Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

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Ontwikkelingen in naamgeving en registratie van cultuurplanten
Hoffman, M.H.A. - \ 2013
Dendroflora (2013)50. - ISSN 0374-7247 - p. 28 - 45.
houtachtige planten als sierplanten - boomkwekerijen - gewaskwaliteit - registratie - rassen (planten) - taxonomie - beschrijvingen - fruitgewassen - siergewassen - plantenveredeling - cultivars - handelsmerken - kwekersrecht - nomenclatuur - ornamental woody plants - forest nurseries - crop quality - registration - varieties - taxonomy - descriptions - fruit crops - ornamental crops - plant breeding - trade marks - breeders' rights - nomenclature
Een correcte en eenduidige naamgeving van onze boomkwekerijgewassen is van groot belang voor de groensector. Het is immers een belangrijk middel voor de garantie van soortechtheid en is daarmee een wezenlijk onderdeel van de plantkwaliteit. In dit artikel staan nieuwe ontwikkelingen weergegeven vanuit de wetenschap, de wetgever en het bedrijfsleven. Het bouwt voort op twee eerder geschreven artikelen in Dendroflora over naamgeving van planten (1999) en classificatie van planten (2008). In het eerste deel van dit artikel wordt een aantal items en ontwikkelingen uit enkele voorgaande artikelen genoemd en in een historisch perspectief gezet. In het tweede deel wordt ingegaan op de wettelijke registratie van plantenrassen. Vooral in de registratie van fruitrassen zijn er flinke veranderingen en daarnaast dreigen op termijn soortgelijke ontwikkelingen in de registratie van siergewassen. Dergelijke wetgeving heeft grote invloed op de teelt en handel van tuinbouwgewassen. In het derde deel wordt ingegaan op de ontwikkelingen in de naamgeving van cultuurplanten vanuit de wetenschap. Vorig jaar is een symposium geweest waarin veel zaken besproken en bediscussieerd zijn. Op basis hiervan wordt de regelgeving van de Cultuurplantencode (ICNCP) aangepast. Opgestelde regels of richtlijnen voor nieuwe categorieën zoals de grex, series en zaadmengsels en cultivartypes worden besproken. Tenslotte komen in het vierde deel enkele werkwijzen en voorbeelden uit de praktijk aan de orde. Voorbeelden zijn de intensivering van veredeling, de diversiteit en wildgroei in gebruik van handelsnamen, het niet vermelden van de cultivarnaam, het merkenrechtelijk beschermen van de cultivarnaam en het gebruik van diverse symbolen om verschillende types van bescherming aan te geven
Naar een betere bescherming van champignonrassen : het definiëren van afgeleid kwekersrecht voor champignons en het creëren van draagvlak
Sonnenberg, A.S.M. ; Baars, J.J.P. - \ 2013
Wageningen : Plant Research International, Business Unit Plant Breeding/WUR-Glastuinbouw (Rapport 2013-2) - 14
eetbare paddestoelen - hybride rassen - bevestigingstesten - genetica - kwekersrecht - veredelen - controle - wettelijke rechten - nederland - edible fungi - hybrid varieties - confirmatory tests - genetics - breeders' rights - breeding - control - legal rights - netherlands
1. Inleiding In 1980 zijn de eerste hybride rassen van de champignon gemaakt en op de markt gebracht: Horst U1 en Horst U3. Deze rassen zijn in 3 jaar uitgegroeid tot de belangrijkste ch ampignonrassen, wereldwijd. Beide rassen zijn ook de eerste paddenstoelrassen die via kwekersrecht zijn beschermd. Al 3 jaar na het uitbrengen van deze nieuwe rassen werden door verschillende broedleveranciers “nieuwe” hybriden op de markt gebracht. De eerste hybriden waren in eigenschappen niet te onderscheiden van de eerste beschermde hybriden. Ras testen wezen uit dat dit naar alle waarschijnlijkheid kopieën waren van de Horst rassen. Het aanvechten van deze inbreuk op kwekersrecht voor het gerecht bleek een moeilijke zaak te zijn en uiteindelijk is er geen uitspraak gedaan door de rechter wegens gebrek aan expertise en een gebrek aan kennis over de genetica (levenscyclus) van de champignon. In de volgende jaren verschenen steeds nieuwe rassen op de markt die weliswaar erg op de Horst rassen leken maar toch wat andere eigenschappen hadden. Genetische fingerprints konden deze rassen niet onderscheiden van de Horst-rassen. Tot op heden zijn deze rassen de belangrijkste rassen die wereldwijd geteeld worden. Deze zijn, door gebruik te maken van de bijzondere levenscyclus van de champignon, direct afgeleid van de eerste hybride Horst U1/U3 zonder menging met andere rassen of wild isolaten. Hierdoor is het mogelijk om in korte tijd en met geringe inspanningen een “nieuw” ras te maken. De bedoeling van dit project is om data te genereren die gebruikt kunnen worden om te onderbouwen dat dit type rassen valt onder de definitie van afgeleid kwekersrecht en daardoor een bescherming verdient. Tevens is het project bedoeld om het bedrijfsleven internationaal achter deze aanpak te krijgen zodat de definitie van afgeleid kwekersrecht wordt opgenomen in de wetgeving. Op deze manier wordt een return of investment gegarandeerd voor veredelaar en zal een investering in veredeling weer lonen. Op dit moment is er een dringende behoefte aan nieuwe rassen om aan de nieuwe wensen van telers en de markt tegemoet te komen.
Seed systems and intellectual property rights: an inventory from five sub Saharan African Countries
Mahop, M.T. ; Jonge, B. de; Munyi, P. - \ 2013
Ministerie van EL&I - 79
kwekersrecht - intellectuele eigendomsrechten - genetische bronnen van plantensoorten - ontwikkelingslanden - wetgeving - afrika ten zuiden van de sahara - voedselzekerheid - Nederland - breeders' rights - intellectual property rights - plant genetic resources - developing countries - legislation - africa south of sahara - food security - Netherlands
Many developing countries are in the process of developing or updating their national Intellectual Property Rights (IPRs) systems in order to adhere to international agreements. With respect to the agricultural sector in developing countries, the importance of implementing a Plant Variety Protection (PVP) system that suits national and local needs and conditions is of utmost importance. The challenge for developing countries is to create an IPR system that suits both their commercial, national food security, and smallholder farmers’ interests. This report aims to assist in that endeavour by analysing the current status of IPR legislation and regulations regarding seed in five African countries: Burkina Faso, Kenya, Rwanda, Tanzania and Uganda; and the international and regional IPR organisations that encompass them: in particular OAPI and ARIPO. In addition, we investigate the possibilities for, and examples of, a PVP system that creates different levels of protection in order to fit the needs and characteristics of the various seed systems that exist in a given country.
Intellectual property rights, international trade and plant breeding
Eaton, D.J.F. - \ 2013
University. Promotor(en): Erwin Bulte, co-promotor(en): J.E. Ligthart. - S.l. : s.n. - ISBN 9789461734693 - 186
vermeerderingsmateriaal - plantenveredeling - kwekersrecht - intellectuele eigendomsrechten - internationale handel - innovaties - beleid - landbouwsector - landbouwbedrijven - productie - wereld - ontwikkelingslanden - propagation materials - plant breeding - breeders' rights - intellectual property rights - international trade - innovations - policy - agricultural sector - farms - production - world - developing countries
Seed is the physical embodiment of the invention of the plant breeder. Plant varieties thus constitute a special form of innovation, and an assessment of intellectual property right (IPR) systems needs to take this into account. This thesis concentrates on IPRs but breeders do have a number of means by which they can capture part of the benefits from the cultivation of their new variety, rather than these falling into to public domain.
Introductietraject sleedoornonderstammen
Steeg, P.A.H. van der; Maas, F.M. ; Ravesloot, M.B.M. - \ 2013
Randwijk : Praktijkonderzoek Plant en Omgeving, Bloembollen, Boomkwekerij & Fruit - 19
prunus spinosa - onderstammen - vermeerderingsmateriaal - fruitgewassen - rassen (planten) - selectie - veredelingsmethoden - virussen - gebruikswaarde - kwekersrecht - wettelijke rechten - plantenvirussen - nederland - rootstocks - propagation materials - fruit crops - varieties - selection - breeding methods - viruses - use value - breeders' rights - legal rights - plant viruses - netherlands
Uit het onderzoek naar de gebruikswaarde van sleedoornselecties als onderstam voor pruim zijn sele cties naar voren gekomen die zeer perspectiefvol zijn . Deze hebben een groeikracht tussen die van VVA - 1 en St. Julien A (Van der Steeg et al, 2011 ). PPO is eigenaar van deze selecties. Vanuit de steenfruitsector bestaat hiervoor veel belangstelling . Men wil graag zo snel mogelijk bomen op deze onderstammen kunnen planten. Voordat éé n of meer selecties in de praktijk geïntroduceerd zouden kunnen worden, dien d en ze echter: - virusvrij gemaakt te worden - wettelijk beschermd te worden - vermeerderd te worde n Daarnaast wa s er de behoefte om ‘pilot s ’ op te zetten om de waarde aan de sector te demonstreren. Verder diende ook in het buitenland interesse ge wek t te worden voor het gebruik van deze selecties als onderstam voor pruim, kwets en mogelijk ook voor abri koos, perzik en nectarine. Dit is een grote potentiële afzetmarkt voor de onderstammen, waarmee de collectieve investering geld kan opleveren. In 2011 en 2012 is in een viertal projecten aan deze zaken invulling gegeven. In dit rapport worden de projecten beschreven.
Uitgangsmaterialen; Motor voor export en innovatie
Bakker, T. ; Dijkxhoorn, Y. ; Galen, M.A. van - \ 2011
Den Haag : LEI, onderdeel van Wageningen UR (LEI-publicatie / LEI Wageningen UR 11-091) - 23
vermeerderingsmateriaal - plantenvermeerdering - weefselkweek - zaden - innovaties - export - rendement - kwekersrecht - nederland - onderzoek - propagation materials - propagation - tissue culture - seeds - innovations - exports - returns - breeders' rights - netherlands - research
In deze brochure wordt inzicht verschaft in de economische betekenis van de sector uitgangsmaterialen voor de Nederlandse economie. De resultaten zijn verkregen door middel van een vragenlijst die is verspreid onder de leden van Plantum, aangevuld met deskresearch.
Seed Systems and Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture
Louwaars, N.P. ; Coent, P. le; Osborn, T. - \ 2011
Rome, Italy : FAO - 24
zaadproductie - genetische bronnen van plantensoorten - plantenveredeling - kwekersrecht - beleid - wetgeving - Nederland - seed production - plant genetic resources - plant breeding - breeders' rights - policy - legislation - Netherlands
This report examines the role of seed and seed systems in the conservation and the use of plant genetic resources for food and agriculture. It focuses on developments since the publication of the first report on the State of the World’s Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture.
Juridisering in de agrosector; Verkenning van een veelkoppig fenomeen
Hazeu, C.A. ; Silvis, H.J. - \ 2011
Den Haag : LEI, onderdeel van Wageningen UR (Rapport / LEI : Onderzoeksveld Natuurlijke hulpbronnen ) - ISBN 9789086154982 - 104
agrarisch recht - landbouwsector - regelingen - controle - kwekersrecht - octrooien - intellectuele eigendomsrechten - natuurbeschermingsrecht - milieuwetgeving - biobased economy - plattelandsomgeving - Nederland - agricultural law - agricultural sector - regulations - control - breeders' rights - patents - intellectual property rights - nature conservation law - environmental legislation - rural environment - Netherlands
Het rapport geeft een overzicht van de problemen die onder het brede begrip 'juridisering'schil gaan en oplossingsrichtingen die daarop een antwoord proberen te geven. In drie case studies (ruimte, milieu en omgeving, octrooirecht en kwekersrecht en biobased economy), wordt inzicht gegeven in de aard en oorzaken van juridisering. Per casus is onderzocht of en waar er zich reële problemen voordoen en hoe daar het best mee om kan worden gegaan.
List of names of perennials : naamlijst van vaste planten : namenliste stauden : liste de noms des plantes vivaces
Hoffman, M.H.A. ; Hop, M.E.C.M. ; Geers, F.A.M. - \ 2010
The Netherlands : Applied Plant Research (PPO publication no. 077) - ISBN 9789076960050 - 563
overblijvende planten - sierplanten - cultivars - biologische naamgeving - taxonomie - controlelijsten - kwekersrecht - perennials - ornamental plants - biological nomenclature - taxonomy - checklists - breeders' rights
The two internationally recognized List of Names - of Woody Plants and of perennials - are for quickly looking up the preferred name and correct way of writing a plant's name. Since they first appeared, these lists have earned the respect of botanists and the nursery trade. This multilingual edition follows international rules for plant nomenclature. It will help satisfy the huge demand for international uniformity in the use of plant names.
Breeding business : the future of plant breeding in the light of developments in patent rights and plant breeder's rights
Louwaars, N.P. ; Dons, J.J.M. ; Overwalle, G. van; Raven, H. ; Arundel, A. ; Eaton, D. ; Nelis, A. - \ 2009
Wageningen : Centre for genetic resources (CGN) (CGN report 14 (EN)) - 69
plantenveredeling - kwekersrecht - intellectuele eigendomsrechten - octrooien - veredelingsprogramma's - innovaties - technologie - plant breeding - breeders' rights - intellectual property rights - patents - breeding programmes - innovations - technology
Plant breeding serves an important public interest. Two intellectual property (IP) systems are relevant for the protection of innovations in this sector: plant breeder's rights and patent rights. Some exemptions play an important role in plant breeding, such as the 'breeder's exemption', which is unknown in patent rights. This study shows that patent rights together with the technological developments in biology contribute to the current concentration in the plant breeding industry and that this is thretening future innovation.
Veredelde zaken : de toekomst van de plantenveredeling in het licht van de ontwikkelingen in het octrooirecht en het kwekersrecht
Louwaars, N.P. ; Dons, J.J.M. ; Overwalle, G. van; Raven, H. ; Arundel, A. ; Eaton, D.J.F. ; Nelis, A. - \ 2009
CGN : Wageningen (CGN rapport 14) - 62
intellectuele eigendomsrechten - kwekersrecht - octrooien - plantenveredeling - zaadproductie - biotechnologie - intellectual property rights - breeders' rights - patents - plant breeding - seed production - biotechnology
Rapport van Wageningen UR over de toekomst van de plantveredeling in het licht van de ontwikkelingen in het octrooirecht en het kwekersrecht. Aanpassing van wet- en regelgeving is een van de aanbevelingen.
Seeds of confusion : the impact of policies on seed systems
Louwaars, N.P. - \ 2007
University. Promotor(en): Rudy Rabbinge, co-promotor(en): Bert Visser. - [S.l.] : S.n. - ISBN 9789085047933 - 151
zaden - zaadproductie - systeemanalyse - landbouwbeleid - intellectuele eigendomsrechten - agrarisch eigendomsrecht - kwekersrecht - ontwikkelingsbeleid - seeds - seed production - systems analysis - agricultural policy - intellectual property rights - farmers' rights - breeders' rights - development policy
Seed is basic to crop production. Next to its importance in production, food security and rural development, seed is a key element in many debates about technology development and transfer, biodiversity, globalisation and equity. The sustainable availability of good quality seed is thus an important development issue. This study deals with the impact different types of regulation have on how farmers access seed. I have analysed current regulatory frameworks in terms of their impact on different seed systems, provided explanations for their often unintended effects and apparent inconsistencies, and proposed some solutions to the problems that have arisen. This thesis builds on earlier work on seed systems, seed laws, intellectual property and genetic resource policies that I published in various media over the past twenty years. - The analytical framework Conventional approaches towards seed system development are based on a linear perspective in which policies should promote the development of seed systems through a number of fixed stages that proceed from the traditional towards the commercial. Seed policies in developing countries have long been based on this approach. I continue to question the validity of this approach. I consider it to be insufficiently grounded in reality and therefore an inadequate guide to those involved in formulating seed related policies. My main argument is that the development of a commercial seed provision system is neither realistic nor desirable for most crops. Secondly, when policies take the most advanced crops as a reference for investments and regulation major problems arise because of the differential speed of seed system development between crops and target groups. This analysis leads to the conclusion that the linear approach is counterproductive in terms of balanced sustainable growth and development and should be abandoned. In this thesis I present an alternative framework for seed system development, which is based on the recognition of two fundamentally distinct seed systems, each with their own advantages and limitations: the farmers’ seed system and the formal seed system. This framework also includes a range of possible ways of interaction. Farmers’ seed systems are by far the most important suppliers of seed, and are particularly important for resource-poor farmers. Formal seed systems, on the other hand, provide tested seed to farmers through an organised and often regulated chain that includes genebanks, breeders, seed producers and seed marketing and distribution organisations. In practice, these different systems operate side by side to serve the needs of different types of farmers for different types of crops. Interaction between these two systems provide important ways of combining formal and local knowledge and plant materials and can lead to the creation of site specific solutions to limitations in production and produce markets. The parallel development of farmers’ and formal seed systems plus their interactions create - at the national level - a diversified seed system. Developing policies that support such diversified seed systems creates challenges for regulators. This thesis sets out to analyse and solve this problem. - Seed laws Variety and seed regulatory frameworks and seed control institutions have been developed in most countries primarily to regulate the formal seed sector. However, the provisions of relevant laws and implementing regulations usually also apply to farmers’ seed systems that are built on different principles and mechanisms. An analysis of forty national seed laws indicates considerable similarity as far as organisation and focus are concerned. Variety control systems tend to limit the number of varieties available on the market. The regulations, their interpretation by responsible committees, associated costs and implementation methods favour varieties with a wide adaptation, especially to relatively benign cropping conditions. The system is not suited to identifying varieties appropriate for smallholders farming in ecologically diverse conditions. Breeders in the private sector cater for an agricultural sector with purchasing power while those in the public sector generally focus on release requirements rather than on the needs of different groups of farmers. Variety control systems thus support neither breeding for smallholders in ecologically diverse conditions, nor the integration of seed systems at the level of crop improvement. Seed certification and quality control regulations tend to turn farmers’ seed production and particularly the exchange and sale of farm-saved seed into illegal activities and put severe restrictions on initiatives that support farmers’ seed systems. The level of farmer participation in official bodies set up under these seed laws is low. This may be one of the reasons why release procedures give little attention to the special requirements of farmers’ seed systems. Important openings in seed laws can be created that allow for diversified seed systems to develop and be recognised. Such openings would include explicit limitations on the scope of seed laws to the formal seed sector by adapting the definitions of ‘seed’ and ‘market’, for example. The full development of diversified seed systems depends on a shift of focus within those institutions responsible for implementing seed laws. Emphasis should be placed on supporting the production and use of good quality seed in both the formal and farmers’ seed systems rather than on policing the formal seed system. - Biodiversity policies Genetic resources are the building blocks of crop improvement. They have developed as a result of millennia of natural processes and of conscious and unintentional human selection. Concerns about the reduction of global crop genetic diversity have led to the specific values of genetic resources being closely defined. These definitions form an important basis for policies and measures introduced to regulate new rights over these resources. Largely based on the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), these regulations deal with the conservation and use of genetic resources, access to these resources and the sharing of benefits arising from their use. The CBD does not focus on agriculture alone. It covers all areas of biodiversity. I have, therefore, tested the proposition that the CBD fails to support, or even obstructs proper seed system development. In this context I have assessed the potential of the International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture (IT PGRFA) to correct this type of failure. The international policy framework and three distinct regional approaches to implementation strategies inspired by the CBD are analysed with regard to access to genetic resources. National regimes for access to genetic resources based on the CBD can negatively impact on seed systems. In particular they can lead to a reduction in the genetic resources available for different forms of plant breeding and exchange among communities. Since developing countries currently obtain larger numbers of genetic resources from genebanks than industrialised countries, it can be concluded that farmers in developing country are particularly negatively effected by the increasing number of access restrictions being implemented worldwide. The Multilateral System of the IT PGRFA is expected to facilitate access and benefit sharing for many important food crops and pasture species. Although it is too early to assess the actual effects of this treaty it is likely that it will alleviate some of these effects. - Intellectual Property Rights Intellectual Property Rights (IPRs) are a recent phenomenon in the seed sectors of developing countries. Like seed laws, these new regulatory systems impact on various seed systems. The potential impact of different types of IPRs is analysed from a historical perspective and - drawing on a large number of stakeholder interviews - an attempt is made to determine whether the introduction of such legal systems can be used to promote diversified seed systems. The options available to developing countries that want to design policies, regulatory frameworks and implementation systems that do not have undesired effects are then analysed. IPRs support ongoing trends towards the commercialisation of the breeding and seed sectors. This trend disregards or even threatens the interests of resource-poor farmers, especially in cases where public research institutions are encouraged to create their own revenue through the use of IPRs. Strong IPR-like utility patents and plant breeder’s rights consistent with the 1991 Act of Convention for the Protection of New Varieties significantly restrict opportunities for farmers’ seed systems and small local seed companies to use the best available varieties, because in these systems exchange and sale of protected variety seed among farmers requires the consent of the right holder. The analysis provides guidance for the development of IPRs in developing countries at the policy, legal, and institutional levels that minimise such negative effects. Balanced exemptions for farmers and breeders in breeder’s rights and patent systems as well as a differentiation of the strengths of these rights across crops and farmer groups can be effective. Also, initiatives within the current IPR systems can support access to technology for the poor. Countries that intend to develop their IPRs in breeding in support of diversified seed systems will have to withstand current harmonization pressures from trade negotiations that would unnecessarily limit the flexibility offered by the World Trade Organisation. - Discussion: disconnection and incoherence The development of policy and regulatory frameworks affecting seed systems shows a disconnection between parallel policy processes on the one hand and between policies and everyday agriculture on the other. Current seed laws and IPRs cater for the needs of a relatively small segment of the total seed supply sector. Moreover, tensions exist between international agreements in the trade, environment and agricultural sectors. I discuss the conflicts between these policies and regulations that lead to disorientation, uncertainty, and commotion – in short ‘confusion’ - and I suggest a series of explanations and solutions. Disconnections are identified among different stakeholders within a dossier, between dossiers (agriculture, trade, environment) and between different levels (local, national, international). These disconnections explain most of the inconsistencies in the observed policy outcomes. Parallel negotiations combined with insufficient direction over the relevant departments within a national government are important reasons for inconsistencies among dossiers, especially when complex power relations between departments and countries are strongly influenced by the involvement of particular stakeholders in individual dossiers. Disconnection between local, national and international levels within a dossier may be due to insufficient knowledge about agricultural practice, the prevalence of ‘higher’ policy goals, or to an attempt to modernize agriculture through legislation. The analysis shows that given the complex influences and power relations among individuals and organizations, inconsistencies in policy making processes are inevitable. This is particularly the case in those policy areas that affect seeds where widely different objectives and value systems are represented. Legislation based on disconnected and inconsistent policies lead to problems with implementation, to confusion, and - in the field of genetic resources and seeds - to juridification and ‘hyperownership’ when proponents of national, communal or individual rights systems are caught in an increasingly dense thicket of rights. The obvious solution lies in creating institutional mechanisms that increase communication among government departments and different levels of government, increasing opportunities for better policy congruence. At the legal level, options include avoiding generic wording in legislation that would have unintended effects beyond the primary focus, as often shown for seed laws and IPRs and to allow for flexibility and change as soon as the situation requires it. Alternatives can also be found in mechanisms that increase the public space without changing the rules. These include targeted public investments, open source strategies, standardised text for humanitarian use licenses for both IP and genetic resource rights, and patent pools. The initiative to use such tools can come from either government or from private or civil society stakeholders. Seed is an essential element in crop production, representing a valuable resource that is important in sustaining the supply of food, feed, flowers, fuel and many functional compounds for industry. Seed is also essential for rural development and poverty reduction. It is, therefore, important to continually search for solutions to the inconsistencies that threaten the availability, access and quality of the seed farmers need. All these solutions can only develop when current inconsistencies are clearly formulated. This study contributes to that goal. It also analyses options available and, in some cases, it proposed regulatory change that could improve coherency, encourage more diversified seed systems and lead to policies that are increasingly consistent with development goals. Contrary to the main trends it criticises, such as linear approaches to seed system development and globally harmonised IPRs, this study offers no blueprint solution. Rather, it seeks to contribute to an improved analysis that will make targeted interventions possible at various policy levels and provide productive solutions to the problems that farmers actually face.
Intellectual property rights in the breeding industry: Farmers' interests
Louwaars, N.P. ; Tripp, R. ; Eaton, D.J.F. - \ 2006
Washington : International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (Agricultural and rural development notes 14-2006) - 4
kwekersrecht - intellectuele eigendomsrechten - internationale handel - breeders' rights - intellectual property rights - international trade
Intellectual property rights: Designing regimes to support plant breeding in developing countries
Tripp, R. ; Eaton, D.J.F. ; Louwaars, N.P. - \ 2006
Washington : International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (Report / The World Bank no. 35517-GLB) - 77
plantenveredeling - kwekersrecht - ontwikkelingslanden - intellectuele eigendomsrechten - plant breeding - breeders' rights - developing countries - intellectual property rights
Impacts of strenghtened intellectual property rights regimes on the plant breeding industry in developing countries: a synthesis of five case studies
Louwaars, N.P. ; Eaton, D.J.F. ; Hu, R. ; Pal, K. ; Tripp, R. ; Henson-Apollonio, V. ; Mendoza, M. ; Muhhuku, F. ; Wekundah, J. - \ 2005
onbekend : Wageningen University (Report Wageningen UR ) - ISBN 9073384591 - 176
plantenveredeling - kwekersrecht - intellectuele eigendomsrechten - ontwikkelingslanden - plant breeding - breeders' rights - intellectual property rights - developing countries
Project 316101: Selectie en introductie van boomkwekerijgewassen
Praktijkonderzoek Plant & Omgeving, - \ 2002
- 1
siergewassen - houtachtige planten als sierplanten - veredelen - veredelde rassen - kwekersrecht - ornamental crops - ornamental woody plants - breeding - improved varieties - breeders' rights
Door PPO is van 1998 tot 2002 gewerkt aan verbreding en verbetering van het sortiment boomkwekerij-gewassen. Ter verbreding van het sortiment is van zo'n 250 verschillende gewassen uit botanische tuinen zaad aangevraagd en getest. Enkele hiervan zijn kleinschalig uitgegeven (Lychnis flos-jovis 'Nana', Senna hebecarpa, Rhamnus-soorten). Anderen zijn voor kruisingen gebruikt. Producten uit eerdere veredelingsprojecten zijn verder ontwikkeld, geselecteerd en uitgegeven. Een conclusie hieruit was, dat gericht kruisingwerk veel tijd vergt, maar meer en betere producten opleverde dan selectie van geheel nieuwe gewassen uit zaad van botanische tuinen. Het combineren van veredeling met het lopende cultuur- en gebruikswaardeonderzoek bleek gunstig.
Economic and policy aspects of :terminator' technology
Eaton, D. ; Tongeren, D. van; Louwaars, N. ; Visser, B. ; Meer, I. van der - \ 2002
Biotechnology and Development Monitor 49 (2002)1. - ISSN 0924-9877 - p. 19 - 22.
plantenveredeling - kwekersrecht - intellectuele eigendomsrechten - genexpressie - genetische modificatie - plant breeding - breeders' rights - intellectual property rights - gene expression - genetic engineering
Foreign acquisitions force French firms to restructure.
Zuurbier, P.J.P. - \ 1994
Prophyta 48 (1994)4. - ISSN 0921-5506 - p. 16 - 17.
kwekersrecht - overheidsbeleid - landbouwbeleid - agrarisch recht - landen van de europese unie - breeders' rights - government policy - agricultural policy - agricultural law - european union countries
Op 1 september 1994 is het europees kwekersrecht in werking getreden. Op deze verordening wordt in dit artikel een toelichting gegeven
Zaaizaad- en pootgoedproductie (F750 - 205)
Anonymous, - \ 1992
Wageningen : Landbouwuniversiteit
kwekersrecht - plantenvermeerdering - zaadcontrole - zaden - breeders' rights - propagation - seed testing - seeds
Boekbespreking: Eigendom van land of genen en de moderne landbouw.
Noort, P.C. van den - \ 1988
De Landeigenaar 34 (1988)7/8. - ISSN 0166-5839 - p. 16 - 18.
kwekersrecht - genetische modificatie - recombinant dna - zaadproductie - zaadbehandeling - breeders' rights - genetic engineering - seed production - seed treatment
Moderne ontwikkelingen op landbouwkundig gebied die te maken hebben met genentechniek en zoals deze geschetst zijn in het boek van Jack Doyle "Altered Harvest", veranderde oogst of "oogst uit het lab"
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