Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Nederlandse handelsbalans brood en broodproducten
Meer, R.W. van der; Jukema, G.D. - \ 2016
LEI Wageningen UR (Factsheet / LEI Wageningen UR 2016-012h) - 1 p.
handelsbalans - export - nederland - brood - balance of trade - exports - netherlands - bread
Nederland heeft een positieve handelsbalans van ongeveer € 500 mln. voor brood en broodproducten in 2014. De export van deze producten vindt voornamelijk plaats binnen Europa. Duitsland is de grootste afnemer. Duitsland importeerde in 2014 voor ruim € 250 mln. aan brood en broodproducten uit Nederland. Dit is net iets minder dan uit Polen. Andersom gaat er ook veel aan brood en broodproducten vanuit Duitsland naar Nederland in 2014. Een voorzichtige groei van de export ligt in het verschiet voor 2015.
Nutritional impact of sodium reduction strategies on sodium intake from processed foods
Hendriksen, M.A.H. ; Verkaik-Kloosterman, J. ; Noort, M.W.J. ; Raaij, J.M.A. van - \ 2015
European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 69 (2015). - ISSN 0954-3007 - p. 805 - 810.
salt reduction - choice questionnaire - consumption - bread
Background/objectives: Sodium intake in the Netherlands is substantially above the recommended intake of 2400¿mg/day. This study aimed to estimate the effect of two sodium reduction strategies, that is, modification of the composition of industrially processed foods toward the technologically feasible minimum level or alteration of consumers’ behavior on sodium intake in the Netherlands. Subjects/methods: Data from the Dutch National Food Consumption Survey (2007–2010) and the Food Composition Table (2011) were used to estimate the current sodium intake. In the first scenario, levels in processed foods were reduced toward their technologically feasible minimum level (sodium reduction in processed foods scenario). The minimum feasible levels were based on literature searches or expert judgment. In the second scenario, foods consumed were divided into similar food (sub)groups. Subsequently, foods were replaced by low-sodium alternatives (substitution of processed foods scenario). Sodium intake from foods was calculated based on the mean of two observation days for the current food consumption pattern and the scenarios. Results: Sodium levels of processed foods could be reduced in most food groups by 50%, and this may reduce median sodium intake from foods by 38% (from 3042 to 1886¿mg/day in adult men). Substitution of foods may reduce sodium intake by 47% (from 3042 to 1627¿mg/day in adult men), owing to many low-sodium alternatives within food groups. Conclusions: In the Netherlands, reduction of sodium intake by modification of food composition or by alteration of behavior may substantially reduce the median sodium intake from foods below the recommended sodium intake.
Tafel van Louise Fresco : tentoonstelling Foodtopia, Boerhaave Museum
Fresco, L.O. - \ 2015
Wageningen : Wageningen UR
voedingsmiddelen - algen - aardappelen - appels - etiketteren van voedingsmiddelen - insecten als voedsel - overgewicht - robots - brood - dierenwelzijn - vis - voedselproductie - foods - algae - potatoes - apples - nutrition labeling - insects as food - overweight - bread - animal welfare - fish - food production
Hoe ziet ons eten er in de toekomst uit? En waar halen we het vandaan? Louise O. Fresco, voorzitter van de Raad van Bestuur van Wageningen UR, is gastconservator van de tentoonstelling FOODTOPIA in museum Boerhaave. Deze filmpjes zijn onderdeel van de tentoonstelling en geeft een kijkje in de toekomst van ons voedsel. Onderwerpen zijn: algen, aardappel, de appel, etiketten, insecten, overgewicht, respect, robots, brood, dierenwelzijn en vis.
Taste enhancement in food gels: Effect of fracture properties on oral breakdown, bolus formation and sweetness intensity
Mosca, A.C. ; Velde, F. van de; Bult, J.H.F. ; Boekel, M.A.J.S. van; Stieger, M.A. - \ 2015
Food Hydrocolloids 43 (2015). - ISSN 0268-005X - p. 794 - 802.
spatial-distribution - saltiness enhancement - sensory integration - perception - texture - release - bread - flavor - model - salt
This study investigates the effects of fracture strain and fracture stress on oral breakdown, bolus formation and sweetness intensity of semi-solid food gels containing sucrose heterogeneously distributed in layers. The sweetness intensity of gels was mainly affected by the total surface area of gel fragments formed upon chewing. Gels with low values of fracture strain and fracture stress broke down into a large number of small fragments. These gels were perceived sweeter than gels with high values of fracture strain and fracture stress. Fracture strain had a larger impact on oral breakdown behavior and sweetness intensity than fracture stress. Results indicate that the oral breakdown behavior (i.e. formation of a large number of small fragments, which leads to an increase in the total surface area) is the driving factor for taste perception in semi-solid gels that have a heterogeneous distribution of sucrose. We suggest that the differences in sweetness intensity in gels containing sucrose heterogeneously distributed in layers and differing in fracture properties result from differences in the frequency of stimulation of taste receptors. An increase in the total surface area of fragments containing sucrose facilitates the release of tastants and increases the frequency of stimulation of taste receptors. Consequently, the taste intensity of gels is enhanced.
The iodized salt programme in Bangalore, India provides adequate iodine intakes in pregnant women and more-than-adequate iodine intakes in their children
Jaiswal, N. ; Boonstra, A. ; Sharma, S.K. ; Srinivasan, K. ; Zimmerman, M.B. - \ 2015
Public Health Nutrition 18 (2015)3. - ISSN 1368-9800 - p. 403 - 413.
school-aged children - urinary iodine - dietary iodine - deficiency - iodization - fortification - excretion - bread - nutrition - rajasthan
Objective To compare the iodine status of pregnant women and their children who were sharing all meals in Bangalore, India. Design A cross-sectional study evaluating demographic characteristics, household salt iodine concentration and salt usage patterns, urinary iodine concentrations (UIC) in women and children, and maternal thyroid volume (ultrasound). Setting Antenatal clinic of an urban tertiary-care hospital, which serves a low-income population. Subjects Healthy pregnant women in all trimesters, aged 18–35 years, who had healthy children aged 3–15 years. Results Median (range) iodine concentrations of household powdered and crystal salt were 55·9 (17·2–65·9) ppm and 18·9 (2·2–68·2) ppm, respectively. The contribution of iodine-containing supplements and multi-micronutrient powders to iodine intake in the families was negligible. Adequately iodized salt, together with small amounts of iodine in local foods, were providing adequate iodine during pregnancy: (i) the overall median (range) UIC in women was 172 (5–1024) µg/l; (ii) the median UIC was >150 µg/l in all trimesters; and (iii) thyroid size was not significantly different across trimesters. At the same time, the median (range) UIC in children was 220 (10–782) µg/l, indicating more-than-adequate iodine intake at this age. Median UIC was significantly higher in children than in their mothers (P=0·008). Conclusions In this selected urban population of southern India, the iodized salt programme provides adequate iodine to women throughout pregnancy, at the expense of higher iodine intake in their children. Thus we suggest that the current cut-off for median UIC in children indicating more-than-adequate intake, recommended by the WHO/UNICEF/International Council for the Control of Iodine Deficiency Disorders may, need to be reconsidered.
Shear-induced starch-gluten separation at very low water content aided by xylanases
Hardt, N.A. ; Chauhan, H. ; Boom, R.M. ; Goot, A.J. van der - \ 2014
Journal of Food Engineering 141 (2014). - ISSN 0260-8774 - p. 51 - 57.
wheat-flour - substrate selectivity - dough properties - migration - endoxylanases - behavior - quality - protein - bread
This study examines the influence of extremely low water content on shear-induced starch–gluten separation and how endoxylanases influence the separation by releasing water associated with arabinoxylan. Shearing was performed at a water content ranging from 34% to 43.5% (w/w). It was possible to concentrate gluten to 60% protein content in local gluten clusters and most of the concentration occurred within 5 min. Contrary to higher water concentrations, a water content
Ouderen eten beter dankzij eiwitrijke yoghurt
Boelsma, Esther - \ 2014
elderly - elderly nutrition - protein foods - appetite - yoghurt - bread - nutrition and health
Consumption Habits and Innovation Potential of Mung Bean Foods in Hisar District of Haryana State, India
Dahiya, P.K. ; Linnemann, A.R. ; Nout, M.J.R. ; Boekel, M.A.J.S. van; Khetarpaul, N.K. ; Grewal, R.B. - \ 2014
Ecology of Food and Nutrition 53 (2014)2. - ISSN 0367-0244 - p. 171 - 192.
product development - iron-absorption - phytic acid - perception - humans - bread
Consumption habits for mung bean foods were assessed by the free word association method and interview techniques. Four groups of closely related products and perceived quality were revealed. The largest group comprised sweets and snacks, which were associated with unhealthiness, expensiveness and sensory liking. Another group consisted of split dhals associated with convenience and healthiness. It appeared that under different circumstances food choices vary and are influenced more by socioeconomic restrictions then by consumer perception and preferences. Scenario analysis based on consumer perception, preferences, practices and nutritional value of products revealed dhals as the most promising food for innovation.
Effect of successive stimuli on sweetness intensity of gels and custards
Mosca, A.C. ; Bult, J.H.F. ; Velde, F. van de; Boekel, M.A.J.S. van; Stieger, M.A. - \ 2014
Food Quality and Preference 31 (2014). - ISSN 0950-3293 - p. 10 - 18.
pulsatile stimulation - spatial-distribution - saltiness enhancement - taste enhancement - perception - contrast - bread - salt
Variations of tastant concentration during the consumption of food products were shown to enhance taste intensity. The aim of this study was to investigate the relation between the frequency at which tastant concentration is varied during the consumption of products and the occurrence of taste enhancement. For this purpose, the sweetness intensity of sequences of 4 successive sweet stimuli represented by cubes of a semi-solid gel or spoons of a model custard dessert was assessed. The intensity and the order of the stimuli within the sequences were varied to obtain 4 types of sucrose concentration profile (decreasing, increasing, middle peak and boundary peak) at 2 magnitudes of concentration differences (small and large). Sequences of 4 stimuli containing a constant sucrose concentration were used as a reference. The sweetness intensity of the sequences of successive stimuli was assessed using line scale and time-intensity ratings. Line scale ratings showed that the type of sequence had an effect on sweetness intensity. A sweetness enhancement relative to the reference was observed in sequences that ended with high-intensity stimuli, whereas sweetness suppression was observed in sequences that ended with low-intensity stimuli. The observed sweetness enhancement and suppression were attributed to serial position effects (i.e. recency effects). Time-intensity ratings indicated that each stimulus in the sequences was evaluated individually by the assessors. Sequential effects seem to have occurred during the continuous evaluation of successive stimuli, since preceding stimuli in the sequences affected the evaluation of posterior stimuli. Furthermore, the overall sweetness intensity of the different sequences was not enhanced in relation to the reference. The lack of taste enhancement in sequences exhibiting variations of sucrose concentration was attributed mainly to the long period at which sucrose concentration was varied during the evaluation of the sequences. It was confirmed that the frequency of variation of tastant concentration affects the occurrence of taste enhancement.
Development of a standard test for dough-making properties of oat cultivars
Londono Cardona, D.M. ; Smulders, M.J.M. ; Visser, R.G.F. ; Gilissen, L.J.W.J. ; Hamer, R.J. - \ 2014
Journal of Cereal Science 59 (2014)1. - ISSN 0733-5210 - p. 56 - 61.
hydrostatic-pressure - celiac-disease - gluten - bread - quality - wheat - ultrastructure - batters
Bread is consumed all over the world. However, so far, production of large volume bread is only possible with wheat. Alternatives, such as oats, are less suitable but this is partly due to the lack of knowledge about their functionality for other purposes than porridge, which is their most common use. Existing standard tests for the dough making characteristics of wheat flour are not suitable for oat flour, hampering research to optimize oats for bread-making purposes. We therefore set out to develop a test to evaluate oat in relation to mixing and dough making properties using wheat as a model. It was possible to reproduce the profile of various qualities of wheat flour using mixtures of oat flour and gluten in different proportions. Our standard test was based on a dough system composed of 87.2% oat flour and 12.8% gluten and it presented similar properties to a wheat flour with regard to resistance to extension. This dough system was sensitive and reliable (coefficient of variation lower than 10%) for detecting differences among oat cultivars, and it can be used to screen oat varieties and individual oat components in relation to relevant properties for bread-making purposes.
Effect of spatial distribution of tastants on taste intensity, fluctuation of taste intensity and consumer preference of (semi-)solid food products
Mosca, A.C. ; Bult, J.H.F. ; Stieger, M.A. - \ 2013
Food Quality and Preference 28 (2013)1. - ISSN 0950-3293 - p. 182 - 187.
pulsatile stimulation - saltiness enhancement - ice-cream - salt - sugar - pleasantness - perception - contrast - bread - fat
Two sensory studies were carried out to compare the taste intensity, the perceived fluctuation of taste intensity and the consumer preference of food products with homogeneous and inhomogeneous distributions of tastants using 2-alternative forced choice tests. The first study evaluated pairs of gels, breads and sausages (1 homogeneous product and 1 inhomogeneous product). The second study evaluated 4 types of gel and 4 types of sausage (1 homogeneous product and 3 inhomogeneous products varying in the magnitude of tastant concentration differences). In the first study, all products with an inhomogeneous distribution of tastants were perceived sweeter or saltier than the respective homogeneous products. Tastant concentration differences were perceived as fluctuations of taste intensity in inhomogeneous gels and breads, but not in inhomogeneous sausages. Inhomogeneous gels and sausages were more preferred than the homogeneous products, whereas inhomogeneous and homogeneous breads were equally preferred. In the second study, inhomogeneous gels with large tastant concentration differences were perceived sweeter than the homogeneous gel. The taste intensity of homogeneous and inhomogeneous sausages did not differ. Tastant concentration differences induced perceivable taste intensity fluctuations in inhomogeneous gels, but not in inhomogeneous sausages. The inhomogeneous gel with the largest tastant concentration difference was more preferred than the homogeneous gel. Homogeneous and inhomogeneous sausages were equally preferred. Results suggest that the enhancement of taste that is caused by tastant concentration differences does not require the conscious perception of taste intensity fluctuations. We conclude that products in which tastants are heterogeneously distributed are equally or more preferred than products in which tastants are homogeneously distributed. Therefore, the modulation of the spatial distribution of tastants might be used as a strategy to reduce sugar and salt in food products without compromising consumer preference.
Extending crispness : a systematic approach to controlling water migration in bread
Hirte, A. - \ 2012
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Rob Hamer, co-promotor(en): C. Primo-Martin. - S.l. : s.n. - ISBN 9789461733139 - 142
brood - water - migratie - sensorische evaluatie - organoleptische kenmerken - bread - migration - sensory evaluation - organoleptic traits

Crispness is one of the most important sensory characteristics of crispy bread, because consumers associate crispness with freshness, wholesomeness, and quality. This sensory sensation, however, is lost within a few hours after baking, because of a fast water uptake of the crust. Therefore, the aim of this thesis was to systematically determine the mechanisms that lead to the fast loss of crispness and to reveal the parameters that are key for crispness retention. We showed that the crust acts as a barrier for water migration, causing water accumulation in the crust. Reducing this barrier property by increasing the water vapor permeability of the crust to an optimal value of 8 × 10–9 g/(m s Pa) resulted in breads with crispness retention that was more than eight times longer. These breads had either channels or cracks in their crust. Despite the changes of the crust properties, these breads had similar crumb softness retention compared to standard breads. The properties of the crumb also affected the water uptake of the crust, but less so than the properties of the crust. Bread containing a crumb with a lower water vapor permeability had a significantly longer crispness retention. Based on these findings, we propose a model that provides a comprehensive view of crispness loss and concluded that the increase in crust permeability is the best way to create breads with a noticeably longer crispness retention.

Development of a multiplex DNA-based traceability tool for crop plant materials
Voorhuijzen, M.M. ; Dijk, J.P. van; Prins, T.W. ; Hoef, A.M.A. van; Seyfarth, R. ; Kok, E.J. - \ 2012
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry 402 (2012)2. - ISSN 1618-2642 - p. 693 - 701.
rice oryza-sativa - basmati rice - wheat - fragrance - gene - pcr - adulteration - bread
The authenticity of food is of increasing importance for producers, retailers and consumers. All groups benefit from the correct labelling of the contents of food products. Producers and retailers want to guarantee the origin of their products and check for adulteration with cheaper or inferior ingredients. Consumers are also more demanding about the origin of their food for various socioeconomic reasons. In contrast to this increasing demand, correct labelling has become much more complex because of global transportation networks of raw materials and processed food products. Within the European integrated research project ‘Tracing the origin of food’ (TRACE), a DNA-based multiplex detection tool was developed—the padlock probe ligation and microarray detection (PPLMD) tool. In this paper, this method is extended to a 15-plex traceability tool with a focus on products of commercial importance such as the emmer wheat Farro della Garfagnana (FdG) and Basmati rice. The specificity of 14 plant-related padlock probes was determined and initially validated in mixtures comprising seven or nine plant species/varieties. One nucleotide difference in target sequence was sufficient for the distinction between the presence or absence of a specific target. At least 5% FdG or Basmati rice was detected in mixtures with cheaper bread wheat or non-fragrant rice, respectively. The results suggested that even lower levels of (un-)intentional adulteration could be detected. PPLMD has been shown to be a useful tool for the detection of fraudulent/intentional admixtures in premium foods and is ready for the monitoring of correct labelling of premium foods worldwide.
A genomics and multi-platform metabolomics approach to identify new traits of rice quality in traditional and improved varieties
Callingacion, M.N. ; Boualaphanh, C. ; Daygon, V.D. ; Anacleto, R. ; Sackville Hamilton, R. ; Biais, B. ; Deborde, C. ; Maucourt, M. ; Moing, A. ; Mumm, R. ; Vos, C.H. de; Erban, A. ; Kopka, J. ; Hansen, T.H. ; Laursen, K.H. ; Schjoerring, J.K. ; Hall, R.D. ; Fitzgerald, M.A. - \ 2012
Metabolomics 8 (2012)5. - ISSN 1573-3882 - p. 771 - 783.
plant metabolomics - metabolite - components - nutrition - issues - bread - grain - acid - bran
Using a novel approach combining four complementary metabolomic and mineral platforms with genome-wide genotyping at 1536 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) loci, we have investigated the extent of biochemical and genetic diversity in three commercially-relevant waxy rice cultivars important to food production in the Lao People’s Democratic Republic (PDR). Following cultivation with different nitrogen fertiliser regimes, multiple metabolomic data sets, including minerals, were produced and analysed using multivariate statistical methods to reveal the degree of similarity between the genotypes and to identify discriminatory compounds supported by multiple technology platforms. Results revealed little effect of nitrogen supply on metabolites related to quality, despite known yield differences. All platforms revealed unique metabolic signatures for each variety and many discriminatory compounds could be identified as being relevant to consumers in terms of nutritional value and taste or flavour. For each platform, metabolomic diversity was highly associated with genetic distance between the varieties. This study demonstrates that multiple metabolomic platforms have potential as phenotyping tools to assist breeders in their quest to combine key yield and quality characteristics. This better enables rice improvement programs to meet different consumer and farmer needs, and to address food security in rice-consuming countries.
Coeliac-safe wheat. A novelwheat to decrease the prevalence and symptoms of coeliac disease
Broeck, H.C. van den; Smulders, M.J.M. ; Hamer, R.J. ; Gilissen, L.J.W.J. ; Meer, I.M. van der - \ 2011
Agro Food Industry Hi-Tech 22 (2011)3. - ISSN 1722-6996 - p. 18 - 21.
turgidum ssp dicoccum - gluten-free diet - triticum-monococcum - storage proteins - small-intestine - bread - epitopes - association - varieties - toxicity
A significant increase has been observed in the prevalence of coeliac disease (CD) during the last decades. Increased consumption of wheat and in particular gluten is considered one of the major causes. CD is a food-related disease caused by certain gluten peptides from wheat, rye, and barley containing T-cell stimulating epitopes. The use of screening protocols in wheat breeding detecting the absence of CD-epitopes (e.g. Glia-a9 and Glia-a20) can result in the reduction of CD-epitopes in commercial wheat and wheat based products. This approach will lead to decreased exposure, especially in many CD-patients with silent or latent CD that have not yet been diagnosed. In the long-term, this may lead to a large-scale reduction of the incidence of CD and a significant improvement of the quality of life of CD-patients.
Microsatellite Markers in and around Rice Genes: Applications in Variety Identification and DUS Testing
Bonow, S. ; Pinho, E.V.R. Von; Vieira, M.G.C. ; Vosman, B. - \ 2009
Crop Science 49 (2009)3. - ISSN 0011-183X - p. 880 - 886.
oryza-sativa l. - diversity - cultivars - bread - sequence - plants - rflp - dna
In Brazil, rice (Oryza sativa L.) varieties adapted to different ecological regions are available on the market. However, these varieties exhibit highly similar morphologies, which makes their identification difficult. In this study we identified microsatellites in and around genes that are useful for the identification of the main rice varieties cultivated in Brazil. Thirteen microsatellites were selected from the region upstream of MADS-box genes and 37 were derived from expressed sequence tags (ESTs). Of the 50 microsatellites selected, 19 were polymorphic, and a small set of five primer pairs was sufficient to discriminate among the 37 rice varieties studied. The polymorphic information content (PIC) value of the 19 microsatellite markers varied between 0.05 and 0.94. Unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA) analysis showed that these markers group the 37 varieties according to their subspecies, indica or japonica. These results indicate that it is possible to identify informative microsatellites in and around rice genes, and that these markers are capable of discriminating between closely related varieties of rice. Moreover, our findings suggest that microsatellite markers can play an important role as a source of additional information to supplement the morphological descriptors recommended by International Union for the Protection of New Varieties of Plants (UPOV).
Moderne biotechnologie : een nieuwe doos van Pandora?
Tramper, J. ; Yang Zhu, Yang - \ 2009
Wageningen : Wageningen Academic - ISBN 9789086861378 - 281
biotechnologie - voedselbiotechnologie - kazen - brood - wijnen - vlees - gezondheid - gentherapie - antibiotica - hormonen - biotechnology - food biotechnology - cheeses - bread - wines - meat - health - gene therapy - antibiotics - hormones
Is moderne biotechnologie zo'n doos van Pandora, zoals de antibiotechnologie bewegingen doen geloven? Dit is de centrale vraag in het boek. Moderne biotechnologie maakt gebruik van de recombinant-DNA technologie om micro-organismen, planten en dieren genetisch te modificeren en zo meer geschikt te maken voor allerlei toepassingen zoals verbouwen van voedselgewassen, het bakken van brood, maken van wijn, antibiotica en hormonen, xenotransplantatie, en gen- en stamceltherapie. In het boek komen vooral de controversiële aspecten van deze toepassingen aan bod.
Biobrood van eigen bodem: een ketenproject
Postma, R. ; Bakker, A. den; Derksen, V. ; Kruiger, K. ; Maassen, J. ; Osman, A.M. ; Schepers, H.E. - \ 2008
Wageningen [etc.] : Nutriënten Management Instituut (Rapport / NMI 1136) - 30
biologische voedingsmiddelen - graanproducten - brood - landbouwplantenteelt - akkerbouw - ketenmanagement - regionale voedselketens - organic foods - cereal products - bread - crop husbandry - arable farming - supply chain management - regional food chains
In 2007 is het ketenproject “Biobrood van eigen bodem” uitgevoerd in het kader van het coinnovatieprogramma biologische afzetketens. Het betrof een samenwerkingsproject van een aantal ketenpartijen uit de biologische broodketen en een aantal kennisinstellingen. Het doel van het project was gericht op het verbeteren van het imago van biologisch brood door het verhogen van het aandeel Nederlandse tarwe, wat mogelijk een bijdrage kan leveren aan het vergroten van de afzetmogelijkheden ervan. Daartoe is een consumentenonderzoek uitgevoerd en zijn veldproeven met bemestingsvarianten uitgevoerd. Tenslotte zijn met de tarwe uit de veldproeven bakproeven uitgevoerd.
Potential of conceptual design methodology for food process innovation
Hadiyanto, M. ; Straten, G. van; Boom, R.M. ; Boxtel, A.J.B. van; Esveld, D.C. - \ 2008
Food Science and Technology International 14 (2008)2. - ISSN 1082-0132 - p. 139 - 149.
bread - system
The available time span for food product and process innovation is steadily decreasing, and to increase the efficacy of the development cycles, systematic design procedures can be used to develop new and to redesign existing processes. The Conceptual Process Design (CPD) methodologies used in chemical industry might also be applied in the food industry to rethink their systems and to break down the complexity of problems into several hierarchical levels. The Delft design matrix, a combination of the iterative design procedure, hierarchical decomposition and task driven methods, is a promising tool which can cover the different objectives and criteria of food design. This article analyzes the potential applicability of Delft Design Matrix as a CPD methodology for food process design and illustrates its functionality with the design of a bakery production system.
Molecular mobility in crispy bread crust
Nieuwenhuijzen, N.H. van - \ 2008
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Rob Hamer, co-promotor(en): Ton van Vliet; R.H. Tromp. - [S.l.] : S.n. - ISBN 9789085048565 - 133
brood - broosheid - aw-waarde - wateropname (planten) - sensorische evaluatie - moleculaire fysica - levensmiddelenfysica - bread - brittleness - water activity - water uptake - sensory evaluation - molecular physics - food physics
The aim of the PhD study on molecular mobility was to analyse the molecular grounds for the deterioration of crispy/crunchy characteristics of cellular solid foods. A fresh baguette for example has a crispy crust and a moist and soft interior. Moisture migrates from crumb to crust. Already at a water content of 9% (crumb contains around 45% water) the crispness of the crust decreases. During the study methods were developed to measure the speed of water uptake to test different ingredients on their potential to prolong crispness. Also the glass transition (which means an increase in mobility of the protein and starch molecules in the crust) and its relation with sensorial loss of crispness was investigated. The history of the crust in terms of water content and water activity as well as the morphology of the crust was found to be important for crispness and crispness retention.
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