Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Tourism destination development in Thailand
Pongajarn, Chalermpat - \ 2017
University. Promotor(en): Rene van der Duim, co-promotor(en): Karin Peters. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463437981 - 123
thailand - actor-network theory - social geography - cultural sociology - case studies - tourism development - tourism research - actor-network theorie - sociale geografie - cultuursociologie - gevalsanalyse - ontwikkeling van toerisme - toeristisch onderzoek

Informed by actor-network theory (ANT), this research aims at improving understanding of the nature of tourism destinations in Thailand and their development by investigating through three main notions: ordering, materiality and multiplicity. These notions enabled to study how tourism destinations in Thailand develop: how they are ordered and constructed, as well as how they hold their agency as tourism destinations through processes of re-negotiation and re-enactment. By employing ANT and its ontological perspective, tourism destinations are seen as fractionally coherent, or as ordering effects, which develop through, in and by heterogeneous networks. Consequently, tourism destinations are not set in stone. They are multiple things at once, and their configurations and development patterns cannot be foretold. By employing ANT, this study challenged the conventional approach to tourism destination development by underlining complexity rather than viewing these destinations as being static. Instead of aiming to provide general design principles or recommendations, this thesis provides an insight on tourism destination development in Thailand by studying three destinations: Pai, Pattaya, and the floating markets of Damnernsaduak, Thaka, Ampawa, Pattaya and Bang Numpheung.

Europe: the paradox of landscape change : A case-study based contribution to the understanding of landscape transitions
Sluis, Theo van der - \ 2017
University. Promotor(en): Bas Arts, co-promotor(en): Bas Pedroli. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463438094 - 227
europe - case studies - landscape - change - landscape conservation - land use dynamics - cultural landscape - regions - urbanization - rural areas - policy - ecosystem services - agri-environment schemes - europa - gevalsanalyse - landschap - verandering - landschapsbescherming - dynamiek van het ruimtegebruik - cultuurlandschap - regio's - urbanisatie - platteland - beleid - ecosysteemdiensten - agrarisch natuurbeheer

This thesis explores the processes of change in European rural landscapes. Landscapes have evolved over millennia as a result of human influence on the physical environment. Europe has a wide variety of landscapes that can alter within a relatively short distance, and which often form part of the national cultural identity of a European country. Central to this thesis, however, are insights into the processes of landscape change.

In this context, the overall objective of this thesis is: To assess the dynamics of landscape change and increase the scientific understanding of the underlying processes and policies that have shaped the rural landscapes of Europe after establishment of the EU.

The focus is on the period following the establishment of the European Economic Community in 1965, which is hypothesised as the main driver of landscape change. European policies have an important direct impact on national and regional policies. The way that European policy transposition took place, existing governance structures and policy cultures also defined how ‘European policy’ influenced countries and regions. The object of this study is in particular the changing rural landscape, including the role of European agricultural policies, such as the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) and conservation policies (for example Natura2000) in these changes.

The thesis uses an integrated approach to assess the various processes of landscape change: land use transitions, urbanisation of the countryside, land use intensification, extensification or abandonment. These processes are linked to drivers of landscape changes, the role of policies, and how these affect the landscape processes.

Research questions

The research objective requires unravelling the correlations between land-related policies and landscape change in the EU, the drivers of landscape change and in particular how policies affect the European landscape. To operationalise this objective, the following research questions are addressed:

What are the major landscape change processes occurring in different regions of Europe?

What are the drivers of landscape change in different regions of Europe, and what is the role of EU-policies in particular?

How do landscape changes affect the provision of landscape services?

How does the implementation of conservation policies affect processes of landscape change?

Which effective strategies and future pathways can be followed to conserve valuable cultural landscapes?

The thesis consists of an introductory chapter, five chapters each addressing one of the research questions, and a concluding synthesis: putting the findings together and indicating their potential significance for research and policy. The first chapter introduces the theoretical framework, which focusses on the benefits (goods and services) that landscapes provide, satisfying human demands directly or indirectly. The framework recognises the institutions, the policies (indirect drivers), as well as natural and anthropogenic drivers of landscape change. The five central chapters have each been submitted to international peer reviewed scientific journals, three of which have been accepted, and one has been revised and resubmitted.

Research question Q1, ‘What are major landscape changes occurring in different regions of Europe?’ is addressed by interviewing 437 farmers in six selected study areas in Denmark, the Netherlands, Austria, Greece and Romania (Chapter 2). The aim of this survey was to acquire a better understanding of farmer’s decision making, the environmental conditions and the landscape change processes taking place. The focus is on intensification and extensification processes in the case-study areas and regional similarities and differences. A statistical analysis of land use intensity was carried out on the basis of the interviews.

Research question Q2, ‘What are the drivers of landscape change in different regions of Europe, and what particularly are the role of EU-policies?’, discusses the factors and drivers of change in a meta-study of six countries (Chapter 3). This study is based on stakeholder’s interpretations of change processes, using Fuzzy Cognitive Mapping. Groups of landscape experts participated in five workshops to jointly construct a cognitive map of landscape change processes over the past 25 years. The study examines in particular the storylines of the processes of landscape change. Two cases of Mediterranean and Boreal landscapes, are detailed.

Question Q3, ‘How do landscape changes affect the provision of landscape services?’ is addressed in Chapter 4, and discusses five European case studies with regard to changes in landscape services. The analysis is based on observed landscape changes by comparing maps for periods of up to 25 years. The changes were interpreted in terms of the consequences for landscape services, and related to European policies of landscape change.

Question Q4: ‘How does the implementation of conservation policies affect processes of landscape change?’ is discussed in Chapter 5 through focus on landscape governance. The transposition of European policy is assessed using the case of the Habitats Directive in four countries: Denmark, Greece, The Netherlands and Romania. It is assessed how legislation is locally translated and how this ‘fits’ the national governance system.

The last Question, Q5: ‘Which effective strategies and future pathways can be followed to conserve valuable cultural landscapes?’ is addressed in Chapter 6 on Mediterranean landscape change. Two ‘iconic’ Greek and Italian cultural olive yard landscapes were compared. Both landscapes have a centuries-old farming system. Long-term data sets on landscape change (exceeding 100 years) were combined with map data, interviews and literature, to discuss the characteristics of cultural landscape management, opportunities and potential risks for the future of these cultural landscapes.

The final chapter, Chapter 7, reflects on the results and presents the conclusions of the previous chapters, and on the scientific and societal significance of the thesis as a whole. It is concluded that the landscape in Europe is permanently changing as a result of complex interacting drivers. Policy has been one of the important drivers, but the landscape changes that have taken place are the outcome of various economic drivers and policies. The paradox is that the intentions of different European and regional spatial policies have been ambitious with regard to rural development, environmental quality, conservation of natural habitats and cultural heritage. In the end however, the complex interactions among direct and indirect drivers led to unintentional changes negatively affecting landscape value, resulting in land degradation, loss of cultural values and biodiversity. In other words, dominant drivers of landscape change (global economy, European policies) resulted in an outcome of landscapes that are preferred by the majority of the agricultural and forest sector, but otherwise no specific stakeholders were targeted, an outcome which was not envisaged by the policies.

Without efficient allocation of land resources and failing to regulate sustainable use, the landscape services are declining One approach to meet the diverse demands for landscape services is to focus on the provision of multiple benefits, using a multifunctional land use approach. The assumption thereby is that a multifunctional landscape has all aspects of a sustainable, liveable and biodiverse landscape.

The case studies landscapes in this thesis are characterised by different approaches that differ in multifunctionality: the marginal areas in southern Europe are less embedded in the global economy, and demonstrate high multifunctionality. Denmark and The Netherlands show typical ‘lowland agriculture’, that are weakly multifunctional. The Eastern European landscape cases in Romania and Estonia have higher multifunctionality, but the opportunities for change towards multifunctionality are less than in Western Europe. The opportunities are mostly dictated by environmental conditions, in particular the marginality of land, and the economy. Farming in these regions may have been profitable in the past, but abandonment is looming if no measures are taken to counteract economic driving forces.

The cultural landscapes such as in Lesvos and Portofino are particularly highly multifunctional. These old social systems are in decline: landscapes have deteriorated and changed since they have not been well maintained. The discontinuance of traditional management has occurred due to ageing populations, a lack of labour, skills and high costs. If iconic cultural landscapes are to be preserved for the future, deterioration must be halted. Traditional knowledge, skills and techniques are key for maintaining valuable cultural landscapes, such as in Italy and Greece, but also cultural landscapes in Western Europe like England or France, or traditional landscapes in Hungary or Poland. Solutions must be found to preserve the knowledge and traditions of landscape management, but also funds and labour are required to maintain these landscapes.

European landscapes have been permanently changing as a result of complex interacting drivers. Policy is one of the important drivers, but the landscape changes that take place are not the outcome of ‘a’ policy which steers the landscape development, but as the outcome of globalisation, economic drivers and policies; mostly the CAP, Rural Development Plan (RDP) and national forest policies which affect to a large measure the landscapes. There is no European policy for landscapes: landscape is not a prerogative of the EU.

Therefore, a tailor-made approach is essential for European policies implemented in each member state, taking into account the structure and functioning of existing national institutions, without losing sight of the overall aims of the policy. This requires input from the recipient countries in designing regulations, adapting them to existent institutions and modifying historical and current practices.

Holmes’ framework for changing modes of occupancy (use of rural space) has been used, whereby landscape transitions are considered the result of a changing balance between societal consumption, conservation and production. Landscapes where (agricultural or forestry) production is less dominant, may allow for more multifunctional policies that counterbalance the dominant position of production. Most countries do not have policies that fill the ‘gap’ of multifunctional landscape management. Gaps exist for landscapes not subject to Natura 2000, high nature value farming areas, outside urban zones, locations not affected by the Water Framework Directive or national forest policies, or those insufficiently covered at present by effective planning for multifunctional land use.

Existing (sectoral) schemes need to be re-examined with respect to multifunctionality. Potential multifunctional impacts should be considered in policymaking, e.g. payment schemes in the CAP or in Natura 2000, and about appropriate target areas for measures. Making more funds from CAP and RDP available for multifunctional land use could lead to more land sharing.

Landscapes, particularly iconic cultural landscapes, can benefit from mechanisms that allow the costs incurred by lower agricultural production to be covered. Payments for regulating and cultural services could be integrated in funding programs, e.g. through better targeting of Agri-Environment Schemes (AES) at smaller farmers in these valuable landscapes. Funding schemes should ensure that small, multifunctional farmers particularly in need support benefit. Better use must also be made of the added value potential of multifunctional effects. Increased multifunctionality would benefit the attractiveness of the countryside for residence, recreation and tourism.

Countries implement policies differently, but key success factors for multifunctional landscapes are the existence of locally- appropriate institutions that implement multifunctional policies. Building of new institutions can be time consuming and requires staff development.

Policy instruments on their own may be insufficient to harmonise the different aims of multifunctionality. Despite the AES, biodiversity and landscape quality is declining. The domination of some functions requires interventions and choices about trade-offs to be made (Arts et al. 2017). Given the dominant power of globalisation and European markets, payment for landscape services alone is ineffective, requiring additional incentives for the valorisation of these services, and to stimulate multifunctionality. Regional integrative approaches could be supported, with positive examples provided in the cases of alternative funding schemes, and how obstructions for such experiments can be tackled.

Finally, stakeholder involvement in landscape governance appears promising as a way to better meet the socio-ecological context within a landscape, provided that stakeholders address different scale levels. This requires a dynamic process to mobilise stakeholders, and flexibility of the government towards negotiations and conflict management at the landscape level. In particular, these last issues can be decisive for successful landscape governance. Different landscape governance arrangements are currently being tested in Europe which demonstrate new avenues. Notwithstanding some successful stakeholder involvement in landscape management, there are also challenges: in all such processes, there is a risk that collaboration results in power inequalities that affect the outcome, or may give certain groups more benefits than others, which may make the process unsustainable. It remains, therefore, important that the concept of multifunctional landscapes is integrated in existing legislation and regulations, and further integrated into land-related policies.

The Care Sport Connector in the Netherlands
Leenaars, Karlijn - \ 2017
University. Promotor(en): Maria Koelen, co-promotor(en): Annemarie Wagemakers; G.R.M. Molleman. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463436106 - 261
sport - sport policy - health care workers - physical activity - public health services - health promotion - primary health care - netherlands - case studies - physical education - sportbeleid - gezondheidswerkers - lichamelijke activiteit - voorzieningen ten behoeve van de volksgezondheid - gezondheidsbevordering - eerstelijnsgezondheidszorg - nederland - gevalsanalyse - lichamelijke opvoeding

Introduction
To stimulate physical activity (PA) and guide primary care patients towards local PA facilities, Care Sport Connectors (CSC) (in Dutch Buurtsportcoach), to whom a broker role has been ascribed, were introduced in 2012. This function is new, and to our knowledge no study has yet explored a broker role and its impact on improving intersectoral collaboration between both sectors. The aim of this thesis was to explore CSCs’ role and impact in connecting the primary care and the PA sector.
Method
This thesis employed a multiple case study design in which 15 CSCs from nine municipalities spread over the Netherlands were followed in their work from 2014 to the end of 2016. Different data collection methods were used (literature review, interviews, focus groups, document analysis, and questionnaires), and perspectives of different stakeholders (policymakers, professionals, CSCs) on different levels (policy and community) were taken into account (Chapter 2).

Results
The connection between the primary care and the PA sector: a chain approach
The connection between both sectors can be characterised as a chain in which CSCs guide the target group towards PA facilities after referral by primary care professionals or their own recruitment. In this connection CSCs fulfilled three roles - broker, referral, and organiser – which did not change over time (Chapter 4 and 5).

Barriers at system and sector level hinder the established connection

Barriers related to the primary care (lack of time, money and knowledge) and the PA sector (lack of suitable PA activities and adequate instructors) are currently hindering the connection between both sectors (Chapter 4 and 6). Barriers related to the collaboration between both sectors, like cultural differences and different interests as identified in our literature review (Chapter 3) were not identified.

The importance of an integral approach for CSCs and the connection between both sectors
An integral approach to structural embed CSCs (Chapter 7) seemed to influence CSCs’ work and subsequently their impact. CSCs working in municipalities who structurally embedded CSCs only at the PA sector, connected both sectors mostly by jointly organising activities. CSCs working in municipalities who adopted an integral approach connected both sectors by a variety of activities targeting different audiences, and primary care professionals fulfilled mostly a role in the referral of their patients. The structural imbedding of the CSC according an integral approach seems the most promising in reaching the desired outcomes (Chapter 8).

Conclusion
CSC’ role is promising for establishing a connection between the primary care and the PA sector. However, to make a success of the connection changes are needed at system and sector level. Further research should focus on CSCs’ impact on stimulating PA among primary care patients, and the development of CSC’ role and the connection between both sectors over time.

Modelling the dynamic interactions between food production and ecosystem services : a case study in Benin
Duku, C. - \ 2017
University. Promotor(en): Lars Hein, co-promotor(en): S.J. Zwart. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463431613 - 141
ecosystem services - modeling - food production - case studies - hydrology - irrigation - forests - woodlands - climatic change - nature conservation - food security - benin - ecosysteemdiensten - modelleren - voedselproductie - gevalsanalyse - hydrologie - irrigatie - bossen - bosgebieden - klimaatverandering - natuurbescherming - voedselzekerheid

Given the high levels of food insecurity and the loss of vital ecosystem services associated with deforestation, countries in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) face a major dilemma. How can they produce enough food in a changing climate to feed an increasing population while protecting natural forests and woodlands that provide a wide array of ecosystem services beneficial to livelihoods? Thus, the objectives of this thesis are twofold. First, to further enhance the understanding of the dynamic interactions between food production, and natural and semi-natural ecosystems with a case study in Benin. Second, to further enhance the understanding of how hydrological ecosystem services can be captured in an accounting framework. Understanding hydrological ecosystem services is key to understanding the multi-directional relationship between food production and ecosystem services supply from natural and semi-natural ecosystems. First, I examine how a spatially explicit ecohydrological model can be used to analyse multiple hydrological ecosystem services in line with the ecosystem accounting framework. The hydrological ecosystem services include crop water supply for rainfed agriculture, household water supply (both groundwater supply and surface water supply), water purification, and soil erosion control. Second, I develop a general modelling approach for analysing the effects of deforestation on the availability of water for irrigation at the watershed level, and I apply the approach to the Upper Oueme watershed in Benin. Third, I analyse the impact of climate change on agricultural intensification options. Finally, I quantify trade-offs between per capita food availability and protecting forests and woodlands at different levels of yield increases taking into account climate change, population growth. This thesis shows that the integration of hydrological ecosystem services into an accounting framework can provide relevant information at appropriate scales suitable for decision-making. It is empirically feasible to distinguish between service capacity and service flow of hydrological ecosystem services. This requires appropriate decisions regarding physical and mathematical representation of ecohydrological processes, spatial heterogeneity of ecosystems, temporal resolution, and required model accuracy. This thesis also shows that opportunities for irrigation expansion depend on conservation of forests and woodlands in the headwaters of the rivers feeding the irrigation scheme. Opportunities for agricultural intensification in SSA are likely to diminish with climate change, hence increasing pressure to expand cultivated areas in order to meet increasing food demand. Climate change will lead to substantial reductions in; exploitable yield gaps for major food crops, rainfed cropland areas that can support the cultivation of two or more crops per year, and water availability for irrigation expansion. Furthermore, in the far future crop yields will have to increase at a faster rate than has been recorded over the past two and half decades in order to maintain current levels of per capita food availability. Failure to achieve the required levels of yield increases is likely to lead to the conversion of substantial areas of forests and woodlands for crop cultivation. Based on the results of this thesis, four main recommendations to help address the dual challenge of food security and ecosystem protection in Benin and the larger SSA region are made: (i) promote a precautionary approach to forest and woodland conservation, (ii) promote cross-sectoral policy coherence and consultations, (iii) promote the development of satellite ecosystem accounts consistent with national accounts, and (iv) identify, evaluate and implement adaptation and resilience measures to reduce agricultural vulnerability to climate change.

Dutch Divergence? : Women’s work, structural change, and household living standards in the Netherlands, 1830-1914
Boter, Corinne - \ 2017
University. Promotor(en): Ewout Frankema, co-promotor(en): Elise van Nederveen Meerkerk. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463431835 - 254
women - work - household budgets - living standards - gender - cultural history - case studies - netherlands - labour market - macroeconomics - microeconomics - western europe - work sharing - participation - vrouwen - werk - huishoudbudgetten - levensstandaarden - geslacht (gender) - cultuurgeschiedenis - gevalsanalyse - nederland - arbeidsmarkt - macro-economie - micro-economie - west-europa - verdeling van werk - participatie

Women’s work has never been a linear process of extending participation. Instead, female labour force participation (FLFP) has extended and curtailed throughout time. This dissertation studies a period of contraction: the nineteenth-century Netherlands. This country makes an important case study to explore the factors influencing the trajectory of women’s work. First, FLFP rates as recorded in occupational censuses were low compared with surrounding countries. Second, Dutch industrialization took off relatively late and until well into the twentieth century a significant part of the labour force worked in agriculture, in contrast to neighbouring countries such as Britain and Belgium.

This dissertation contributes to answering the following question: Why were Dutch female labour force participation rates lower than in surrounding countries during the period 1830-1914? I consider the following explanatory factors: social norms, the opportunity costs of women’s labour, and structural change. My conclusions about the relative weight of each factor are as follows. First, social norms regarding women’s role within the household following from the growing desire for domesticity have affected the trajectory of women’s labour. I show that married women withdrew from the registered labour force and instead, performed work that could be combined with domestic chores and that remained invisible in most statistical sources. However, these social norms were likewise strong in other western European countries, such as Britain, where FLFP was higher. Furthermore, Dutch FLFP was already low around 1850 when the transition to the male breadwinner society in western Europe started. Thus, it is no conclusive explanation for the aberrant Dutch trend in FLFP.

Second, men’s real industrial wages started to rise after 1880 and became increasingly able to take care of a family of four. However, this was not true for men’s agricultural wages. Women’s wages in both sectors hardly increased at all during the nineteenth century in both sectors. I therefore conclude that industrial households were already able to realize a breadwinner-homemaker type of labour division from the 1880s, whereas agricultural households still relied for an important part on other sources of income besides the husband’s wage labour by 1910. Thus, men’s wages profoundly influenced household labour division. However, in Britain, men’s real wages were even higher, but so were FLFP rates in the censuses. Thus, if the extent of men’s real wages was indeed the most important explanatory factor, we would have expected even lower participation rates in Britain than in the Netherlands.

Third, the impact of economic structure and the changing demand for labour on FLFP has been a pivotal factor of influence. I show that the structure of the local economy had a statistically significant effect on the chance that a bride stated an occupation in her marriage record. Furthermore, in agriculture women increasingly performed work in a private business which was usually not registered in the censuses. Moreover, technological change in the textile industry and the transition to the factory system negatively impacted women’s position in the labour market because married women could no longer combine domestic chores with wage labour. Finally, many parts of the production process that had traditionally been women’s work were taken over by men when mechanization progressed.

Considering all my research results, I conclude that the structure of the Dutch economy is the most important explanation for the exceptionally low Dutch FLFP rates during the long nineteenth century.

Framing nature : searching for (implicit) religious elements in the communication about nature
Jansen, Peter - \ 2017
University. Promotor(en): Henk Jochemsen, co-promotor(en): Jozef Keulartz; J. van der Stoep. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463431323 - 200
nature - policy - netherlands - communication - religion - case studies - frames - perception - public authorities - landscape experience - identity - natuur - beleid - nederland - communicatie - religie - gevalsanalyse - geraamten - perceptie - overheid - landschapsbeleving - identiteit

This PhD thesis is about communication concerning nature in the Netherlands. The purpose of this exploratory study is to take both a theoretical and an empirical look at whether (implicit) religious elements play a role in this communication about nature in the Netherlands.

In this PhD thesis it is argued that the role of communication practitioners is to signal, articulate, and interpret normative elements in the discourse. In other words, to make (non-) congruent frames explicit and clarifying the associated world views in the discourse, including that of the government itself. The government has to be impartial as possible in its communications, but the communications about nature shows that there are questions to be asked about this neutrality. Although not explicit, but through the communications of NGOs, who operate as delegated executors of the Dutch nature policy in the context of this PhD thesis, certain images, i.e., frames regarding nature are communicated. However, the question is raised to what extent the government, based on its alleged neutrality, should condition the communication of NGOs. Here, tension can be observed. If nature conservation NGOs (explicitly) communicate a specific vision about nature, using ‘religious subtexts’, the government appears to support these ‘subtexts’. For nature conservation NGOs, it is appropriate to put forth a certain opinion to raise support for their actions among the public. However, in this PhD thesis it is argued that it is not the responsibility of the government to promote a specific religiously phrased view of nature and nature policy. Hence, this PhD thesis reveals a necessity for reflection on the relationship between government and NGOs regarding their communication, i.e., awareness of distinction and a need for mutual adjustment in the case of close cooperation.

The results of this PhD thesis are placed in a broader cultural context with respect to nature development. A paradox is highlighted: creating nature ‘according to our view of nature’ and, simultaneously, wanting to experience wilderness-nature, preferably without too much human influence. This paradox appears to form a cultural basis for many new nature development projects. In other words, nature development is no longer just driven by ecological interests. In today’s ‘wilderness desire’, a certain form of anthropocentric thinking also manifests, because it focuses on the human experience of nature. In addition, because (new) nature projects can be places to have meaningful experiences, in this PhD thesis it is concluded that (new) nature projects, such as Tiengemeten, not only have ecological value, but societal value as well. It is also argued that in a secular society, we should not lose sight of the mediating role of creating and maintaining nature parks. Designing or maintaining natural areas in a certain way can create conditions for certain meaningful experiences. With our designing vision and communication, we can reap ‘benefits’ from nature. With this conclusion, this PhD thesis shines a different light on the concept of nature development and, indirectly, on the Dutch nature policy.

Finally, this PhD thesis shows that religious elements play a role in the communication about nature. These are linked to meaningful experiences that people can have in nature. A religious depth dimension can be discovered in meaningful experiences. This religious depth dimension is the reason that there are ‘religious subtexts’ in the communication about nature. However, the word ‘subtext’ is crucial. The communication about nature is ‘religionised’ to some extent, but there is no mentioning of a personal God or other reference to a supernatural reality. This PhD thesis also shows that the religious depth dimension does not explicitly come to the fore in what visitors are saying. This means that this PhD thesis, in addition to questioning the appropriateness of ‘religious subtexts’ in the communication about nature, also doubts whether those ‘subtexts’ are convincing from visitors’ perspective.

Draagkracht voor schelpdieren : definities, indices en case studie
Smaal, Aad - \ 2017
Yerseke : Wageningen Marine Research (Wageningen Marine Research rapport C023/17) - 26
schaaldieren - ecosystemen - draagkracht - gevalsanalyse - visserijbeheer - natuurbeheer - oosterschelde - shellfish - ecosystems - carrying capacity - case studies - fishery management - nature management - eastern scheldt
Dairy matters: Inspiring stories on dairy development in Kenya : Eighteen case studies from SNV's Kenya Market-led Dairy Programme
Rademaker, Ida ; Lee, J. van der - \ 2017
SNV/Wageningen University & Research - ISBN 9789087403164 - 160 p.
dairy farming - dairy industry - dairy cooperatives - small farms - stakeholders - case studies - kenya - melkveehouderij - zuivelindustrie - zuivelcoöperaties - kleine landbouwbedrijven - gevalsanalyse
D3.3: Good practice guidelines for stakeholder and citizen participation in bioeconomy strategies
Davies, Sara ; Ribeiro, Barbara ; Millar, Kate ; Miller, Stephen ; Vironen, Heidi ; Charles, David ; Griestop, Laura ; Hasenheit, Marius ; Kiresiewa, Zoritza ; Hoes, A.C. ; Overbeek, M.M.M. ; Bianchini, Chiara - \ 2016
EU - 35 p.
biobased economy - government policy - public participation - case studies - decision making - multi-stakeholder processes - overheidsbeleid - publieke participatie - gevalsanalyse - besluitvorming - multi-stakeholder processen
This document has been developed as part of Work Package 3 of the BioSTEP project, which has examined current participatory practices, involving both stakeholders and citizens, in bioeconomy strategies in six case studies, namely: Two case studies at national level (Finland and Germany); Four case studies at regional level (Bio-based Delta in the Netherlands, Saxony-Anhalt in Germany, Scotland in the United Kingdom, and the Veneto in Italy). Key documentary sources include international and national practice-based literature on stakeholder and public engagement, as well as other BioSTEP publications. Two earlier reports (Charles et al., 2016; Davies et al., 2016) provide a detailed overview of participation in these six case studies of national and regional bioeconomy strategies. Building on this work, as well as on a review of existing research on stakeholder and citizen engagement in the bioeconomy, this document sets out guidance and suggestions for designing and undertaking engagement with stakeholders and citizens in relation to national and regional bioeconomy strategies.
Small-scale Biorefining
Visser, C.L.M. de; Ree, R. van - \ 2016
Wageningen : Wageningen University & Research - 62 p.
biorefinery - biobased economy - resource utilization - biomass conversion - techniques - residual streams - economies of scale - case studies - bioraffinage - hulpbronnengebruik - biomassaconversie - technieken - reststromen - schaalvoordelen - gevalsanalyse
One promising way to accelerate the market implementation of integrated biorefineries is to promote small (regional) biorefinery initiatives. Small-scale biorefineries require relatively low initial investments, and therefore are often lacking the financing problems that larger facilities face. They are potentially able to make use of available local resources and involve stakeholders and product markets that create a common foundation for joint development and market deployment. Furthermore, by using modular and transportable units, the refinery process potentially can be operated at several locations, increasing their operation window, and therefore their market competitiveness. Small-scale biorefinery processes seem to be specifically interesting for the efficient and sustainable valorisation for relatively wet agro-crops (grass, beets, maize, etc.), agro-residues (leaves/foliage), food processing residues and aquatic biomass (microalgae, duckweed, etc.).
Case studies best practices onkruidbestrijding : Duurzame onkruidbestrijding op laanboombedrijven in Rivierenland
Sluis, B.J. van der; Baltissen, A.H.M.C. - \ 2016
Randwijk : Wageningen Plant Research , onderdeel van Wageningen University & Research, Business Unit Bloembollen, Boomkwekerij en Fruit (Rapport 2016-10) - 23 p.
straatbomen - onkruidbestrijding - gevalsanalyse - best practices - boomkwekerijen - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - mechanische bestrijding - rivierengebied - street trees - weed control - case studies - forest nurseries - sustainability - mechanical control
Onkruid is in de laanboomkwekerij een groot probleem. De mogelijkheden voor chemische onkruidbestrijding nemen af en mechanische onkruidbestrijding op klei is moeilijk en door het wisselende weer niet altijd toepasbaar. Toch streeft de laanboomsector in de regio naar duurzame oplossingen. Welke methoden zijn er en worden op dit moment al succesvol toegepast? Welke nieuwe methoden zijn in ontwikkeling? Wat past bij de bedrijfsvoering in de regio van het laanboompact. Welke mogelijkheden worden en kunnen effectief ingezet worden tegen onkruid. De doelstelling van het project is door middel van case studies de mogelijkheden van best practices onkruidbestrijding bij de boomkwekers onder de aandacht te brengen waardoor effectieve methoden meer opgepakt gaan worden.
Farmers’ perception of opportunities for farm development
Methorst, Ron - \ 2016
University. Promotor(en): Han Wiskerke, co-promotor(en): Dirk Roep; Jos Verstegen. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462579439 - 192
farm development - perception - agriculture - entrepreneurship - case studies - sociology - bedrijfsontwikkeling in de landbouw - perceptie - landbouw - ondernemerschap - gevalsanalyse - sociologie

Differences in the perception of opportunities for farm development is researched in this thesis in relation to differences in the embedding of the farm in the socio-material context. This study contributes to a Sociology of Entrepreneurship in focusing on the decision-maker specific aspects using the concepts Opportunity Identification, Strategic Decision-Making and Embeddedness. In a case study of family dairy farmers operating in a highly comparable socio-material context at the level of the case study, a mix of quantitative and qualitative data were used to analyse differences at the level of the decision-makers on the family farm. Based on the perceived viability of 15 opportunities for farm development to contribute to farm income, four clusters of opportunities were found that represent different farm development strategies: 1) maximising production; 2) optimising the use of own resources; 3) diversifying production; and 4) ending dairy farming. Personal views and preferences showed to be the most influential driver, mediating the influence of the combined set of seven drivers on the perception of opportunities. Taking the perspective of embeddedness, every farm development strategy appeared to have different sets of relations for three dimensions of the socio-material context: the socio-cultural context, the dairy value chain and the use of resources for production. These sets of relations differ on a scale ranging from more ‘close’ to more ‘stretched’ set of relations, resembling a mixing paned of three sliders on which the family farmer positions itself, a positioning that is related to personal views and preference. The socio-material characteristics of a farm, thus, result from, and reflect how it is embedded in a set of heterogeneous relations. This finding supports the relevance of a relational perspective on farm development where strategic decision-making is the reiterative process of embedding farm practices in the different sets of relations of the farm with the socio-material context. The farmer’s interpretation of the complex and dynamic relations in the socio-material context affects the identification of opportunities for farm development. Approaching strategic decision-making as the positioning in sets of relations offers a non-normative approach to family farm development in relation to the socio-material context. Awareness of the influence of personal views and preferences combined with a non-normative approach is of relevance for effective policies and support programmes to support the development of vital farms in vital rural areas.

Keywords: family farm, farm development, strategy, opportunity identification, strategic decision-making, embeddedness

Growth and Innovation in the Ocean Economy : North Sea Checkpoint : Data Adequacy Report – Oil Platform Leak Challenge
Wal, J.T. van der; Vries, P. de; Tamis, J.E. - \ 2016
Den Helder : IMARES Wageningen UR (IMARES rapport C095/16) - 67
oceans - economics - innovations - emergencies - pollution - case studies - oil spills - north sea - oceanen - economie - innovaties - noodgevallen - verontreiniging - gevalsanalyse - olieverontreinigingen - noordzee
Bonding by doing : the dynamics of self-organizing groups of citizens taking charge of their living environment
Dam, R.I. van - \ 2016
University. Promotor(en): Katrien Termeer; Andre van der Zande. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462578975 - 188 p.
citizens - groups - public authorities - public domain - living conditions - social participation - democracy - governance - case studies - society - burgers - groepen - overheid - overheidsdomein - levensomstandigheden - sociale participatie - democratie - gevalsanalyse - samenleving

This thesis is about groups of citizens following their ideals and taking charge of their living environment. The research set out to investigate the practice of citizens’ initiatives and self-organizing communities, seen as groups of people who organize themselves, take action in the public domain, create public values and organize and manage their social, cultural and green living environment. The topicality of the concept of citizens’ initiatives and self-organizing communities—from empirical, normative and scientific perspectives—sparked an interest in investigating their actual practice: people’s reasons for getting involved, the meaning they assign to place and what people mean for places, the activities and the strategies, the (informal) organization, how the initiatives develop and the relations they entail. Besides investigating how citizens’ initiatives and self-organizing communities develop and achieve things, the research examines the implications for governance processes, and the role and approach of citizens and government organizations in these processes. A micro-perspective is used to focus on analysing how citizens’ initiatives and self-organizing communities act on the road from ideal to realization. Moreover, the practice of groups of citizens taking charge of their living environment is approached here from a relational perspective, focussing on questions around bonding processes and interaction, and the dynamics that come with them. As a consequence, the research questions are: (1) how do the dynamics within and between groups of people taking charge of their living environment and their surroundings manifest themselves? and (2) how do groups of people taking charge of their living environment affect governance processes and vice versa?

In this thesis, an interpretive research approach was chosen, based on case studies and the principles of openness and heterogeneity. The interpretive research approach made it possible to start with a general interest in the development of groups of people taking charge of their living environment and from there to delve deeper into the aspects that seemed relevant. Importantly, particularly given that this study focuses on people’s approaches and activities, this approach views the social as constructed in the intertwinement of action and meaning; it also values various ways in which meaning arises, including informal and less rational approaches and values. In total, seventeen cases of citizens’ initiatives and self-organizing communities are studied. Of these seventeen, one case is studied in great depth and at various points in time, another seven in moderate depth and nine cases are studied at a broader, more illustrative and exploratory level. The data was collected through a combination of interviews, casual conversations, participatory observation, non-participatory observation and learning network meetings, as well as a study of secondary material. The qualitative analysis took place in iterative phases in which several analytical concepts were applied. Triangulation was ensured by using a variety of methods and theories. The findings are presented in five empirical chapters (Chapters 2 to 6 of this thesis).

Chapter 2 describes a study in which the transition in societal organization from a heavy reliance on the state to self-organization is examined by analysing two self-organizing communities. The case studies of the ADM squatter community [Amsterdamse Doe-het-Zelf Maatschappij - Amsterdam do-it-yourself company] and the Golfresidence Dronten show how these communities of self-organizing citizens created their own residential arrangements and took the initiative in developing a unique spatial environment. The role self-organization plays differs depending on how the communities were established and the inhabitants’ motivations. There are also differences in the physical appearance of the two communities and the communities’ organization and rules. Although quite different self-organizing communities, both are manifestations of alternative living arrangements, both socially and spatially, and address the differences in citizens’ needs concerning living arrangements in society in general. As such, concluding remarks concern the value of and need for heterogeneity.

Chapter 3 presents an analysis of the social and spatial bonding processes affecting a squatter community who lived at Fort Pannerden for about seven years. Besides describing the relation between the squatters and the fort, the chapter analyses the influence of the squatters’ actions on the development of the fort and on the local community and local governmental organizations in terms of social and spatial bonding processes. It shows how a non-institutional actor—a squatter community—was able to breathe new life into a national monument that had been abandoned for several decades, reconnecting a cultural heritage site to society and vice versa.

Chapter 4 analyses the citizens’ initiatives Natural Area Grasweg and Collective Farmers of Essen and Aa’s in terms of their evolution, their organization and the strategies adopted. Strategies are understood as something people do, rather than something organizations and firms have. Natural Area Grasweg chose a formal approach for the organization of their initiative, adjusting it to institutional settings. For Collective Farmers of Essen and Aa’s, by contrast, it is an explicit goal to get local residents involved, fostering a sense of community and collectively improving the cultural historical landscape. Both cases are viewed here as the contingent product of a self-transforming organization, and a way of relating its internal processes to the outside world. The chapter analyses the ability of citizens’ initiatives to adapt and to mobilize, which makes them a powerful and relevant development in the governance area.

Chapter 5 focusses on the mutually activated process of subjectification in citizens’ initiatives. Analysing the citizens’ initiatives Lingewaard Natural, Border Experience Enschede and Residents’ Association and Action Committee Horstermeerpolder, it is argued that the discourses produced by governmental organizations on what it entails to be an active citizen have a performative effect on citizens’ initiatives, which adapt themselves, anticipate what is expected of them and act strategically with respect to these discourses.

Chapter 6 presents an exploratory study of the citizens’ initiatives Sustainable Soester quarter, Caetshage City Farm, Emma’s Court, Power of Utrecht, Beautiful Wageningen, Ecopeace, As We Speak, Canal Park Leiden and Harderwijk Steiner School Natural Playground. The study shows how the participatory society and information society come together at the community level. Regarding the role of information in how citizens’ initiatives operate and develop, it is concluded that informational capital is fundamental to the realization of citizens’ initiatives, that there is a dynamic between social capital, human capital and informational capital and that informational capital is generated, identified, used and enlarged through the relational strategies of bonding, bridging and linking. It is a process which works both ways and reinforces citizens’ initiatives.

Chapter 7 synthesizes the outcomes of the five chapters and provides an answer to the research questions. The research revealed four sets of dynamics in and between groups of people taking charge of their living environment. Firstly, there are the dynamics of the drivers causing citizens to take charge of their living environment. Citizens’ initiatives and self-organizing communities are triggered by an interplay of drivers that originate on the one hand in the citizens’ ideals and their intrinsic will to do something, and on the other hand in dissatisfaction with the current situation, whether locally, at the policy level or at a broader societal level. They often choose subjects close to their everyday lives but with a broader societal component. As a consequence, the interplay between public interest and self-interest is another important driver in how and why citizens’ initiatives and self-organizing communities operate. Secondly, in the operation, development and realization of groups of self-organizing citizens, there is a dynamic relationship between social capital, human capital and informational capital. These forms of capital can be seen as ‘resources’ that ‘feed’ the communities and initiatives. Social, human and informational capital are forms of capital related to a changing society in which citizens play a vital role in creating public values and where other, less tangible, forms of capital become important. The various forms of capital interact and can reinforce each other, contributing to the development of the initiatives. The third set of dynamics concerns the dynamics of the relational strategies of bonding, bridging and linking. Using the interrelated relational strategies, groups of people taking charge of their living environment connect with different actors, both institutional and non-institutional, at different times and levels of intensity. By establishing connections with others, citizens’ initiatives embed themselves in society. They interact with others, using and at the same time growing their social, human and informational capital. Fourthly, the dynamics between social and spatial bonding are revealed in groups of people taking charge of their living environment. Place turned out to be more than the context; often it is also part of the objective. The citizens in the initiatives connected with a place and thought and behaved in a certain way, but they also enabled others to connect (or reconnect) with a place and to think and act in a certain way in relation to the place. So these citizens mobilize and connect people. When groups of people take charge of their living environment, we clearly see that social bonding processes (bonding, bridging and linking) and spatial bonding processes (cognitive, affective and conative) are inextricably intertwined: they interact with, influence and reinforce one another. This can be symbolized by the double helix, two DNA strings twisted around each other.

Furthermore, the interaction in governance processes was dealt with by summarizing the patterns and mechanisms found in the interaction between self-organizing citizens and others, particularly between citizens and governmental organizations. A pattern was analysed in how the internal process of groups of citizens taking charge of their living environment relates to the outside world. In this process of self-transformation, the identity of a citizens’ initiative—seen broadly as how they define themselves and how they operate—is influenced by their interpretations of the immediate and relevant outside world, which in turn shapes their strategies. In this process of self-transformation, specifically in relation to governmental organizations, citizens’ initiatives tend to internalize the assumptions about what is considered important to the relevant governmental institutions, which often leads to them pursuing formal strategies and adopting a formal identity. The case studies showed that government officials often only tend to like those citizens’ initiatives that they can relate to, in terms of both content and form. Citizens’ initiatives that have other objectives, take a different course of action, have a different form or express a different opinion are often bullied or treated as irrelevant. This governmental dominancy is influenced in turn by the way citizens’ initiatives act and position themselves with respect to governmental organizations. They adapt, anticipate and act strategically with regard to their images of governmental organizations and their interpretations of these organizations’ wishes. In other words, they apply the techniques of adaptation, anticipation and framing themselves constructively. So in the practice of Dutch citizens’ initiatives, the initiators are both made subject and subject themselves to governmental organizations. The initiators can be labelled as obedient and submissive, but also as smart and strategic. This leads to the conclusion that there is teamwork going on between citizens and governmental organizations, in which there is a mutual reproduction of government thinking.

Assuming we want to move towards a more citizen-driven society, this thesis reveals that there is indeed a great deal of potential in citizens. Reflecting further on new practices, one can say both citizens and governmental institutions need to learn and to take the next step. There is a need for an interplay of forces in which all actors contribute in their own way to the joint creation of public values. Although the development of self-organization is also taking place on the continuum between citizens and the market, as well as in a variety of different combinations of these players, one can say that the way to go forward, specifically in the relationship between citizens and government, is to aim for an interplay in which ‘learning by doing’ is followed by ‘bonding by doing’. To conclude, groups of people taking charge of their living environment (or something else) is an expression of an informal and participatory democracy that is giving shape to democratic values. This ‘do-ocracy’ is not just an alternative but can also be a complementary form of democracy that meets a need related to democratic values. Democracy can be seen as an ongoing process which needs working on.

Dealing with private property for public purposes : an interdisciplinary study of land transactions from a micro-scale perspective
Holtslag-Broekhof, S.M. - \ 2016
University. Promotor(en): Han Wiskerke, co-promotor(en): Raoul Beunen; Ramona van Marwijk. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462577398 - 205 p.
land policy - property - private ownership - land use - compulsory purchase - land ownership - government - land transfers - physical planning - case studies - netherlands - grondbeleid - bezit - particulier eigendom - landgebruik - onteigening - grondeigendom - regering - overdrachten van grond - ruimtelijke ordening - gevalsanalyse - nederland
Efficiënter gebruik van voedermiddelen en (geïmporteerde) diervoedergrondstoffen : mogelijkheden als grondstoffenbron voor de Biobased Economy
Kasper, G.J. ; Duinkerken, G. van; Krimpen, M.M. van; Wagenberg, C.P.A. van; Kals, J. ; Sanders, J.P.M. ; Visser, C.L.M. de - \ 2015
Wageningen : Wageningen UR Livestock Research (Livestock Research rapport 946) - 63 p.
voedertechnologie - voedermiddelbewerking - voer - biomassa - biomassa cascadering - bioraffinage - biobased economy - nederland - haalbaarheidsstudies - gevalsanalyse - feed technology - feed processing - feeds - biomass - biomass cascading - biorefinery - netherlands - feasibility studies - case studies
In this study it was estimated that 6.4 out of 35.0 million tons (dry matter) of animal feeds and raw feed materials that are annually available in the Netherlands, can be used as a resource for application in the biobased economy. Biorefinery enables us to extract feed components that cannot be utilized by animals. The challenge is to add value by applying these components in various value chains (cascading).
Implementing the green economy in a european context : Lessons learned from theories, concepts and case studies
Saikku, Laura ; Antikainen, Riina ; Droste, Nils ; Pitkänen, Kati ; Loiseau, Eleonore ; Hansjürgens, Bernd ; Kuikman, P.J. ; Leskinen, Pekka ; Thomsen, Marianne - \ 2015
PEER - ISBN 9789521145322 - 33 p.
change - economic development - biobased economy - sustainable development - case studies - government policy - europe - verandering - economische ontwikkeling - duurzame ontwikkeling - gevalsanalyse - overheidsbeleid - europa
This report summarises the key results of a PEER project analysing the green economy. The project explored green economy concepts and 10 practical cases from Finland, France, Germany, the Netherlands and Denmark.
From the Sugar Platform to biofuels and biochemicals : Final report for the European Commission Directorate-General Energy
Taylor, R. ; Nattrass, L. ; Alberts, G. ; Robson, P. ; Chudziak, C. ; Bauen, A. ; Libelli, I.M. ; Lotti, G. ; Prussi, M. ; Nistri, R. ; Chiaramonti, D. ; lópez-Contreras, A.M. ; Bos, H.L. ; Eggink, G. ; Springer, J. ; Bakker, R. ; Ree, R. van - \ 2015
E4tech/Re-CORD/Wageningen UR - 183
chemie op basis van biologische grondstoffen - chemicaliën uit biologische grondstoffen - gevalsanalyse - suiker - chemische industrie - europa - karteringen - biobased economy - biobased chemistry - biobased chemicals - case studies - sugar - chemical industry - europe - surveys
Numerous potential pathways to biofuels and biochemicals exist via the sugar platform1. This study uses literature surveys, market data and stakeholder input to provide a comprehensive evidence base for policymakers and industry – identifying the key benefits and development needs for the sugar platform. The study created a company database for 94 sugar-based products, with some already commercial, the majority at research/pilot stage, and only a few demonstration plants crossing the “valley of death”. Case studies describe the value proposition, market outlook and EU activity for ten value chains (acrylic, adipic & succinic acids, FDCA, BDO, farnesene, isobutene, PLA, PHAs and PE). Most can deliver significant greenhouse savings and drop-in (or improved) properties, but at an added cost to fossil alternatives. Whilst significant progress has been made, research barriers remain around lignocellulosic biomass fractionation, product separation energy, biological inhibition, chemical selectivity and monomer purity, plus improving whole chain process integration. An assessment of EU competitiveness highlights strengths in R&D, but a lack of strong commercial activity, due to the US, China and Brazil having more attractive feedstock and investment conditions. Further policy development, in particular for biochemicals, will be required to realise a competitive European sugar-based bioeconomy.
GLAMUR case-study report: The comparison of three Dutch pork cases (Tasks 3.5)
Oostindië, H.A. ; Horlings, L.G. ; Broekhuizen, R.E. van; Hees, E. - \ 2015
Wageningen : Wageningen UR - 72
pig farming - case studies - netherlands - supply chain management - performance - animal production - intensive livestock farming - sustainable animal husbandry - regional food chains - animal welfare - pigs - animal housing - varkenshouderij - gevalsanalyse - nederland - ketenmanagement - prestatieniveau - dierlijke productie - intensieve veehouderij - duurzame veehouderij - regionale voedselketens - dierenwelzijn - varkens - huisvesting, dieren
This report presents the case study results of local-global pork chain performances in The Netherlands. As part of Work Package 3, this case study was carried out in cooperation with our Italian GLAMUR partner. The Dutch pork production sector came up after World War 2 and developed into a highly intensified and specialized sector, with emphasis in the southern part of the country. As it became possible and economically attractive to transport fodder ingredients over great distances, pig husbandry became a booming sector, with high technology and knowledge input, and a major exporting sector. In the last decade, the number of pig farms reduced sharply, whereas the number of pigs per farm rose constantly. As a consequence of a combination of factors as pig disease outbreaks in the late 90-s, environmental externalities, growing national opposition against animal welfare conditions ánd growing international competition, the pig sector came to a standstill. In this study three chains are compared: first the Good Farming Global pork chain, to be considered Dutch most typical bulk pork chain, oriented towards more anonymous far-from-home markets with basic requirements in terms of low-priced, food safe and mainstream qualified. The second is the Sustainable Pork Chain, developed some 10 years ago on the Environmental certification schema (MK) as a transparent pork chain towards specialized butchers and more critical retailers. Third, the so-called Lupine Pig project has been analyzed, an early-life cycle initiative that responds to national growing demand for more locally sourced pork production.
De kracht van het agrocluster : het belang van de primaire landbouw voor het totale agrocomplex
Berkhout, P. ; Asseldonk, M.A.P.M. van; Benninga, J. ; Ge, L. ; Hoste, R. ; Smit, A.B. - \ 2015
Wageningen : LEI Wageningen UR (LEI rapport 2015-032) - ISBN 9789086157082 - 56
landbouwsector - economische analyse - economische ontwikkeling - agro-industriële ketens - varkenshouderij - sierteelt - aardappelen - akkerbouw - werkgelegenheid - gevalsanalyse - agricultural sector - economic analysis - economic development - agro-industrial chains - pig farming - ornamental horticulture - potatoes - arable farming - employment - case studies
Nederland kent een sterke en innovatieve agrosector, die met een aandeel van zo’n 8% in het nationaal inkomen en de werkgelegenheid een belangrijke pijler is onder de nationale economie. De kracht van de Nederlandse agrosector is sterk verbonden met een historisch gegroeid cluster van bedrijven in de keten. Bij dit cluster behoren spelers in de toelevering en verwerking van diensten. De vraag is wat er overblijft van de kracht van het agrocluster als bijvoorbeeld door regelgeving de primaire schakel belangrijk in omvang zou afnemen. Dit rapport poogt in opdracht van het ministerie van EZ op deze vraag een antwoord te geven.
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