Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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A quantitative approach towards a better understanding of the dynamics of Salmonella spp. in a pork slaughter-line
Hoek, A.H.A.M. van; Jonge, R. de; Overbeek, W.M. van; Bouw, E.M. ; Pielaat, A. ; Smid, J.H. ; Malorny, B. ; Junker, E. ; Lofstrom, C. ; Pedersen, K. ; Aarts, H.J.M. ; Heres, L. - \ 2012
International Journal of Food Microbiology 153 (2012)1-2. - ISSN 0168-1605 - p. 45 - 52.
enterica serovar typhimurium - cross-contamination - carcasses - prevalence - excision - pigs - electrophoresis - identification - abattoirs - gauze
Pork contributes significantly to the public health disease burden caused by Salmonella infections. During the slaughter process pig carcasses can become contaminated with Salmonella. Contamination at the slaughter-line is initiated by pigs carrying Salmonella on their skin or in their faeces. Another contamination route could be resident flora present on the slaughter equipment. To unravel the contribution of these two potential sources of Salmonella a quantitative study was conducted. Process equipment (belly openers and carcass splitters), faeces and carcasses (skin and cutting surfaces) along the slaughter-line were sampled at 11 sampling days spanning a period of 4 months. Most samples taken directly after killing were positive for Salmonella. On 96.6% of the skin samples Salmonella was identified, whereas a lower number of animals tested positive in their rectum (62.5%). The prevalence of Salmonella clearly declined on the carcasses at the re-work station, either on the cut section or on the skin of the carcass or both (35.9%). Throughout the sampling period of the slaughter-line the total number of Salmonella per animal was almost 2log lower at the re-work station in comparison to directly after slaughter. Seven different serovars were identified during the study with S. Derby (41%) and S. Typhimurium (29%) as the most prominent types. A recurring S. Rissen contamination of one of the carcass splitters indicated the presence of an endemic 'house flora' in the slaughterhouse studied. On many instances several serotypes per individual sample were found. The enumeration of Salmonella and the genotyping data gave unique insight in the dynamics of transmission of this pathogen in a slaughter-line. The data of the presented study support the hypothesis that resident flora on slaughter equipment was a relevant source for contamination of pork.
Overwegingen bij alternatieve kadaverlogistiek in Nederland; Consequenties van het verruimen van de bewaarperiode van kadavers
Hoste, R. ; Oosterkamp, E.B. ; Aramyan, L.H. - \ 2012
Den Haag : LEI, onderdeel van Wageningen UR (LEI-nota : Markt & ketens ) - 28
kadaververwijdering - karkassen - diergezondheid - volksgezondheid - veehouderij - logistiek - agrarische bedrijfsvoering - carcass disposal - carcasses - animal health - public health - livestock farming - logistics - farm management
Signalen uit de veehouderij geven aan dat het voor sommige veehouders aantrekkelijk zou kunnen zijn om de ophaalfrequentie van kadavers te verminderen. Het ministerie van EZ heeft het LEI daarom gevraagd om een oriëntatie van voor- en nadelen van langer koelen en invriezen van kadavers en kadavermateriaal en de consequenties daarvan te bestuderen ten aanzien van de risico's voor dier- en volksgezondheid, handhaafbaarheid, transportbewegingen, verbruik koelingsenergie, verwerkingsmogelijkheden van gekoeld en ingevroren materiaal. Doel van het onderzoek is het in kaart brengen van consequenties van het verruimen van de bewaarperiode van kadavers en kadavermateriaal. EZ heeft behoefte om de voordelen te concretiseren en af te wegen tegen de nadelen, ten behoeve van een eventuele toekomstige beleidskeuze. Het ministerie wil er zeker van zijn dat een nieuwe systematiek geen extra risico's met zich meebrengt voor dier- en volksgezondheid.
Microbial performance of food safety management systems implemented in the lamb production chain
Oses, S.M. ; Luning, P.A. ; Jacxsens, L. ; Santillana, S. ; Jaime, I. ; Rovira, J. - \ 2012
Journal of Food Protection 75 (2012)1. - ISSN 0362-028X - p. 95 - 103.
escherichia-coli o157 - beef processing plants - aerobic-bacteria - red meat - carcasses - prevalence - contamination - enterobacteriaceae - campylobacter - salmonella
The actual microbial status of the lamb production chain at three slaughterhouses, one processing plant, and five butcher shops selling whole or cut lamb carcasses to consumers was assessed with a previously developed microbial assessment scheme. All studied establishments had a food safety management system (FSMS) that was implemented according to legislative requirements. Microbial safety level profiles were constructed for each establishment and provided clear indications of which pathogens, hygiene indicators, or utility parameters required attention to improve the performance of the microbiological control protocols of the implemented FSMS. The highest contamination was found in the slaughterhouses in samples taken from the meat products (aerobic mesophilic plate counts [AMPs] of 3.40 to 6.63 log CFU/cm(2) and Enterobacteriaceae counts of 1.00 to 4.62 log CFU/cm(2)), contact surfaces (AMPs of 2.44 to 8.92 log CFU/cm(2)), and operators' hands and/or gloves (AMPs of 2.84 to 8.09 log CFU/cm(2)), especially after hide removal and evisceration. The microbial assessment scheme is a useful tool for providing insight into the actual microbiological results achieved with an FSMS implemented in establishments at various stages along the lamb production chain.
Bruises in Chilean cattle: their characterization, occurrence and relation with pre-slaughter conditions
Strappini, A.C. - \ 2012
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Bas Kemp; Jos Metz, co-promotor(en): Klaas Frankena; C.B. Gallo. - S.l. : s.n. - ISBN 9789461732255 - 140
rundvee - kneuzingen - kneuzen - karakterisering - risicofactoren - slacht - slachthuizen - karkassen - bewerking - veevervoer - bedwelmen - chili - cattle - bruises - bruising - characterization - risk factors - slaughter - abattoirs - carcasses - handling - transport of animals - stunning - chile

Bruises on cattle carcass affect the quality of the meat and are indicators of poor welfare conditions. According to the literature the occurrence of bruises is related to pre- slaughter conditions, however their contribution is not clear for Chilean cattle. The aim of this thesis was to provide a better understanding of the relationship between pre-slaughter factors and the occurrence of bruises -from loading until slaughter- under Chilean conditions. Therefore in the first study slaughter records of two Chilean slaughterhouses were analysed.It showed that cows and oxen had higher risk to present bruises compared to steers and heifers. Moreover, animals that passed through a livestock market were more prone to present bruises than animals that came directly from the farm. A large difference in carcass bruise prevalence was found between slaughterhouses and this discrepancy was attributed to differences in the use of the Chilean scoring system and to several constraints of the system itself. Thus a new scoring system was developed and its reliability was assessed showing a highagreement when only one observer performs the scoring. An inventory of the gross characteristics of bruises, based on the refined bruising protocol, was carried out. Animals passing through a livestock market have more bruises than animals transported directly from the farm to the slaughterhouse. This thesis presents evidences of rough handling and animals beaten by sticks at markets.In the last study the causal event of bruises during the pre-slaughter periodwas assessed. It showed that rough handling due to inappropriate use of aids to drive animals during loading and unloading, and inadequate stunning facilities at the slaughterhouse were the areas of most risk for bruising. It was concluded that improvements in the design and maintenance of appropriate structures and training of stock people will reduce the occurrence of bruises and in consequence will lead to better welfare conditions of cattle for slaughter.

Lean meat prediction with HGP, CGM and CSB-Image-Meater, with prediction accuracy evaluated for different proportions of gilts, boars and castrated boars in the pig population
Engel, B. ; Lambooij, E. ; Buist, W.G. ; Vereijken, P.F.G. - \ 2012
Meat Science 90 (2012)2. - ISSN 0309-1740 - p. 338 - 344.
percentage - carcasses
Prediction equations for the percentage lean meat in pig carcasses in The Netherlands were derived for the Hennessy Grading Probe 7, Capteur Gras/Maigre - Sydel and CSB-Image-Meater. Because castrated males are expected to vanish from the Dutch pig population in the near future, accuracy of prediction was evaluated for different scenarios representing a wide range of different proportions for entire males, castrated males and females in the Dutch pig population. The prediction equations for the instruments are in compliance with the EC regulations for prediction accuracy for the different scenarios. So, these equations will remain valid when castrated males are (gradually) removed from the Dutch slaughter population. Results of this study are of interest for researchers from countries or areas contemplating the use of one of the aforementioned instruments. The statistical approach for evaluation of prediction accuracy is of particular interest when changes in proportions of important subpopulations in the target population are foreseen
Comparison of Campylobacter Levels in Crops and Ceca of Broilers at Slaughter
Gerwe, T. van; Bouma, A. ; Wagenaar, J.A. ; Jacobs-Reitsma, W.F. ; Stegeman, A. - \ 2010
Avian Diseases 54 (2010)3. - ISSN 0005-2086 - p. 1072 - 1074.
jejuni colonization - chickens - contamination - carcasses - feed - spp. - meat - salmonella - water - acids
considerable fraction of the poultry carcasses becomes contaminated with Campylobacter by cross-contamination from the digestive tract of colonized broilers at slaughter. Campylobacter in the crop may serve as a possible source of cross-contamination, because the crop may contain high numbers of Campylobacter and is more likely to rupture during the slaughtering process than intestines. In this study, the correlation between Campylobacter colonization levels in crop and cecum was assessed in 48 broilers of 31 days of age. In addition, the effect of drinking water supplemented with 0.2% volatile fatty acid (VFA) on these Campylobacter colonization levels was studied. No correlation between crop and cecal colonization levels was found (rho = 0.09; P = 0.71), indicating that future studies on cross-contamination should include an examination of not only cecal colonization levels but also crop colonization levels. Supplementation of drinking water with VFA did not result in a significant reduction of colonization levels in either the crop (P = 0.50) or the ceca (P = 0.92), indicating that this is not an effective measure to reduce cross-contamination at slaughter.
Multiresistant Salmonella enterica serovar 4,[5],12:i:- in Europe: a new pandemic strain?
Hopkins, K.L. ; Kirchner, M. ; Guerra, B. ; Granier, A. ; Lucarelli, C. ; Porrero, M.C. ; Jakubczak, A. ; Threlfall, J. ; Mevius, D.J. - \ 2010
Eurosurveillance 15 (2010)22. - ISSN 1025-496X - p. 1 - 9.
antimicrobial resistance genes - molecular characterization - multidrug-resistance - monophasic variant - serotype typhimurium - 4,5,12-i - identification - infections - emergence - carcasses
A marked increase in the prevalence of S. enterica serovar 4,[5],12:i:- with resistance to ampicillin, streptomycin, sulphonamides and tetracyclines (R-type ASSuT) has been noted in food-borne infections and in pigs/pig meat in several European countries in the last ten years. One hundred and sixteen strains of S. enterica serovar 4,[5],12:i:- from humans, pigs and pig meat isolated in England and Wales, France, Germany, Italy, Poland, Spain and the Netherlands were further subtyped by phage typing, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and multilocus variable number tandem repeat analysis to investigate the genetic relationship among strains. PCR was performed to identify the fljB flagellar gene and the genes encoding resistance to ampicillin, streptomycin, sulphonamides and tetracyclines. Class 1 and 2 integrase genes were also sought. Results indicate that genetically related serovar 4,[5],12:i:- strains of definitive phage types DT193 and DT120 with ampicillin, streptomycin, sulphonamide and tetracycline resistance encoded by blaTEM, strA-strB, sul2 and tet(B) have emerged in several European countries, with pigs the likely reservoir of infection. Control measures are urgently needed to reduce spread of infection to humans via the food chain and thereby prevent the possible pandemic spread of serovar 4,[5],12:i:- of R-type ASSuT as occurred with S. Typhimurium DT104 during the 1990s.
A Risk Assessment Model for Campylobacter in Broiler Meat
Nauta, M.J. ; Jacobs-Reitsma, W.F. ; Havelaar, A.H. - \ 2007
Risk Analysis 27 (2007)4. - ISSN 0272-4332 - p. 845 - 861.
bacterial cross-contamination - food safety - domestic kitchen - jejuni - level - salmonella - carcasses - spp. - coli
A quantitative microbiological risk assessment model describes the transmission of Campylobacter through the broiler meat production chain and at home, from entering the processing plant until consumption of a chicken breast fillet meal. The exposure model is linked to a dose-response model to allow estimation of the incidence of human campylobacteriosis. The ultimate objective of the model is to serve as a tool to assess the effects of interventions to reduce campylobacteriosis in the Netherlands. The model describes some basic mechanistics of processing, including the nonlinear effects of cross-contamination between carcasses and their leaking feces. Model input is based on the output of an accompanying farm model and Dutch count data of Campylobacters on the birds' exterior and in the feces. When processing data are lacking, expert judgment is used for model parameter estimation. The model shows that to accurately assess of the effects of interventions, numbers of Campylobacter have to be explicitly incorporated in the model in addition to the prevalence of contamination. Also, as count data usually vary by several orders of magnitude, variability in numbers within and especially between flocks has to be accounted for. Flocks with high concentrations of Campylobacter in the feces that leak from the carcasses during industrial processing seem to have a dominant impact on the human incidence. The uncertainty in the final risk estimate is large, due to a large uncertainty at several stages of the chain. Among others, more quantitative count data at several stages of the production chain are needed to decrease this uncertainty. However, this uncertainty is smaller when relative risks of interventions are calculated with the model. Hence, the model can be effectively used by risk management in deciding on strategies to reduce human campylobacteriosis.
Verminderen van mens-dier contact tijdens het vangen en ruimen van pluimvee bij een uitbraak van Aviaire influenza
Gerritzen, M.A. ; Lambooij, E. ; Stegeman, A. - \ 2006
Lelystad : Animal Sciences Group (Rapport / Animal Sciences Group ) - 16
pluimveehouderij - pluimvee - aviaire influenzavirussen - karkassen - poultry farming - poultry - avian influenza viruses - carcasses
Het grootste aantal contactmomenten en het meest intensieve mens-dier contact vindt plaats bij het vangen van dieren en het opruimen van dode dieren. Doel van deze deskstudie is om te inventariseren of bij het doden van bedrijfsmatig gehouden pluimvee en het opruimen van de karkassen de inzet van mensen kan worden verminderd, dat het contact met levende en dode dieren kan worden voorkomen, of dat de intensiteit van het contact kan worden verminderd
Similarities and differences in composition and selected sensory attributes of reindeer, caribou and beef
Rincker, P.J. ; Bechtel, P.J. ; Finstadt, G. ; Buuren, R.G.C. Van; Killefer, J. ; McKeith, F.K. - \ 2006
Journal of Muscle Foods 17 (2006)1. - ISSN 1046-0756 - p. 65 - 78.
meat quality - red deer - venison - ph - extraction - slaughter - carcasses - color
The longissimus from caribou (n = 6), reindeer (n = 6) and beef (n = 6) were evaluated to determine differences in composition, color and sensory properties. Caribou contained the least fat followed by reindeer, and then beef (P <0.05). Both venison sources contained more heme pigment and had a higher glycolytic potential than beef (P <0.05). A trained sensory panel found both sources of venison to be more tender than beef (P <0.05); however Warner-Bratzler shear force yielded no significant differences. The sensory panel scored both reindeer and caribou as having a more intense off-flavor (livery) and less intense meat-flavor than beef (P <0.05). Venison was darker than beef as determined by Minolta L* values (P <0.05). No differences (P > 0.05) were found in ultimate pH or juiciness (sensory panel) among any of the products. Results from this study indicate that reindeer and caribou are a low-fat source of protein with desirable sensory characteristics.
Simulating Escherichia coli O157:H7 transmission to assess effectiveness of interventions in Dutch dairy-beef slaughterhouses
Vosough Ahmadi, B. ; Velthuis, A.G.J. ; Hogeveen, H. ; Huirne, R.B.M. - \ 2006
Preventive Veterinary Medicine 77 (2006)1/2. - ISSN 0167-5877 - p. 15 - 30.
steam pasteurization - aerobic-bacteria - prevalence - salmonella - carcasses - decontamination - contamination - hides - enterobacteriaceae - spread
Beef contamination with Escherichia coli O157:H7 (VTEC) is an important food-safety issue. To investigate the effectiveness of interventions against VTEC in Dutch beef industrial slaughterhouses that slaughter 500 dairy cattle per day, a Monte Carlo simulation model was built. We examined seven carcass-antimicrobial interventions, namely: hot-water wash, lactic-acid rinse, trim, steam-vacuum, steam-pasteurization, hide-wash with ethanol and gamma irradiation, and their combinations. The estimated daily prevalence of contaminated beef-carcass quarters as the output of the model was 9.2%. Contaminated was defined as containing one or more CFU on the surface of a carcass quarter at the end of the quartering stage. Single interventions (except irradiation) could reduce the prevalence to from 6.2% to 1.7%, whereas the combination of interventions could lower it to from 1.2% to 0.1%. The most powerful intervention was irradiation, which could reduce the prevalence to
Haalbaarheid van kadaverbe- en -verwerking op varkensbedrijven = Feasibility study on processing carcasses on pig farms
Wagenberg, A.V. van; Timmerman, M. ; Bosma, A.J.J. - \ 2004
Lelystad : Animal Sciences Group (PraktijkRapport / Animal Sciences Group, Praktijkonderzoek : Varkens ) - 31
varkens - varkenshouderij - karkassen - verwerking op de boerderij - kosten - invriezen - verbranden - compostering - fermentatie - haalbaarheidsstudies - pigs - pig farming - carcasses - on-farm processing - costs - freezing - burning - composting - fermentation - feasibility studies
In de praktijk is de vraag ontstaan hoe de kosten voor kadaverafvoer en -verwerking voor varkensbedrijven gereduceerd kunnen worden. Conserveren en verwerken van kadavers op het bedrijf zelf bieden mogelijkheden om de ophaal- en verwerkingskosten te reduceren en versleep van aangifteplichtige en bedrijfsgebonden dierziekten te verminderen. De methoden die in dit rapport belicht worden zijn invriezen, verbranden, composteren en vergisten. Er is een inschatting gemaakt van de haalbaarheid van de genoemde technieken waarbij gekeken is naar de praktische toepasbaarheid en de economische haalbaarheid. De kosten zijn vergeleken met de kosten van de afvoer van kadavers naar Rendac
Rapid chilling cannot prevent inferior pork quality caused by high preslaughter stress
Hambrecht, E. ; Eissen, J.J. ; Klein, W.J.H. ; Ducro, B.J. ; Smits, C.H.M. ; Verstegen, M.W.A. ; Hartog, L.A. den - \ 2004
Journal of Animal Science 82 (2004)2. - ISSN 0021-8812 - p. 551 - 556.
meat quality - slaughter - pigs - temperature - carcasses
The present experiment investigated whether increasing chilling rate could improve meat quality in pigs exposed to either minimal or high stress immediately preslaughter. Pigs (n = 192) were offspring of halothane-free lines. On various days, four groups of 48 pigs were processed at a commercial plant. Within each group, half the pigs were exposed to either minimal or high preslaughter stress. Before entering the cooler at 45 min postmortem, carcasses of both minimal and high preslaughter stress treatments were allocated randomly to either conventional (+4degreesC for 22 h) or rapid (three-phase chilling tunnel: -15, -10, and -1degreesC for 15, 38, and 38 min, respectively, followed by storage at 4degreesC until 22 h postmortem) chilling. Temperature and pH were measured in the blood at exsanguination and in the longissimus lumborum (LL) and semimembranosus (SM) muscle at 0.5, 2.5, 4.5, 6.5, and 22 h postmortem. Meat quality attributes (water-holding capacity and objective color measurements) were assessed on the LL. Preslaughter stress level affected pH and temperature in both blood and muscle, with lower (P <0.001) pH values and higher (P <0.001) temperatures for pigs exposed to high vs. minimal stress. Rapid chilling led to a faster (P <0.001) temperature decline regardless of preslaughter stress level. Rapid chilling did not (P > 0.05) influence the rate of pH decline in the LL muscle, but reduced (P = 0.061) pH decline in the SM. Rapid chilling, as opposed to conventional chilling, decreased (P <0.05) electrical conductivity in the LL, regardless of preslaughter stress; however, it could not compensate for the detrimental effect (P <0.05) of stress on drip loss, filter paper moisture absorption, and meat color (L* value). Results from the present study indicated that increasing chilling rate is not a suitable method to resolve pork quality problems caused by inadequate preslaughter handling.
The occurrence and epidemiology of Salmonella in European pig slaughterhouses
Hald, T. ; Wingstrand, A. ; Swanenburg, M. ; Altrock, A. von; Thorberg, B.M. - \ 2003
Epidemiology and Infection 131 (2003)3. - ISSN 0950-2688 - p. 1187 - 1203.
yersinia-enterocolitica - meat inspection - risk-factors - phage types - typhimurium - carcasses - outbreak - identification - swine - pork
This study was part of an international research project entitled SALINPORK (FAIR CT-950400) initiated in 1996. The objectives were to investigate the occurrence of Salmonella in pig slaughterhouses and to identify risk factors associated with the contamination of pig carcasses. Data was collected from 12 slaughterhouses in five European countries. Isolates were characterized by serotyping, phage typing and antimicrobial susceptibility. In one country, no Salmonella was found. Salmonella was isolated from 5·3% of 3485 samples of pork and from 13·8% of 3573 environmental samples from the seven slaughterhouses in the four remaining countries. The statistical analyses (multi-level logistic regression) indicated that the prevalence was significantly higher during the warmer months and that the environmental contamination increased during the day of slaughter. The polishing (OR 3·74, 95% CI 1·43¿9·78) and pluck removal (OR 3·63, 95% CI 1·66¿7·96) processes were found to contribute significantly to the total carcass contamination, the latter especially if the scalding water also was contaminated. To reduce carcass contamination, it is recommended to ensure sufficiently high temperatures of scalding water (62 °C) and appropriate cleaning and disinfection of the polishing equipment at least once a day in order to reduce the level of carcass contamination and consequently the prevalence of Salmonella in pork
Epidemiology and control measures for Salmonella in pigs and pork
Fo Wong, D.M.A. Lo; Hald, T. ; Wolf, P.J. van der; Swanenburg, M. - \ 2002
Livestock Production Science 76 (2002)3. - ISSN 0301-6226 - p. 215 - 222.
slaughter pigs - escherichia-coli - risk-factors - herd level - swine - carcasses - transport - infection - lairage - contamination
In order to effectively manage the problem of human salmonellosis attributable to pork and pork products, control measures should be taken simultaneously at all levels of production. These measures require an understanding of the epidemiology of Salmonella within and between links of the production chain. Two major factors of pre-harvest Salmonella epidemiology are the introduction and subsequent transmission of infection within and between herds. Stress imposed by transportation and the associated handling can significantly increase the number of pigs excreting Salmonella upon arrival at the abattoir and during lairage, exposing negative pigs to Salmonella. Positive pigs carry Salmonella on the skin, in the gastro-intestinal system or in the mouth. The (cross-)contamination of carcasses is basically a matter of redistributing the Salmonella bacteria from the positive pigs during the various slaughter processes. Although the manufacturing and retail levels of pork production depend on the quality of raw materials that are delivered, they share the responsibility for the quality and safety of the end products reaching the consumer. At this level and onwards, the three main factors which influence the microbiological quality of meats are handling, time and temperature
Nederland kiest voor voordelen van visionsysteem: classificatiesystemen en toekomstige ontwikkelingen
Walstra, P. ; Lambooij, E. - \ 2002
Vleesindustrie 8 (2002)10. - ISSN 1385-7312 - p. 26 - 29.
classificatie - karkassen - karkassamenstelling - karkasbeoordeling - karkaskwaliteit - computertechnieken - afbeelden - beeldverwerkers - machine vision - classificatiesystemen - classification - carcasses - carcass composition - carcass grading - carcass quality - computer techniques - imagery - image processors - classification systems
Visiontechnieken zijn de meest recente apparatuur om varkenskarakassen te classificeren en volledig automatisch te beoordelen
De strijd tegen Campylobacter vraagt grote inspanningen
Wagenaar, J.A. ; Jacobs-Reitsma, W.F. ; Bolder, N.M. - \ 2001
Vleesindustrie 7 (2001)8. - ISSN 1385-7312 - p. 16 - 17.
campylobacter - spirillaceae - voedselbesmetting - voedselhygiëne - voedselveiligheid - microbiële besmetting - pluimvee - slachtdieren - diarree - spijsverteringsstoornissen - decontaminatie - karkassen - food contamination - food hygiene - food safety - microbial contamination - poultry - meat animals - diarrhoea - digestive disorders - decontamination - carcasses
In Nederland wordt veel onderzoek gedaan naar de beheersing van Campylobacter; naast onderzoek op pluimveebedrijven tracht men vleeskuikens minder gevoelig te maken voor een Campilobacterinfectie. Tevens wordt gewerkt aan snelle testmethoden voor decontaminatie van karkassen
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