation or mastitis after infection, early diagnosis of (Strep. uberis) mastitis is required for prevention of disease and spread of the pathogen. Insight into host responses could help to design immunomodulatory therapies to dampen inflammation after (early) diagnosis of Strep. uberis mastitis. Future research should focus on development of these early diagnostics and immunomodulatory components for mastitis treatment.
Cow-specific treatment of clinical mastitis: an economic approach
Steeneveld, W. ; Werven, T. van; Barkema, H.W. ; Hogeveen, H. - \ 2011
Journal of Dairy Science 94 (2011)1. - ISSN 0022-0302 - p. 174 - 188.
somatic-cell count - staphylococcus-aureus mastitis - dairy-cows - intramammary infections - streptococcus-uberis - subclinical mastitis - antibiotic-treatment - comparative efficacy - bovine mastitis - lactating cows
Under Dutch circumstances, most clinical mastitis (CM) cases of cows on dairy farms are treated with a standard intramammary antimicrobial treatment. Several antimicrobial treatments are available for CM, differing in antimicrobial compound, route of application, duration, and cost. Because cow factors (e.g., parity, stage of lactation, and somatic cell count history) and the causal pathogen influence the probability of cure, cow-specific treatment of CM is often recommended. The objective of this study was to determine if cow-specific treatment of CM is economically beneficial. Using a stochastic Monte Carlo simulation model, 20,000 CM cases were simulated. These CM cases were caused by Streptococcus uberis and Streptococcus dysgalactiae (40%), Staphylococcus aureus (30%), or Escherichia coli (30%). For each simulated CM case, the consequences of using different antimicrobial treatment regimens (standard 3-d intramammary, extended 5-d intramammary, combination 3-d intramammary + systemic, combination 3-d intramammary + systemic + 1-d nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs, and combination extended 5-d intramammary + systemic) were simulated simultaneously. Finally, total costs of the 5 antimicrobial treatment regimens were compared. Some inputs for the model were based on literature information and assumptions made by the authors were used if no information was available. Bacteriological cure for each individual cow depended on the antimicrobial treatment regimen, the causal pathogen, and the cow factors parity, stage of lactation, somatic cell count history, CM history, and whether the cow was systemically ill. Total costs for each case depended on treatment costs for the initial CM case (including costs for antibiotics, milk withdrawal, and labor), treatment costs for follow-up CM cases, costs for milk production losses, and costs for culling. Average total costs for CM using the 5 treatments were (US) $224, $247, $253, $260, and $275, respectively. Average probabilities of bacteriological cure for the 5 treatments were 0.53, 0.65, 0.65, 0.68, and 0.75, respectively. For all different simulated CM cases, the standard 3-d intramammary antimicrobial treatment had the lowest total costs. The benefits of lower costs for milk production losses and culling for cases treated with the intensive treatments did not outweigh the higher treatment costs. The stochastic model was developed using information from the literature and assumptions made by the authors. Using these information sources resulted in a difference in effectiveness of different antimicrobial treatments for CM. Based on our assumptions, cow-specific treatment of CM was not economically beneficial
Economic aspects of mastitis: New developments
Hogeveen, H. ; Huijps, K. ; Lam, T.J.G.M. - \ 2011
New Zealand Veterinary Journal 59 (2011)1. - ISSN 0048-0169 - p. 16 - 23.
somatic-cell count - pasteurized fluid milk - subclinical mastitis - partial budget - dairy-cattle - clinical mastitis - simulation-model - bovine mastitis - shelf-life - costs
Good udder health is not only important for the dairy farmer but, because of increasing interest of consumers in the way dairy products are produced, also for the dairy production chain as a whole. An important role of veterinarians is in advising on production diseases such as mastitis. A large part of this advice is given around the planning of management to maintain or improve the udder health status of a farm. Mastitis is a costly disease, due to losses (a reduction of output due to mastitis) and expenditure (additional inputs to reduce the level of mastitis). Worldwide, published estimates of the economic losses of clinical mastitis range from €61 to €97 per cow on a farm, with large differences between farms, e.g. in The Netherlands, losses due to clinical and subclinical mastitis varied between €17 and €198 per cow per year. Moreover, farmers tended to underestimate these costs. This indicates that for a large proportion of farms there are many avoidable losses. In order to provide good support to farmers' decision-making, it is important to describe the mastitis setting not only in terms of disease, e.g. incidence of clinical mastitis, but also in monetary terms; and to make good decisions, it is necessary to provide the dairy farmer with information on the additional expenditure and reduced losses associated with alternative decisions. Six out of 18 preventive measures were shown to have a positive nett benefit, viz blanket use of dry-cow therapy, keeping cows standing after milking, back-flushing of the milk cluster after milking a cow with clinical mastitis, application of a treatment protocol, washing dirty udders, and the use of milkers' gloves. For those measures that included a large amount of routine labour or investment, the reduced losses did not outweigh the additional expenditure. The advisor cannot expect that measures that are cost-effective are always implemented. Reasons for this are the objectives of the dairy farmer can be other than maximisation of profit, resources to improve the mastitis situation compete with other fields of management, risk involved with the decision, economic behaviour of the dairy farmer, and valuation of the cost factors by the dairy farmer. For all decision-makers this means that, although financial incentives do have an effect on the management of mastitis, it is not always sufficient to show the economic benefits of improved management to induce an improvement of management of mastitis.
Sensor measurements revealed: Predicting the Gram-status of clinical mastitis causal pathogens
Kamphuis, C. ; Mollenhorst, H. ; Hogeveen, H. - \ 2011
Computers and Electronics in Agriculture 77 (2011)1. - ISSN 0168-1699 - p. 86 - 94.
somatic-cell count - bovine mastitis - infrared thermography - subclinical mastitis - dairy-cows - milking - temperature - patterns - efficacy - quarter
Automatic milking systems produce mastitis alert lists that report cows likely to have clinical mastitis (CM). A farmer has to check these listed cows to confirm a CM case and to start an antimicrobial treatment if necessary. In order to make a more informed decision, it would be beneficial to have information about the CM causal pathogen at the same time a cow is listed on the mastitis alert list. Therefore, this study explored whether decision-tree induction was able to predict the Gram-status of CM causal pathogens using in-line sensor measurements from automatic milking systems. Data were collected at nine Dutch dairy farms milking with automatic milking systems and included 140 bacteriological cultured CM cases with sensor measurements of electrical conductivity, colors red, green, and blue and milk yield for analyses. In total, 110 CM cases were classified as Gram-positive CM cases and 30 as Gram-negative. Stratified randomization was used to divide the data in a training set (n = 96) for model development, and a test set (n = 44) for validation. The decision tree used three variables to predict the Gram-status of the CM causal pathogen; two variables were based on electrical conductivity measurements, and one on measurements of the color blue. This decision tree had an accuracy of 90.6% and a kappa value of 0.76 based on data in the training set. When only those CM cases were considered with extreme high probability estimates for their Gram-status (either positive or negative), 74% of all records in the training set could be classified with a stratified accuracy of 97.1%. When validated, the decision tree performed poorly; accuracy dropped to 54.5% and the kappa value to -0.20. The stratified accuracy calculated for 75% of all records in the test set was 66.7%. Predicting the CM causal pathogen showed a similar poor result; the decision tree had an accuracy of 27.9% and a kappa of 0.12, based on data in the test set. Based on these results, it is concluded that decision-tree induction in conjunction with sensor information from the electrical conductivity, color, and milk yield provide insufficient discriminative power to predict the Gram-status or the CM causal pathogen itself. (C) 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved
Udder health and communication : proceedings of the international conference 25-27 October 2011, Utrecht, the Netherlands
Hogeveen, H. ; Lam, T.J.G.M. - \ 2011
Wageningen : Wageningen Academic Publishers - ISBN 9789086861859
melkvee - boeren - uiers - diergezondheid - rundermastitis - ziektebestrijding - dierziektepreventie - motivatie - communicatie - houding van boeren - kennis van boeren - dierenartsen - agrarische economie - diagnostiek - therapie - dairy cattle - farmers - udders - animal health - bovine mastitis - disease control - animal disease prevention - motivation - communication - farmers' attitudes - farmers' knowledge - veterinarians - agricultural economics - diagnostics - therapy
In dairy industries throughout the world there is a desire to optimize udder health. An improved udder health will lead to improved animal welfare, improved production efficiency and a reduction of the use of antibiotics. To improve udder health, first of all, technical knowledge on issues such as treatment, milking, infectious pressure and host resistance is important. However, over the years we learned that knowledge alone is not enough: knowledge has to be used. And for knowledge to be used, farmers have to be motivated. This requires knowledge about motivation and communication. In this book, recent knowledge on technical udder health issues is combined with knowledge on motivation and communication. A large number of descriptions of mastitis control programs that are being carried out worldwide is combined with more specific studies. These are aimed at effective advising, motivation and communication strategies, economics, and technical studies on mastitis control and prevention. Therefore, this book provides an applied source of information for all that are willing to improve udder health.
Relationship between somatic cell count status and subsequent clinical mastitis in Dutch dairy cows
Borne, B.H.P. van den; Vernooij, J.C.M. ; Lupindu, A.M. ; Schaik, G. van; Frankena, K. ; Lam, T.J.G.M. ; Nielen, M. - \ 2011
Preventive Veterinary Medicine 102 (2011)4. - ISSN 0167-5877 - p. 265 - 273.
proportional hazards models - french holstein cows - staphylococcus-aureus - intramammary infections - streptococcus-uberis - logistic-regression - attributable risk - bovine mastitis - 1st lactation - milk
High composite somatic cell counts (CSCC) in dairy cows may develop into clinical mastitis (CM), suggesting that prevention or intervention of high CSCC may prevent CM later in lactation. The objective of this study was to quantify the relationship between high CSCC in dairy cows and the first subsequent case of CM in the same lactation. Farmer-diagnosed cases of CM and test day CSCC measurements during 1 year of 13,917 cows in 196 randomly selected Dutch dairy herds were available for analysis. Cows were followed in 1 lactation from the first test day postpartum until CM, drying off, culling or end of study. Cox proportional hazards models with time-varying CSCC levels were used to estimate the effect of high CSCC (=200,000 cells/ml) on the time until the first case of CM. A shared frailty effect was included to adjust for clustering of cows within herds. The proportion of cows developing CM after a CSCC measurement was 11%. Primiparae with a high CSCC had a 4-fold higher hazard for subsequent CM than primiparae with a low CSCC; multiparae with a high CSCC had a 2-fold higher hazard than multiparae with a low CSCC. Additionally, multiparae with a low CSCC had a 2-fold higher hazard for CM occurrence than primiparae with a low CSCC. Increasing the threshold for high CSCC showed that the risk for CM increased. If the last CSCC before CM was low, CSCC information of 2 preceding test days was more predictive than CSCC information from only the last test day. When the last CSCC was high, CSCC information of 2 preceding test days did not have added predictive value. This study identified that approximately 25% of first subsequent CM cases after a CSCC measurement can potentially be prevented when cows are prevented to get high CSCC or when high CSCC cows are removed from the population. This corresponded with a decrease in the proportion of lactating cows with CM after a CSCC measurement from 11% to 7%.
The effect of subclinical mastitis on milk yield in dairy goats
Koop, G. ; Werven, T. van; Schuiling, H.J. ; Nielen, M. van - \ 2010
Journal of Dairy Science 93 (2010)12. - ISSN 0022-0302 - p. 5809 - 5817.
somatic-cell counts - intramammary infection - risk-factors - staphylococcus-caprae - clinical mastitis - bovine mastitis - mammary-gland - lactation - parity - cows
The aims of this study were to estimate milk yield (MY) losses associated with subclinical intramammary infection (IMI) in dairy goats and to assess if somatic cell count (SCC) can be used to estimate such MY losses. We used 2 data sets to study these questions. The first data set consisted of 5 herds. Milk production and SCC were recorded during 1 lactation. From approximately 100 does in each herd, milk samples were collected on 3 occasions during lactation for bacteriological culture. Linear mixed regression was used to estimate the effect of IMI on MY. The second data set consisted of 6 large herds, in which some of the goats had an extended lactation (>= 2 yr). Milk yield and SCC data were recorded without bacteriological culture. The data showed that bacterial infection was related to an increase in SCC. Infections with major pathogens were rare and associated with a decreased MY; infection with coagulase-negative staphylococci did not affect MY, whereas infection with Corynebacterium bovis was associated with increased MY. A negative correlation was observed between SCC and MY, but the data suggested that this negative correlation was attenuated rather than caused by IMI. Furthermore, SCC seemed to be affected by MY via a dilution effect. Hypotheses about biological mechanisms behind these observations are discussed. This paper shows that MY losses caused by subclinical udder infections are limited in goats, and that SCC cannot be used to estimate the magnitude of these losses.
Parameters for natural resistance in bovine milk
Ploegaert, T.C.W. - \ 2010
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Huub Savelkoul; Johan van Arendonk, co-promotor(en): Edwin Tijhaar. - [S.l. : S.n. - ISBN 9789085858270 - 143
melkkoeien - zwartbont - melk - rundermastitis - weerstand - immuunsysteem - immuniteit - natuurlijke antilichamen - genetische variatie - immunologie - diergezondheid - dairy cows - holstein-friesian - milk - bovine mastitis - resistance - immune system - immunity - natural antibodies - genetic variation - immunology - animal health
Parameters for natural resistance in bovine milk
Mastitis or udder inflammation is one of the most important health problems of dairy cattle. Resistance against mastitis and many other diseases is partly based on the naturally present disease resistance capacity: innate immunity. This research therefore aimed to identify adequate immune parameters and determine their relation with the susceptibility of the individual animal for mastitis and possibly also other health problems. Natural antibodies (NAb) were found suitable to further study their relation with natural resistance of dairy cows. Heritability of NAb in milk samples of heifers (cows that had a calf for the first time) was low to moderate, which gives potential for genetic selection. It should, however, be investigated if selection for improved NAb levels has unintentionally also negative relations with other selection traits. Furthermore, NAb could also be influenced by management factors, but this would be a subject for future study. Besides, results suggested that higher levels of certain NAb in milk can decrease the risk for high Somatic Cell Count (in heifers), clinical mastitis and genital organ and fertility problems. However, heifers appear to differ from older cows in the relation of their NAb levels with risk for CM and high SCC, and the (udder) health history also affects this relation.
Sensors and Clinical Mastitis-The Quest for the Perfect Alert
Hogeveen, H. ; Kamphuis, Claudia ; Steeneveld, W. ; Mollenhorst, H. - \ 2010
Sensors 10 (2010)9. - ISSN 1424-8220 - p. 7991 - 8009.
automatic milking systems - dynamic light-scattering - somatic-cell count - dairy-cows - electrical-conductivity - bovine mastitis - neural-networks - detection model - abnormal milk - fuzzy-logic
When cows on dairy farms are milked with an automatic milking system or in high capacity milking parlors, clinical mastitis (CM) cannot be adequately detected without sensors. The objective of this paper is to describe the performance demands of sensor systems to detect CM and evaluats the current performance of these sensor systems. Several detection models based on different sensors were studied in the past. When evaluating these models, three factors are important: performance (in terms of sensitivity and specificity), the time window and the similarity of the study data with real farm data. A CM detection system should offer at least a sensitivity of 80% and a specificity of 99%. The time window should not be longer than 48 hours and study circumstances should be as similar to practical farm circumstances as possible. The study design should comprise more than one farm for data collection. Since 1992, 16 peer-reviewed papers have been published with a description and evaluation of CM detection models. There is a large variation in the use of sensors and algorithms. All this makes these results not very comparable. There is a also large difference in performance between the detection models and also a large variation in time windows used and little similarity between study data. Therefore, it is difficult to compare the overall performance of the different CM detection models. The sensitivity and specificity found in the different studies could, for a large part, be explained in differences in the used time window. None of the described studies satisfied the demands for CM detection models
Mastitis and farmer mindset : towards effective communication strategies to improve udder health management on Dutch dairy farms
Jansen, J. - \ 2010
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Cees Leeuwis, co-promotor(en): Reint-Jan Renes; T.J.G.M. Lam. - [S.l.] : S.n. - ISBN 9789085856955 - 168
diergezondheid - dierziekten - rundveeziekten - rundermastitis - uiers - preventie - bedrijfsvoering - verbetering - voorlichting - communicatie - efficiëntie - melkveehouderij - melkveebedrijven - boeren - nederland - dierziektepreventie - animal health - animal diseases - cattle diseases - bovine mastitis - udders - prevention - management - improvement - extension - communication - efficiency - dairy farming - dairy farms - farmers - netherlands - animal disease prevention

Mastitis (udder inflammation) is considered one of the main health issues in the dairy industry. It is a costly disease that also has an impact on animal welfare, on milk quality, and on farmers’ pleasure in their work. Furthermore, the use of antimicrobial treatments as a result of mastitis – the biggest contributor to antibiotic use in the dairy industry – is undesirable due to the risk of both antibiotic contamination of milk and the development of bacterial resistance. Consequently, mastitis prevention is relevant for animal welfare, for society, the dairy industry, and farmers.
Why some farmers, even though it would improve their results, do not implement effective mastitis management practices is not always known. It is assumed that ‘farmer mindset’, including farmers’ attitudes, beliefs, values, knowledge, perceived norms, and perceived self efficacy, influences farmers’ behavior and therefore their herds’ udder health status.
Worldwide, several projects have started to influence farmers’ behavior to improve udder health. In 2005, the Dutch Udder Health Centre (UGCN) was established to execute a national program to improve udder health in five years, aiming at better implementation of the current knowledge on mastitis prevention by deploying various communication strategies to reach farmers and to change their mindset. This thesis aims to understand Dutch dairy farmers’ behavior and mindset regarding udder health management and to study the efficacy of various communication strategies.
In the studies presented in this thesis, a variety of qualitative and quantitative methods were used, combining social and veterinary sciences to gather data on farmer mindset towards mastitis and data on the efficacy of various communication strategies. In this interdisciplinary and practice-based approach, studies were initiated on the basis of observations and experiences during the execution of the udder health program or on the basis of emerging questions that followed from the previous studies. Results and recommendations derived from the studies were reported to UGCN and as much as possible implemented to further improve the program; this led to a strong interaction between science and practice.
The results of this thesis show that farmer mindset is a decisive factor in mastitis prevention. In particular, the perceived level of mastitis problems (i.e. “Do I have a problem?”) as well as the perceived efficacy of preventive measures (i.e. “Can I solve the problem easily?”) are important determinants that need to be addressed in communication strategies. Veterinarians can be important intermediaries in communication about udder health improvement, provided that they are aware of their role as proactive advisor and apply the relevant communication skills.
To be effective, a disease program should do more than distribute technical information about best management practices to dairy farmers. Prevention of complex diseases, such as mastitis, requires customized communication strategies as well as an integrated approach between various stakeholders and different scientific disciplines. Such programs need to be supported by a combination of several policy measures to change farm management in the long term, because for example milk price, milk quota, and financial incentives on milk quality norms, such as bonuses and penalties, have a strong influence on farmer mindset. It should therefore be taken into account that farmers are part of, and are influenced by, a wide societal and institutional context.
This thesis provides insight into Dutch dairy farmers’ behavior and mindset towards udder health management, and into the way these can be affected by communication strategies. The findings of this thesis can contribute to the optimization of future programs designed to control and prevent livestock diseases.

Mastitis diagnostics and performance monitoring: a practical approach
Lam, T.J.G.M. ; Olde Riekerink, R. ; Sampimon, O.C. ; Smith, H.E. - \ 2009
Irish Veterinary Journal 62 (2009)Supl.4. - ISSN 0368-0762 - p. 34 - 39.
somatic-cell count - polymerase-chain-reaction - bovine mastitis - milk samples - intramammary infections - staphylococcus-aureus - dairy-cattle - streptococcus-agalactiae - electrical-conductivity - clinical mastitis
In this paper a review is given of frequently used mastitis diagnostic methods in modern dairy practice. Methods used at the quarter, cow, herd and regional or national level are discussed, including their usability for performance monitoring in udder health. Future developments, such as systems in which milk-derived parameters are combined with modern analytical techniques, are discussed. It is concluded that, although much knowledge is available and science is still developing and much knowledge is available, it is not always fully exploited in practice.
Providing probability distributions for the causal pathogen of clinical mastitis using naive Bayesian networks
Steeneveld, W. ; Gaag, L.C. van der; Barkema, H.W. ; Hogeveen, H. - \ 2009
Journal of Dairy Science 92 (2009)6. - ISSN 0022-0302 - p. 2598 - 2609.
staphylococcus-aureus mastitis - somatic-cell counts - bovine mastitis - discriminant-analysis - streptococcus-uberis - coliform mastitis - dairy-cows - classification - classifiers - diagnosis
Clinical mastitis (CM) can be caused by a wide variety of pathogens and farmers must start treatment before the actual causal pathogen is known. By providing a probability distribution for the causal pathogen, naive Bayesian networks (NBN) can serve as a management tool for farmers to decide which treatment to use. The advantage of providing a probability distribution for the causal pathogen, rather than only providing the most likely causal pathogen, is that the uncertainty involved is visible and a more informed treatment decision can be made. The objective of this study was to illustrate provision of probability distributions for the gram status and for the causal pathogen for CM cases. For constructing the NBN, data were used from 274 Dutch dairy herds in which the occurrence of CM was recorded over an 18-mo period. The data set contained information on 3,833 CM cases. Two-thirds of the data set was used for the construction process and one-third was retained for validation. One NBN was constructed with the CM cases classified according to their gram status, and another was built with the CM cases classified into streptococci, Staphylococcus aureus, or Escherichia coli. Information usually available at a dairy farm was included in both NBN (parity, month in lactation, season of the year, quarter position, SCC and CM history, being sick or not, and color and texture of the milk). Accuracy was calculated to obtain insight in the quality of the constructed NBN. The accuracy of classifying CM cases into gram-positive or gram-negative pathogens was 73%, while the accuracy of classifying CM cases into streptococci, Staph. aureus, or E. coli was 52%. Because only CM cases with a high probability for a single causal pathogen will be considered for pathogen-specific treatment, accuracies based on only classifying CM cases above a particular probability threshold were determined. For instance, for CM cases in which either gram-negative or gram-positive had a probability >0.90, classification according to the gram status reached an accuracy of 97%. We found that the greater the probability for a particular pathogen was for a CM case, the more accurate was the classification of this case as being caused by this pathogen. The probability distributions provided by the NBN and the associated accuracies for varying classification thresholds provide the farmer with considerable insight about the most likely causal pathogen for a CM case and the uncertainty involved.
Bio-economic modeling of bovine intramammary infections
Halasa, T. - \ 2009
Utrecht University. Promotor(en): J.A. Stegeman, co-promotor(en): Henk Hogeveen; M. Nielen; T. van Werven. - [S.l.] : S.n. - ISBN 9789039350508 - 167
melkvee - rundermastitis - melkproductie - stochastische modellen - ziektestatistieken - epidemiologie - gustperiode - modelleren - dairy cattle - bovine mastitis - milk production - stochastic models - disease statistics - epidemiology - dry period - modeling
Quality control of raw cows' milk by headspace analysis : a new approach to mastitis diagnosis
Hettinga, K.A. - \ 2009
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Toon van Hooijdonk, co-promotor(en): T.J.G.M. Lam. - [S.l.] : S.n. - ISBN 9789085853008 - 127
rauwe melk - kwaliteitscontroles - rundermastitis - vluchtige verbindingen - analytische methoden - raw milk - quality controls - bovine mastitis - volatile compounds - analytical methods
In de levensmiddelenindustrie wordt veelvuldig de kwaliteit van levensmiddelen getest met behulp van apparaten die aan het voedsel ruiken. Dit is ook op melk toegepast. Hierbij bleek dat melk van goede kwaliteit slechts zeven verschillende geurstoffen bevat (ter vergelijking, in kaas worden meer dan honderd verschillende geurstoffen aangetroffen). Na analyse van de geurpatronen in melk met verschillende gebreken bleek dat in melk onder andere residuen van reinigingsmiddelen en de mate van vetafbraak gedetecteerd konden worden. Vervolgens is onderzoek gedaan naar melk van koeien met uierontsteking (mastitis), één van de belangrijkste ziekten bij melkkoeien. In een eerste experiment bleek dat de geurstoffen in mastitis melkmonsters een bijzonder patroon vertoonden, waarbij een statistisch model op basis van het patroon aan geurstoffen kon voorspellen welke bacterie de veroorzaker van de uierontsteking was. Vervolgens is bepaald dat de geurstoffen gevormd werden door de bacterie zelf. Uit het laatste experiment bleek dat 4 tot 8 uur incubatietijd nodig was voorafgaand aan de identificatie van geurstoffen.
Udder health: analysis of bloodcell dynamics in the PIR-DAP 'traffic light'
Hooijer, G.A. ; Haas, Y. de; Horneman, M. - \ 2008
Tijdschrift voor Diergeneeskunde 133 (2008)8. - ISSN 0040-7453 - p. 340 - 341.
rundermastitis - celgetal - uiers - veterinaire praktijk voor grootvee - testen - bovine mastitis - somatic cell count - udders - large animal practice - testing
PIR-Dap heeft in 2005 een hulpmiddel ontwikkeld die de verschuiving in het celgetal inzichtelijk maakt: het stoplicht. Binnen dit instrument wordt de veestapel percentagegewijs in drie groepen ingedeeld, namelijk het percentage dieren met een celgetal lager dan 100.000 (groen), het percentage met een celgetal tussen 100.00 en 200.000 (oranje) en het percentage met een celgetal hoger dan 200.000 (rood). Er wordt bij deze indeling geen onderscheid gemaakt tussen vaarzen en koeien. Dieren in deze drie categorieën worden als het gaat om uiergezondheid gezien als respectievelijk gezond, verdacht van besmetting en besmet
Detection of mastitis pathogens by analysis of volatile bacterial metabolites
Hettinga, K.A. ; Valenberg, H.J.F. van; Lam, T.J.G.M. ; Hooijdonk, A.C.M. van - \ 2008
Journal of Dairy Science 91 (2008). - ISSN 0022-0302 - p. 3834 - 3839.
electronic nose - staphylococcus-aureus - bovine mastitis - milk - culture - system - network - pattern - phase
The ability to detect mastitis pathogens based on their volatile metabolites was studied. Milk samples from cows with clinical mastitis, caused by Staphylococcus aureus, coagulase-negative staphylococci, Streptococcus uberis, Streptococcus dysgalactiae, and Escherichia coli were collected. In addition, samples from cows without clinical mastitis and with low somatic cell count (SCC) were collected for comparison. All mastitis samples were examined by using classical microbiological methods, followed by headspace analysis for volatile metabolites. Milk from culture-negative samples contained a lower number and amount of volatile components compared with cows with clinical mastitis. Because of variability between samples within a group, comparisons between pathogens were not sufficient for classification of the samples by univariate statistics. Therefore, an artificial neural network was trained to classify the pathogen in the milk samples based on the bacterial metabolites. The trained network differentiated milk from uninfected and infected quarters very well. When comparing pathogens, Staph. aureus produced a very different pattern of volatile metabolites compared with the other samples. Samples with coagulase-negative staphylococci and E. coli had enough dissimilarity with the other pathogens, making it possible to separate these 2 pathogens from each other and from the other samples. The 2 streptococcus species did not show significant differences between each other but could be identified as a different group from the other pathogens. Five groups can thus be identified based on the volatile bacterial metabolites: Staph. aureus, coagulase-negative staphylococci, streptococci (Strep. uberis and Strep. dysgalactiae as one group), E. coli, and uninfected quarters
Afneemapparatuur: meten is weten = Cluster removal equipment (ACRs): to measure is to know
Neijenhuis, F. ; Hogewerf, P.H. ; Schuiling, H.J. ; Houwers, H.W.J. ; Ipema, A.H. - \ 2008
Lelystad : Animal Sciences Group (Rapport / Animal Sciences Group 101) - 42
melkveehouderij - melk- en zuivelapparatuur - melkmachines - melkmeters - machinaal melken - rundermastitis - melkstandinrichtingen - dairy farming - dairy equipment - milking machines - milk meters - machine milking - bovine mastitis - milking parlours
A method and device have been developed for characterizing the automatic cluster removal performance. This check could be included in the check procedures after installation, during maintenance and in troubleshooting
Antibiotica in de veehouderij
Dixhoorn, Ingrid van - \ 2007
dairy farming - antibiotics - animal health - veterinary science - antibiotic resistance - bovine mastitis
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