Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Reduced calf mortality when the calf’s needs are leading : Pledge for a renewed view on calf rearing
Ferwerda-van Zonneveld, R.T. ; Bos, A.P. ; Plomp, M. ; Gaag, M.A. van der; Antonis, A.F.G. - \ 2017
Wageningen : Wageningen University & Research - 15 p.
animal welfare - animal production - dairy cattle - calves - animal health - animal nutrition - animal housing - animal behaviour - elasticity
Consequences of dry period length and dietary energy source on physiological health variables in dairy cows and calves
Mayasari, Nova - \ 2017
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Bas Kemp, co-promotor(en): Ariette van Knegsel; Henk Parmentier. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463431408 - 221
dairy cows - calves - dry period - feed rations - feeds - energy balance - animal health - inflammation - antibodies - adaptation physiology - immunology - melkkoeien - kalveren - gustperiode - voedingsrantsoenen - voer - energiebalans - diergezondheid - ontsteking - antilichamen - adaptatiefysiologie - immunologie

During the transition period, dairy cows experience a negative energy balance (NEB) caused by the high energy requirement for milk yield, while feed intake is limited. Severity of the NEB has been associated with an increased incidence of metabolic disorders and infectious diseases, inflammation, immunosuppression and oxidative stress. It is known that shortening or omitting the dry period or feeding a glucogenic ration improves the energy balance (EB) in dairy cows in early lactation. It can be expected that an improvement of the EB due to shortening or omitting the dry period results in reduced inflammation, immunosuppression and less oxidative stress in dairy cows in early lactation. The first objective of this thesis was to study the effects of dry period length and dietary energy source on immune competence, inflammatory biomarkers and oxidative stress in dairy cows over 2 subsequent lactations. The second objective was to study the consequences of maternal dry period length on colostrum immunoglobulin content and immune competence of calves in the first 12 weeks of life. In the current study, 167 cows were assigned to 3 dry period lengths (0, 30, or 60 d) and 2 early lactation rations (glucogenic or lipogenic). Cows were planned to have the same dry period length and ration over 2 subsequent lactations. Omitting the dry period reduced plasma bilirubin levels compared with a conventional dry period, which is line with the better EB in cows with a 0-d dry period. Effects of dry period length on inflammatory biomarkers, oxidative stress variables and natural antibodies (NAb) titers were, however, less consistent. Omitting the dry period increased not only negative acute phase proteins (APP) in plasma, but also positive APP, oxidative stress variables in plasma, and NAb in milk. Shortening the dry period to 30-d did not influence inflammatory biomarkers and oxidative stress compared with a conventional dry period of 60-d. Occurrence of clinical health problems did not differ between cows with different dry period lengths. In the current study, changes in positive APP and oxidative stress variables in plasma and NAb in milk could be explained by the occurrence of clinical health problems related to inflammation (clinical mastitis, fever, metritis and retained placenta), rather than a better EB due to a shorter or no dry period. Moreover, a higher titer of IgG binding lipopolysaccharide in plasma was associated with decreased odds of high somatic cell count and occurrence of clinical mastitis. In the first lactation after implementation of dry period length and dietary treatments, feeding a glucogenic ration in early lactation increased NAb titers in milk compared with a lipogenic ration, which could be explained partly by a better EB. In the second lactation after implementation of dry period length and dietary treatments, feeding a lipogenic ration in early lactation increased cholesterol levels in plasma compared with a glucogenic ration, which could be related to the high fat content in this ration. Cows with a 0-d dry period had a lower colostrum production and less immunoglobulins in colostrum compared with cows with a 30-d or 60-d dry period. After colostrum uptake, NAb titers in plasma of calves from cows with a 0-d dry period were lower during the first week of life compared with calves from cows with a 30-d or 60-d dry period. Levels of specific antibodies in calves, after immunization in week 6 and 10, in calves were not affected by the maternal dry period length. Birth weight of calves from cows with a 0-d dry period was lower compared with calves from cows with a 30-d dry period, but not compared with calves from cows with a 60-d dry period. Growth of calves until 12 weeks of life was not affected by dry period length. In conclusion, although shortening and omitting the dry period improved the EB in early lactation, this did not result in clear consistent effects of dry period length on inflammation or oxidative stress. Changes in inflammation biomarkers, oxidative stress variables and NAb in milk were a reflection of the occurrence of health problems related to inflammation in particular clinical mastitis and compromised uterine health. Furthermore, albeit omitting the dry period compared with shortening or conventional dry period cows resulted in a reduced immunoglobulin content in colostrum and reduced NAb titers in plasma of their calves in the first week of life, but did not affect specific immune response of the calves in the first 12 weeks of life.

Validation of indicators used to assess unconsciousness in veal calves at slaughter
Verhoeven, M.T.W. ; Gerritzen, M.A. ; Hellebrekers, L.J. ; Kemp, B. - \ 2016
Animal 10 (2016). - ISSN 1751-7311 - p. 1457 - 1465.
(un)consciousness - calves - electroencephalogram - reflexes - slaughter

European legislation states that after stunning regular checks should be performed to guarantee animals are unconscious between the end of the stunning process and death. When animals are killed without prior stunning these checks should be performed before the animal is released from restraint. The validity of certain indicators used to assess unconsciousness under different stunning and slaughter conditions is under debate. The aim of this study was to validate the absence of threat-, withdrawal-, corneal- and eyelid reflex as indicators to assess unconsciousness in calves subjected to different stunning and slaughter methods. Calves (201±22 kg) were randomly assigned to one of the following four treatments: (1) Captive bolt stunning followed by neck cut in an inverted position (n=25); (2) Non-stunned slaughter in an upright position (n=7); (3) Non-stunned slaughter in an inverted position (180° rotation) (n=25); (4) Non-stunned slaughter in an upright position followed by captive bolt stunning 40 s after the neck cut (n=25). Each calf was equipped with non-invasive electroencephalogram (EEG) electrodes before the slaughter procedure. All reflexes were verified once before the slaughter procedure. At the beginning of the procedure (T=0 s) calves were stunned (treatment 1) or neck cut in an upright position (treatment 2, 4) or inverted position (treatment 3). Calves of treatment 4 were captive bolt stunned 34±8 s after the neck cut. Reflexes were assessed every 20 s from T=15 s for all treatments until all reflex tests resulted in a negative response three times in a row and a flat line EEG was observed. In addition, reflexes were assessed 5 s after captive bolt stunning in calves of treatments 1 and 4. Visual assessment of changes in the amplitude and frequency of EEG traces was used to determine loss of consciousness. Timing of loss of consciousness was related to timing of loss of reflexes. After captive bolt stunning, absence of threat-, withdrawal-, corneal- and eyelid reflex indicated unconsciousness as determined by EEG recordings. After non-stunned slaughter, both threat- and withdrawal reflex were on average lost before calves were unconscious based on EEG recordings. The eyelid- and corneal reflex were on average lost after calves had lost consciousness based on EEG recordings and appeared to be distinctly conservative indicators of unconsciousness in non-stunned slaughtered calves since they were observed until 76±50 and 85±45 s (mean±SD), respectively, after EEG-based loss of consciousness.

Tussenevaluatie knelpuntaandoeningen en praktische uitvoerbaarheid UDD-regeling
Kluivers-Poodt, M. ; Binnendijk, G.P. ; Wijhe-Kiezebrink, M.C. van; Neijenhuis, F. ; Bokma-Bakker, M.H. - \ 2015
Wageningen : Wageningen UR Livestock Research (Livestock Research rapport 904) - 105 p.
diergezondheid - antibiotica - dierenwelzijn - dierlijke productie - kalveren - vleesvee - varkens - melkvee - animal health - antibiotics - animal welfare - animal production - calves - beef cattle - pigs - dairy cattle
In maart 2014 is de UDD-regeling in werking getreden, waarin is bepaald dat antibiotica alleen door dierenartsen voorgeschreven en toegediend mogen worden. In het hier beschreven onderzoek is de vooruitgang in het terugdringen van de knelpuntaandoeningen die vallen onder de uitzondering op de UDD-regeling, binnen de melkvee-, vleeskalveren en varkenssector geëvalueerd. Aanvullend is de praktische uitvoerbaarheid van de UDD-regeling in zijn geheel geëvalueerd, in genoemde sectoren, aangevuld met de vleeskuikensector.
A field trial on the effects of algae addition to calf feed. Project T2014
Elissen, H.J.H. ; Berg, W. van den; Kootstra, A.M.J. - \ 2015
Lelystad : Wageningen UR, PPO/Acrres (Rapport / PPO-AGV 662) - 41 p.
calves - calf feeding - feed formulation - feeds - veal calves - liveweight - animal health - feed conversion - algae - kalveren - kalvervoeding - voersamenstelling - voer - vleeskalveren - levend gewicht - diergezondheid - voederconversie - algen
This report describes a field trial that took place between 1 July and 2 October 2015 at a Dutch rose veal farm in which a group of 30 calves was fed with formula milk of which 2% of the dry matter was substituted with concentrated freshwater algae. The control group consisted of 25 calves. The farm owners collected the data, which were statistically analyzed and reported at ACRRES. During the trial the following parameters were monitored: calf weight, amounts of formula milk, water, solid feeds, feed additions and medication, deviations in manure structure, and disease incidence. Individual calf weights were determined at arrival and four weighing dates. The main conclusion of this field trial is that the addition of algae to the formula milk of rose veal calves during a period of 44 to 51 days did not have a statistically significant effect on calf weight increase up to 13 weeks after the start of the trial.
Naar gezonde kalveren en kippen
Ruis, Markus - \ 2015
calves - fowls - animal welfare - animal health - zoonoses - care of animals - animal production - poultry - cattle - animal housing
Heliotropium europaeum Poisoning in Cattle and Analysis of its Pyrrolizidine Alkaloid Profile
Shimshoni, J.A. ; Mulder, P.P.J. ; Bouznach, A. ; Edery, N. ; Pasval, I. ; Barel, S. ; Khaliq, M.A.E. ; Perl, S. - \ 2015
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 63 (2015)5. - ISSN 0021-8561 - p. 1664 - 1672.
metabolic-activation - senecio-jacobaea - toxicosis - livestock - enzymes - calves - milk
Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) are carcinogenic and genotoxic phytochemicals found exclusively in angiosperms. The ingestion of PA-containing plants often results in acute and chronic toxicities in man and livestock, targeting mainly the liver. During February 2014, a herd of 15-18-month-old mixed-breed beef cattle (n = 73) from the Galilee region in Israel was accidently fed hay contaminated with 12% Heliotropium europaeum (average total PA intake was 33 mg PA/kg body weight/d). After 42 d of feed ingestion, sudden death occurred over a time period of 63 d with a mortality rate of 33%. Necropsy and histopathological examination revealed fibrotic livers and moderate ascites, as well as various degrees of hyperplasia and fibrosis of bile duct epithelial cells. Elevated ¿-glutamyl-transferase and alkaline phosphatase levels were indicative of severe liver damage. Comprehensive PA profile determination of the contaminated hay and of native H. europaeum by LC-MS/MS revealed the presence of 30 PAs and PA-N-oxides, including several newly reported PAs and PA-N-oxides of the rinderine and heliosupine class. Heliotrine- and lasiocarpine-type PAs constituted 80% and 18% of the total PAs, respectively, with the N-oxides being the most abundant form (92%). The PA profile of the contaminated hay showed very strong resemblance to that of H. europaeum
Ultratrace LC-MS/MS Analysis of Segmented Calf Hair for Retrospective Assessment of Time of Clenbuterol Administration in Agriforensics
Duvivier, W.F. ; Beek, T.A. van; Meijer, T. ; Peeters, R.J.P. ; Groot, M.J. ; Sterk, S.S. ; Nielen, M.W.F. - \ 2015
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 63 (2015)2. - ISSN 0021-8561 - p. 493 - 499.
tandem mass-spectrometry - performance liquid-chromatography - beta-agonist residues - equine hair - bovine hair - human urine - cattle - calves - contamination - samples
In agriforensics, time of administration is often debated when illegal drug residues, such as clenbuterol, are found in frequently traded cattle. In this proof-of-concept work, the feasibility of obtaining retrospective timeline information from segmented calf tail hair analyses has been studied. First, an ultraperformance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) hair analysis method was adapted to accommodate smaller sample sizes and in-house validated. Then, longitudinal 1 cm segments of calf tail hair were analyzed to obtain clenbuterol concentration profiles. The profiles found were in good agreement with calculated, theoretical positions of the clenbuterol residues along the hair. Following assessment of the average growth rate of calf tail hair, time of clenbuterol administration could be retrospectively determined from segmented hair analysis data. The data from the initial animal treatment study (n = 2) suggest that time of treatment can be retrospectively estimated with an error of 3–17 days.
Growth regulation, imprinting, and epigenetic transcription-related gene expression differs in lung of deceased transgenic cloned and normal goats
Meng, L. ; Jia, R.X. ; Sun, Y. ; Wang, Z.Y. ; Wan, Y.J. ; Zhang, Y.L. ; Zhong, B.S. ; Wang, F. - \ 2014
Theriogenology 81 (2014)3. - ISSN 0093-691X - p. 459 - 466.
cell nuclear transfer - dna methylation - nationwide survey - tumor-suppressor - bovine clones - aberrant - calves - mice - cdkn1c - cattle
Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) is a promising technique to produce mammalian transgenic clones. Only a small proportion of manipulated embryos, however, can develop into viable offspring. The abnormal growth and development of cloned animals, furthermore, are accompanied by aberrant lung development. Our objective was to investigate molecular background of lung developmental problems in transgenic (random insertion of exogenous DNA) cloned goats. We examined expression of 15 genes involved in growth regulation, imprinting, and epigenetic transcription in lung tissue of deceased transgenic cloned and normal goats of various ages. Compared with normal goats of the same age from conventional reproduction, expression of 13 genes (BMP4, FGF10, GHR, HGFR, PDGFR, RABP, VEGF, H19, CDKNIC, PCAF, MeCP2, HDAC1, and Dnmt3b) decreased in transgenic cloned goats that died at or shortly after birth; Expression of eight genes (FGF10, PDGFR, RABP, VEGF, PCAF, HDAC1, MeCP2, and Dnmt3b) decreased in fetal death of transgenic cloned goats. Expression of two epigenetic transcription genes (PCAF and Dnmt3b) decreased in disease death of transgenic cloned goats (1-4 months old). Disruptions in gene expression might be associated with the high neonatal mortality in transgenic cloned animals. These findings have implications in understanding the low efficiency of transgenic cloning. (C) 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Bovine Neonatal Pancytopenia is a heritable trait of the dam rather than the calf and correlates with the magnitude of vaccine induced maternal alloantibodies not the MHC haplotype
Benedictus, L. ; Otten, H.G. ; Schaik, G. van; Ginkel, G.J. ; Heuven, H.C.M. ; Nielen, M. ; Rutten, V.P.M.G. ; Koets, A.P. - \ 2014
Veterinary Research 45 (2014). - ISSN 0928-4249 - 13 p.
class-i genes - hemorrhagic diathesis - cattle - antibody - calves - bnp - association - responses - sequence - beta-2-microglobulin
Bovine Neonatal Pancytopenia (BNP), a bleeding syndrome of neonatal calves, is caused by alloantibodies absorbed from the colostrum of particular cows. A commercial BVD vaccine is the likely source of alloantigens eliciting BNP associated alloantibodies. We hypothesized that the rare occurrence of BNP in calves born to vaccinated dams could be associated with genetic differences within dams and calves. We found that the development of BNP within calves was a heritable trait for dams, not for calves and had a high heritability of 19%. To elucidate which genes play a role in the development of BNP we sequenced candidate genes and characterized BNP alloantibodies. Alloantigens present in the vaccine have to be presented to the dam’s immune system via MHC class II, however sequencing of DRB3 showed no differences in MHC class II haplotype between BNP and non-BNP dams. MHC class I, a highly polymorphic alloantigen, is an important target of BNP alloantibodies. Using a novel sequence based MHC class I typing method, we found no association of BNP with MHC class I haplotype distribution in dams or calves. Alloantibodies were detected in both vaccinated BNP and non-BNP dams and we found no differences in alloantibody characteristics between these groups, but alloantibody levels were significantly higher in BNP dams. We concluded that the development of BNP in calves is a heritable trait of the dam rather than the calf and genetic differences between BNP and non-BNP dams are likely due to genes controlling the quantitative alloantibody response following vaccination.
WHYDRY; Verkorten van de droogstand van melkvee: effecten op de melkproductie, energiebalans en koe- en kalfgezondheid
Knegsel, A.T.M. van - \ 2014
Wageningen : Wageningen University, leerstoelgroep Adaptatiefysiologie - 156
melkproductie - energiebalans - diergezondheid - koeien - kalveren - experimenten - melkopbrengst - lactatie - melkinterval - melkveehouderij - gustperiode - milk production - energy balance - animal health - cows - calves - experiments - milk yield - lactation - milking interval - dairy farming - dry period
Van Knegsel, A.T.M. (Editor), 2014. WHYDRY: Verkorten van de droogstand van melkvee: effecten op de melkproductie, energiebalans en koe- en kalf-gezondheid. Wageningen University, Wageningen, Nederland. 156 blz. Sinds het begin van de 20ste eeuw worden melkkoeien enkele weken voor de verwachte kalfdatum drooggezet, d.w.z. niet meer gemolken. Het doel van deze droogstand is om de melkproductie in de daaropvolgende lactatie te maximaliseren. Daarnaast kunnen koeien met subklinische mastitis tijderns de droogstand behandeld worden met antibiotica. Recent is er discussie ontstaan of een droogstand van 6 tot 8 weken nog wel optimaal is vanwege een aantal redenen. Ten eerste is de vraag of een maximale melkproductie nog steeds wenselijk is, omdat een hoge melkproductie in begin lactatie wordt geassocieerd met een hoge ziekte-incidentie. Ten tweede is het droogzetten van hoogproductief melkvee met nog een hoge dagproductie bij droogzetten een risico voor uiergezondheid. Ten derde is sinds 2013 in Nederland het gebruik van antibiotica in de veehouderij sterk gelimiteerd. Dit geldt ook voor de antibiotica gebruikt in de droogstand, zgn. droogzetters. Deze antibiotica bepalen mede de lengte van de toegepaste droogstand, vanwege de wachttijd na gebruik van droogzetters voor de levering van melk. Het doel van WHYDRY was om via een integrale aanpak te onderzoeken wat de consequenties zijn van het verkorten van de droogstand voor melkproductie, melksamenstelling, energiebalans en koe- en kalfgezondheid. Het onderzoeksproject WHYDRY bestond hoofdzakelijk uit een groot dierexperiment waarin koeien 2 lactaties zijn gevolgd onder gecontroleerde omstandigheden. Binnen dit experiment zijn 168 Holstein-Friesian koeien random toegewezen aan een van de drie droogstandslengtes (0, 30 of 60 dagen) en een van twee lactatierantsoenen (glucogeen of lipogeen). Daarnaast is er een separaat experiment uitgevoerd naar pensontwikkeling van koeien met verschillende droogstandslengtes en zijn de melkcontrolegegevens geanalyseerd van 11 praktijkbedrijven die al een verkorte droogstand toepasten. De resultaten van WHYDRY laten zien dat het verkorten of weglaten van de droogstand resulteert in een verschuiving van de melkproductie van de kritische periode na afkalven naar de periode vóór afkalven wanneer de koe makkelijk in haar energiebehoefte kan voorzien. De verschillen in melkproductie en energiebalans tussen koeien met verschillende droogstandslengtes waren aanzienlijk. Verkorten van de droogstand resulteerde in beperkte reductie in melkproductie en melkopbrengst, maar met een duidelijke verbetering van de energiebalans in de daaropvolgende lactatie. Verkort droog zetten had geen gevolgen voor het celgetal in de melk, biestkwaliteit, antistofconcentratie in het bloed van de kalveren of groei van de kalveren. Een tweede lactatie opnieuw verkort droogzetten was goed mogelijk. Daarmee kan het verkorten van de droogstand naar 30 dagen een interessante strategie zijn om de energiebalans in vroege lactatie te verbeteren zonder dat het gevolgen heeft voor de totale lactatieproductie. Dit geldt zeker wanneer geen rekening gehouden hoeft te worden met de wachttijd van eventuele droogzetters en het gewenst is de melkproductie van koeien met een hoge dagproductie op 60 dagen voor afkalven de lactatieperiode te verlengen. Weglaten van de droogstand resulteerde in een sterke reductie in melkproductie en melkopbrengst, maar de energiebalans (qua duur en diepte) en metabole gezondheid werden sterk positief beïnvloed. Biestkwaliteit was significant minder, wat ook resulteerde in een lagere concentratie antistoffen in het bloed van de kalveren tot 6 weken leeftijd, maar daarna niet meer. Verder bestond het risico dat koeien vervetten en niet persistent genoeg waren om een tweede lactatie tot 4 aan afkalven gemolken te worden. Voor bepaalde koeien leek deze strategie echter wel succesvol. Koeien met een hoge dagproductie enkele maanden voor afkalven kenden geen negatieve gevolgen voor de melkproductie in de totale volgende lactatie wanneer zij gemolken werden tot aan afkalven. Onafhankelijk van droogstandslengte was ook het voeren van een glucogeen rantsoen in vroege lactatie gunstig voor de energiebalans en metabole gezondheid, in vergelijking met een meer lipogeen rantsoen.
Regio heeft grote invloed op levensvatbaarheid
Pellikaan, F. ; Ouweltjes, W. ; Windig, J.J. ; Muskens, J. ; Linden, R. van der; Pelt, M.L. van; Calus, M.P.L. - \ 2014
Veeteelt 31 (2014)14. - ISSN 0168-7565 - p. 10 - 13.
melkveehouderij - kalveren - levensvatbaarheid - geboorte - vaarzen - grote landbouwbedrijven - bedrijfsgrootte in de landbouw - landbouwstatistieken - bedrijfsvergelijking in de landbouw - invloeden - dairy farming - calves - viability - birth - heifers - large farms - farm size - agricultural statistics - farm comparisons - influences
Een afname van zes procent levend geboren kalveren van vaarzen tussen 1995 en 2010 was aanleiding voor nieuw sectoronderzoek. Uit de inventarisatie blijkt dat naast bekende factoren als draagtijd en geboorteverloop de regio waar het bedrijf is gehuisvest en het seizoen van afkalven zorgen voor opmerkelijke verschillen in levensvatbaarheid van kalveren.
Veel soorten antibiotica in mest gevonden
Sikkema, A. ; Mevius, D.J. - \ 2014
Resource: weekblad voor Wageningen UR 9 (2014)6. - ISSN 1874-3625 - p. 10 - 10.
dierlijke meststoffen - antibiotica - antibioticumresiduen - antibioticaresistentie - varkensmest - kalveren - mest - animal manures - antibiotics - antibiotic residues - antibiotic resistance - pig manure - calves - manures
Het Rikilt vindt met nieuwe methode veel antibioticasoorten in dierlijke mest. Het gevaar voor de volksgezondheid is nog onbekend.
Kalversector onder de hamer
Ouweltjes, Wijbrand - \ 2014
cattle husbandry - calves - veal calves - meat production - agricultural policy - animal welfare - transport of animals - animal health - animal production
Schmallenberg virus : technical and scientific studies
Poel, W.H.M. van der - \ 2014
Lelystad : Central Veterinary Institute of Wageningen UR - 67
dierpathologie - schmallenbergvirus - epidemiologie - pathogenese - transmissie - vectoren - diagnose - reverse transcriptase pcr - serologie - wilde dieren - huisdieren - kalveren - lammeren - koeien - schapen - animal pathology - schmallenberg virus - epidemiology - pathogenesis - transmission - vectors - diagnosis - serology - wild animals - domestic animals - calves - lambs - cows - sheep
Schmallenberg virus primarily infects domestic and wild ruminants. Cattle and sheep seem to be the most susceptible species. Goats, pigs and camelids seem to be less susceptible. In pregnant cattle and sheep, the virus can infect multiple organs of the un-borne fetus. However, this infection often does not cause major lesions and infrequently leads to malformations.
Continuous milking of dairy cows disrupts timing of peak IgG concentration appearance in mammary secretions
Baumrucker, C.R. ; Zbinden, R.S. ; Dorland, H.A. van; Remmelink, G.J. ; Kemp, B. ; Knegsel, A.T.M. van; Bruckmaier, R.M. - \ 2014
Journal of Dairy Research 81 (2014)4. - ISSN 0022-0299 - p. 403 - 409.
dry period length - continuous lactation - bovine somatotropin - immunoglobulin g(1) - passive transfer - cell turnover - colostrogenesis - colostrum - calves - nutrient
The length of the dry period in commercial dairy production is under close scrutiny. While the main concern is the composition and volume of milk produced, the evaluation of colostrum quality under these new paradigms has suggested a decline in IgG concentrations, while some reports indicate no change. Colostrum quality has been defined as an adequate concentration (>50 mg/ml) of immunoglobulin in the secretions to provide the newborn with maximal disease resistance. We investigated the appearance of IgG in mammary pre- and post partum secretions in cows without a dry period (continuously milked, Dry0) and compared the secretions with cows that experienced a dry period of 60 d (Dry60). Blood was collected during the experimental period and plasma analysed for progesterone (P4) and prolactin (Prl). Approximately -6 d relative to parturition, the Dry0 animals exhibited increased concentration of IgG in their secretions to an average of ~35 mg/ml that remained rather constant through subsequent pregnancy and following parturition. Dry0 cows were producing an average IgG concentration in parturition colostrum of 44·2±17·6 mg/ml that was not different than that of controls (66·86±16·8 mg/ml). However, Dry0 cows exhibited high variation, different peak times (day) of IgG concentration including times that occurred both pre and post parturition. IgG mass of the Dry0 cows remained rather constant pre- and post partum and did not show the same declining mass following parturition that was shown for the Dry60 cows. The change in plasma P4 and Prl were shown to have no timing effect on colostrum IgG concentration.
JONKOS - Rekenprogramma om opfokkosten jongvee te berekenen
Evers, A.G. ; Haan, M.H.A. de - \ 2014
Verantwoorde veehouderij
rundvee - kalveren - jonge dieren - dierlijke productie - kosten - dierveredeling - berekening - cattle - calves - young animals - animal production - costs - animal breeding - calculation
Download of open hieronder de spreadsheet van het bedrijfstype dat u door wilt rekenen door erop te klikken. Vul in de spreadsheet de gele cellen van de hoofdpagina in. Zo berekent u de kosten voor jongveeopfok van uw bedrijf.
Beleidsvarianten voor de toekenning toeslagen in de kalversector, 2014-2019 : gevolgen van vier beleidsvarianten van het Gemeenschappelijk Landbouwbeleid voor een gemiddeld kalverbedrijf in Nederland
Bondt, N. ; Jager, J.H. - \ 2014
Den Haag : LEI Wageningen UR (LEI 14-027) - 15
kalveren - kalverproductie - gemeenschappelijk landbouwbeleid - rundveehouderij - landbouwbeleid - vleeskalveren - eu regelingen - melkveehouderij - ondersteunende maatregelen - calves - calf production - cap - cattle husbandry - agricultural policy - veal calves - eu regulations - dairy farming - support measures
In deze nota wordt een analyse gemaakt van de veranderingen in de omvang van de toeslagen uit de eerste pijler van het GLB voor Nederlandse vleeskalverbedrijven tussen 2014 en 2019, die het gevolg zijn van de overgang van het historisch naar het regionaal model. Daarvoor gebruiken we in deze studie vier beleidsvarianten: de Nederlandse variant wordt vergeleken met de voorgenomen varianten waarvan op dit moment verwacht wordt dat ze in Frankrijk (twee alternatieven) en Vlaanderen zullen worden toegepast.
Identification of factors associated with increased excretion of foot-and-mouth disease virus
Bravo De Rueda, C. ; Dekker, A. ; Eble, P.L. ; Jong, M.C.M. de - \ 2014
Preventive Veterinary Medicine 113 (2014)1. - ISSN 0167-5877 - p. 23 - 33.
immune-responses - dairy-cows - transmission - vaccination - pigs - infection - quantification - epidemiology - calves - lambs
We investigated which variables possibly influence the amount of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) shed in secretions and excretions by FMDV infected animals, as it is likely that the amount of FMDV shed is related to transmission risk. First, in a separate analysis of laboratory data, we showed that the total amount of FMDV in secretions and excretions from infected animals is highly correlated with maximum titres of FMDV. Next, we collected data from 32 published scientific articles in which FMDV infection experiments were described. The maximum titres of FMDV reported in different secretions and excretions (the response variable) and the experimental conditions in which they occurred (the explanatory variables), were recorded in a database and analyzed using multivariate regression models with and without random effects. In both types of models, maximum titres of FMDV were significantly (p <0.05) associated with types of secretions and excretions, animal species, stage of the disease and days post infection. These results can be used to prioritize biosecurity measures in contingency plans.
Vleeskalf fit aan de start
Reenen, C.G. van - \ 2014
V-focus 2014 (2014)1. - ISSN 1574-1575 - p. 19 - 19.
rundveehouderij - kalveren - diergezondheid - huisvesting van kalveren - vleeskalveren - kalverproductie - dierenwelzijn - veevervoer - cattle husbandry - calves - animal health - calf housing - veal calves - calf production - animal welfare - transport of animals
'De diergezondheid en de weerstand van het kalf hebben momenteel bij ons de hoogste prioriteit', aldus Jacques de Groot, hoofd R&D van kalverhouderij-integratie VanDrie Group. 'We moeten het antwoord vinden op de vraag hoe we het kalf, dat we op een leeftijd van zo’n veertien dagen binnenkrijgen, naar een zo hoog mogelijk gezondheidsniveau tillen.'
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