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Surface complexation at mineral interfaces: Multisite and Charge Distribution approach
Hiemstra, T. - \ 2010
University. Promotor(en): Willem van Riemsdijk. - S.l. : s.n. - ISBN 9789085857174 - 383
bodemchemie - geochemie - adsorptie - fosfaten - ionen - organische stof - kleimineralen - kationenwisseling - soil chemistry - geochemistry - adsorption - phosphates - ions - organic matter - clay minerals - cation exchange - cum laude
cum laude graduation (with distinction)
Derivation of cation exchange constants for sand, loess, clay and peat soils on the basis of field measurements in the Netherlands
Vries, W. de; Posch, M. - \ 2003
Wageningen : Alterra (Alterra-rapport 701) - 50
bodemtypen - kationenwisseling - verzuring - bodemchemie - dynamische modellen - meting - experimenteel veldonderzoek - nederland - soil types - cation exchange - acidification - soil chemistry - dynamic models - measurement - field experimentation - netherlands
This report presents extensive Tables of cation exchange constants (selectivity coefficients) for sand, loess, clay and peat soils at different depths derived from simultaneous field measure-ments of adsorbed in dissolved concentrations of H, Al, Ca, Mg, K and Na in several hundreds of non-agricultural soils in the Netherlands. Data are provided for the two most widely used cation exchange models (Gaines-Thomas and Gapon) and for all possible combinations of cations, including protons. Results show a wide range in exchange constants, especially when using the Gaines-Thomas exchange description. It appears that Gapon exchange constants are stronger correlated than the corresponding Gaines-Thomas exchange constants, especially for sandy soils. A strong positive correlation means that the ratio between two exchange constants is more characteristic, and less variable, of a certain soil (type) than their absolute numbers, which often vary by several orders of magnitude. In deriving exchange constants, the Al constants were related to free Al3+, the CEC was normalised to a buffered soil pH of 6.5 and the dissolved ion concentrations have all been derived while using a centrifugation method to extract the soil solution. Because of these methodological aspects, they cannot always be used directly in a particular model application. Nevertheless, they provide insight into the numerical ranges of and correlations between exchange constan, and are thus useful for constraining model parameters, e.g. in model calibrations.
Effecten van bevloeiing op de basentoestand en nutriëntenbeschikbaarheid van natte schraalgraslanden op klei-, zand-, en veengronden; veldwaarnemingen en laboratoriumexperimenten
Kemmers, R.H. ; Sival, F.P. ; Jansen, P.C. - \ 2003
Wageningen : Alterra (Alterra-rapport 534) - 65
inundatie - oppervlakte-irrigatie - graslanden - kationenwisseling - basenverzadiging - ijzeroxiden - fosfaat - pyriet - zware kleigronden - zandgronden - veengronden - natuur - flooding - surface irrigation - grasslands - cation exchange - base saturation - iron oxides - phosphate - pyrites - clay soils - sandy soils - peat soils - nature
Er is onderzocht of bevloeiing kan leiden tot een verhoging van de basenverzadiging zonder tevens te leiden tot indirecte eutrofiëring. Daartoe werd in het veld een monitoringprogramma en in het laboratorium een inundatie-experiment uitgevoerd met uiteenlopend bodemmateriaal. Er zijn belangrijke aanwijzingen dat langjarige bevloeiing tot een hogere basenverzadiging van de bodem leidt. Korte perioden van bevloeiing zijn gunstiger dan lange perioden. Uit het experiment blijkt dat in de bodem vergelijkbare effecten optreden ongeacht het gebruikte watertype. Dit is te verklaren uit de aanwezigheid van pyriet in de bodemmonsters. De aanwezigheid van pyriet is volledig bepalend voor het procesverloop na inundatie en overschaduwt het effect van het watertype. Fosfaatmobilisatie vindt bij alle gebruikte bodem- en watertypen plaats. Middellange vernatting leidt aanvankelijk altijd tot fosfaatmobilisatie. Bij veel sulfaat en weinig ijzer is deze mobilisatie blijvend en bij weinig sulfaat en veel ijzer tijdelijk doordat vivianiet gevormd kan worden. Bij inundatie treedt een duidelijk tijdseffect op in het procesverloop.
Investigation of the functional lifetime of TRISOPLASTr in relation to chemical compositions of pore water solutions in barriers
Boels, D. ; Beest, H. te; Zweers, H. ; Groeneveld, P. - \ 2003
Wageningen : Alterra (Alterra-rapport 528) - 49
barrières - chemische samenstelling - permeabiliteit - bodemwaterbeweging - poriën - kationenwisseling - stortterreinen - bodembescherming - membraanpermeabiliteit - membranen - barriers - chemical composition - permeability - soil water movement - pores - cation exchange - landfills - soil conservation - membrane permeability - membranes
Trisoplastr is a mixture of sand, bentonite and a polymer, used amongst others as landfill cover as well as barriers. Its permeability is generally lower than 1-2 x 10-11 m/s. Trisoplast keeps its functionality even in contact with different kinds of liquids, is not susceptible to cyclic drying and rewetting, and the permeability hardly depends on its dry bulk density. Tests with 10¿iaxial strain show only a slight increase in permeability. The functional lifetime of Trisoplast is governed by exchange of adsorbed sodium ions against dissolved calcium ions. This process depends on the composition of the pore water solution in the soil layers directly in contact with Trisoplast and the displacement rate of dissolved calcium ions either by convectiveor diffusive transport phenomena. The functional lifetime of Trisoplast even under relatively extreme conditions is at least 100 years and scores clearly better than the reference sand-bentonite barrier.
Regulatie van de basentoestand door effectgerichte maatregelen in natte schraallanden en laagveenmoerassen; voorstudie: systeembeschrijving
Delft, S.P.J. van; Kemmers, R.H. - \ 1998
Wageningen : DLO-Staring Centrum - 63
zure depositie - calcium - kationenwisseling - organische stof - oxidatie - graslanden, gematigde streken - plantengemeenschappen - moerasgronden - nederland - acid deposition - cation exchange - organic matter - oxidation - temperate grasslands - plant communities - swamp soils - netherlands
Bodemkundig onderzoek in het kader van obn
Extrapolation and interpolation by time-scaling in systems with diffusion controlled kinetics and first order reaction rates.
Zee, S.E.A.T.M. van der; Riemsdijk, W.H. van; Grinsven, J.J.M. van - \ 1989
Netherlands Journal of Agricultural Science 37 (1989). - ISSN 0028-2928 - p. 47 - 60.
kationenwisseling - absorptie - natrium - diffusie - ionen - bodem - bodemkunde - computersimulatie - simulatie - simulatiemodellen - cation exchange - absorption - sodium - diffusion - ions - soil - soil science - computer simulation - simulation - simulation models
Diffusie van gassen in grond en zuurstofdiffusiecoefficienten in Nederlandse akkerbouwgronden
Bakker, J.W. ; Boone, F.R. ; Boekel, P. - \ 1987
Wageningen : I.C.W. (Rapporten / Instituut voor Cultuurtechniek en Waterhuishouding 20) - 44
bodemlucht - bodem - zuurstof - bodemwatergehalte - kationenwisseling - absorptie - natrium - diffusie - ionen - bodemkunde - mechanica - gassen - nederland - stroming - soil air - soil - oxygen - soil water content - cation exchange - absorption - sodium - diffusion - ions - soil science - mechanics - gases - netherlands - flow
Onderzoek naar de effecten van wateraanvoer en peilveranderingen in agrarische gebieden op de waterkwaliteit in natuurgebieden. Dl. 3: EPIDIM, een chemisch evenwichtsmodel met adsorptie, verwering en neerslag van calciet
Groenendijk, P. - \ 1987
Wageningen : ICW (Nota / Instituut voor Cultuurtechniek en Waterhuishouding 1774) - 38
bodemchemie - kationenwisseling - natrium - ionen - bodemoplossing - adsorptie - natuurbescherming - ecohydrologie - wateraanvoer - peilbeheer - soil chemistry - cation exchange - sodium - ions - soil solution - adsorption - nature conservation - ecohydrology - water advance - water level management
Voor het 'Wateraanvoerproject' dat door het ICW in het kader van de SWNBL wordt uitgevoerd, is het bestaande computermodel COMPLEX enigszins gewijzigd en zijn er de processen van adsorptie, verwering en neerslag van calciet aan toegevoegd. In het chemische evenwichtsmodel EPIDIM (chemica! Equilibria, Precipitation, Ion exchange and Dissulution Module) dat is ontstaan wordt de adsorptiecapaciteit constant verondersteld en kan het oplossen en neerslaan van calciet worden berekend als een kinetisch eerste orde proces of als een momentaan proces.
Onderzoek naar de effecten van wateraanvoer en peilveranderingen in agrarische gebieden op de waterkwaliteit in natuurgebieden. Dl. 5: Micro-kolomexperimenten ter bepaling van adsorptie - isothermen en ter verificatie van het model EPIDIM met bodemmonsters uit de Tondense heide
Hendriks, R.F.A. - \ 1987
Wageningen : ICW (Nota / Instituut voor Cultuurtechniek en Waterhuishouding 1809) - 68
bodemchemie - kationenwisseling - natrium - diffusie - bodemoplossing - adsorptie - ecohydrologie - wateraanvoer - peilbeheer - natuurgebieden - veluwe - soil chemistry - cation exchange - sodium - diffusion - soil solution - adsorption - ecohydrology - water advance - water level management - natural areas
Voor het 'Wateraanvoer-project' dat door het ICW wordt uitgevoerd in het kader van de Studiecommissie Waterbeheer, Natuur, Bos en Landschap (SWNBL) zijn modellen ontwikkeld, die de adsorptie en desarptie van een aantal kationen aan een adsorptiecomplex beschrijven.
Dynamic simulation of multinary diffusion problems related to soil.
Leffelaar, P.A. - \ 1987
Soil Science 143 (1987)2. - ISSN 0038-075X - p. 79 - 91.
kationenwisseling - absorptie - natrium - diffusie - ionen - bodem - bodemkunde - bodemlucht - denitrificatie - cation exchange - absorption - sodium - diffusion - ions - soil - soil science - soil air - denitrification
A mixing cell solute transport model with exchange of cations in soils : modelling and parameter estimation of transport and exchange of Na, Ca and Mg ions in soils applied to microcolumn experiments and to the reuse of drainage water in Egypt
Groenendijk, P. - \ 1985
Wageningen : I.C.W. (Nota / Instituut voor Cultuurtechniek en Waterhuishouding 1578) - 66
bodemoplossing - alkaligronden - bodemalkaliteit - kationenwisseling - absorptie - natrium - diffusie - ionen - bodem - bodemkunde - modellen - onderzoek - egypte - soil solution - alkaline soils - soil alkalinity - cation exchange - absorption - sodium - diffusion - ions - soil - soil science - models - research - egypt
Rock-phosphate mobilization induced by the alkaline uptake pattern of legumes utilizing symbiotically fixed nitrogen
Aguilar Santelises, A. - \ 1981
Landbouwhogeschool Wageningen. Promotor(en): A. van Diest. - Wageningen : Aguilar Santelises - 111
bodem - stikstof - peulvruchten - fabaceae - kationenwisseling - absorptie - natrium - diffusie - ionen - bodemkunde - natuurfosfaat - stikstofkringloop - bacteriën - soil - nitrogen - grain legumes - cation exchange - absorption - sodium - diffusion - ions - soil science - rock phosphate - nitrogen cycle - bacteria
The ability of plants to exert a certain degree of selection when absorbing nutrients often has as a consequence that on an equivalence basis unequal quantities of cationic and anionic nutrients are absorbed. To maintain electroneutrality inside and outside its tissues, the plant absorbs or extrudes ions not considered as nutritive ones. As a result of such regulatory actions of the plant, the pH in the root environment can be affected which in turn can exert an <em>i</em> nfluence on the solubility and availability of nutrients.<p/>In this dissertation, attention is paid to the implications of utilization of symbiotically fixed N <sub><font size="-1">2</font></sub> by legumes for the usefulness of rock phosphates as phosphatic fertilizers. The chain of thoughts is, as follows: 1. originally present soil phosphate and soil nitrate enable legumes to form nodules in which symbiotic N <sub><font size="-1">2</font></sub> fixation can take place which for its further growth will make the host plant independent of any form of combined N (NH<font size="-1"><sub>4</sub><sup>+</SUP></font>and/or NO<font size="-1"><sub>3</sub><sup>-</SUP></font>) ; 2. when the legume has exhausted the initial NO<font size="-1"><sub>3</sub><sup>-</SUP></font>supply, but can continue to grow because of the availability of symbiotically fixed N <sub><font size="-1">2</font></sub> , it will absorb more cationic than anionic nutrients; 3. on account of this cationic uptake pattern, the growth medium in the vicinity of absorbing roots will acidify; 4. as a result of this acidification alkaline rock phosphates, when added as fertilizer, might be partially solubilized; 5. because of this solubilization induced by N <sub><font size="-1">2</font></sub> fixation, rock phosphates might be more useful P sources for legumes than for other crops such as cereals, and they might also be more useful for legumes utilizing symbiotically fixed N <sub><font size="-1">2</font></sub> than for the saw legumes under conditions of an ample supply of NO <sub><font size="-1">3</font></sub> -N.<p/>In a series of experiments, it was investigated whether this chain of thoughts could be verified and, if so, which limiting factors could manifest themselves and how these might be eliminated. These experiments were conducted in greenhouses with the use of two growth media, namely pure quartz sand and a sandy loam low in P which was located at a depth of a few meters in a sand quarry near Lunteren. The experimental crops used were soybean, alfalfa, peanut, and maize. The phosphate fertilizers employed were triple superphosphate and alkaline rock phosphates from Mali and Morocco.<p/>In experiment 1, use was made of sand as growth medium, soybean as test crop and superphosphate as P fertilizer. It could be shown that, as long as the crop could make use of NO <sub><font size="-1">3</font></sub> -N, soybean exerted a pH-raising effect on the sand. Shortly after the stage at which the NO <sub><font size="-1">3</font></sub> -N was exhausted and the plants transferred to symbiotically fixed N <sub><font size="-1">2</font></sub> as N source, a decline in pH could be observed. In the first weeks of growth, the pH-values of rhizosphere- and non-rhizosphere sand were found to differ. Probably as a result of intensification of the root system, later on these differences disappeared.<p/>In experiment 2, an evaluation was made of the ability of soybean, grown m sand, to make use of P supplied in the form of the two rock phosphates. With an ample supply of NO <sub><font size="-1">3</font></sub> -N, the plants appeared to be unable to utilize these P sources, but this was different for plants utilizing symbiotically fixed N <sub><font size="-1">2</font></sub> , on account of the fact that these latter plants succeeded in acidifying their root environment. With the use of superphosphate, the growth of plants utilizing fixed N <sub><font size="-1">2</font></sub> was very poor, which could be ascribed to P toxicity. To compensate for the absence of NO<font size="-1"><sub>3</sub><sup>-</SUP></font>as major anionic nutrient, these plants appeared to have absorbed excessive quantities of phosphate. In the case of NO <sub><font size="-1">3</font></sub> -fed plants, P uptake was less extreme.<p/>Experiment 3 was comparable to experiment 2, except that the sandy loam was used as growth medium. It appeared that in this case the acidifying effect of the plants utilizing fixed N <sub><font size="-1">2</font></sub> was insufficient to solubilize the rock phosphates used. The short duration of the experiment, the P-fixing capacity and the pH-buffering capacity of the soil, and a shortage of available soil phosphate were factors likely to be responsible for the negative results obtained in this experiment.<p/>Since peanut is often grown m light-textured soils having low pH- buffering capacities, this crop was chosen as test crop in experiment 4 to examine its ability to utilize P applied in the 3 different fertilizer form to sand. Even when the superphosphate quantity applied was reduced to me-half of that applied to soybean in a previous experiment, P toxicity was still noticeable. For unknown reasons, symbiosis between host plant and Rhizobium strain was insufficiently effective to bring about an acidification of the sand. As a result, solubilization of rock phosphates did not take place. It was furthermore observed that peanut belongs to the group of plants exhibiting a neutral uptake pattern (equivalent quantities of cationic and anionic nutrients absorbed) when N is absorbed as NO<font size="-1"><sub>3</sub><sup>-</SUP></font>.<p/>In experiment 5, alfalfa was grown m the sandy loam. With this perennial crop, the acidification induced by plants utilizing fixed N <sub><font size="-1">2</font></sub> appeared large enough to enable alfalfa to make use of P applied in rock phosphate form. In the case of NO<font size="-1"><sub>3</sub><sup>-</SUP></font>nutrition, the soil pH became high enough to render the sparsely soluble Mali rock phosphate largely unavailable to alfalfa. It could be concluded that the influence exerted by perennial legumes m the soil pH can be large enough to overcome a buffering capacity the soil may have.<p/>The possibility exists that in extremely poor soils, lack of available P prevents the development of nodules so that symbiotic N <sub><font size="-1">2</font></sub> fixation cannot take place. In such cases, application of a small quantity of soluble P fertilizer may be sufficient to put into motion the chain of reactions eventually resulting in solubilization of rock phosphate that was also applied. In experiment 6, a small quantity of <sup><font size="-1">32</font></SUP>P-labeled KH <sub><font size="-1">2</font></sub> PO <sub><font size="-1">4</font></sub> was added to sand or sandy loam which was placed in pots m top of a larger quantity of sand or soil to which either me of the two rock phosphates was added. With the use of sand as growth medium, it was found that with the aid of the small quantity of KH <sub><font size="-1">2</font></sub> PO <sub><font size="-1">4</font></sub> applied, soybean could indeed make better use of the rock phosphates. With the soil, such a priming effect of the starter-KH <sub><font size="-1">2</font></sub> PO <sub><font size="-1">4</font></sub> was not observed. More so than in other experiments, low light intensity constituted an obstacle to a normal development of the N <sub><font size="-1">2</font></sub> -fixing mechanism, thus reducing the ability of the root system of soybean to acidify, its root environment.<p/>It is known that vesicular- arbuscular mycorrhiza (VAM) can make a contribution to the P nutrition of plants growing m P-depleted soil or m soil to which sparsely soluble rock phosphate was applied. In experiment 7, it was examined whether the joint actions of Rhizobium and VAM in mobilizing soil P and P added as rock phosphate would be more effective than the single actions of each of the micro-organisms . The experimental crop was again alfalfa grown m the sandy loam. It was found that for the control treatment (no fertilizerP added) and for the Mali rock phosphate treatment the quantities of P absorbed by the plants were indeed largest when both Rhizobium and VAM were active. In the superphosphate- and Morocco rock phosphate treatments, VAM did not make a contribution to the P nutrition of the plants, which can be seen as an indication that the availability of these fertilizers was high enough to meet the requirements of the alfalfa plants without any aid rendered by VAM.<p/>In experiment 8, it was shown that maize, as an example of a crop that in the case of NO<font size="-1"><sub>3</sub><sup>-</SUP></font>nutrition raises the pH of its root environment, lacks the ability to utilize P applied in rock phosphate form. In this respect, the behavior of maize is similar to that of leguminous crops, like soybean and alfalfa, when these crops are amply supplied with NO 3-N and do not utilize symbiotically fixed N <sub><font size="-1">2</font></sub> .<p/>The conclusion to be drawn from the results obtained is that alkaline rock phosphates are relatively useful as P sources to c-raps which are capable of acidifying their root environment. Legumes possess this ability, provided that they utilize symbiotically fixed N <sub><font size="-1">2</font></sub> . In such cases, they withdraw from the soil more cationic than anionic nutrients, thereby exerting an acidifying effect m their root environment.<p/>Such an ability to solubilize rock phosphates is, therefore, dependent m the extent to which N <sub><font size="-1">2</font></sub> fixation can take place. Such a fixation can be hampered by low light intensities, but also by lack of a small quantity of readily available phosphate needed by the young plants to build up an N <sub><font size="-1">2</font></sub> -fixation mechanism. Once such a mechanism is operative, it can indirectly make a contribution to the mobilization of alkaline rock phosphates when these have been applied to the soil. From the results obtained it appeared that the initiation of a chain of reactions eventually leading to the solubilization of rock phosphate can be brought about by adding a small quantity of superphosphate or by establishing a symbiosis of legume and VA mycorrhiza.<p/>The results obtained provide opportunities for those countries which possess alkaline rock phosphates that do not lend themselves to being used as basic materials for the manufacturing of superphosphates. Application of these rock phosphates creates a possibility to grow legumes with only a slight investment in the form of rock phosphate needed to supply the plants with two highly important and expensive nutrients, namely nitrogen and phosphate.
Verschillen in adsorptiecapaciteit tussen gronden binnen het ruilverkavelingsgebied Kruisland - Wouw, een mogelijkheid tot interpretatie van bodemkaarten voor ecologische doeleinden
Zuilen, E.J. van; Stuurman, F.J. - \ 1977
Wageningen : STIBOKA (Rapport / Stichting voor Bodemkartering no. 1378) - 21
kationenwisseling - absorptie - natrium - diffusie - ionen - bodem - bodemkunde - adsorptie - landschap - landschapsecologie - ruimtelijke ordening - landgebruik - ruilverkaveling - bodemfysica - grondmechanica - ionenuitwisseling - colloïdale eigenschappen - nederland - noord-brabant - cation exchange - absorption - sodium - diffusion - ions - soil - soil science - adsorption - landscape - landscape ecology - physical planning - land use - land consolidation - soil physics - soil mechanics - ion exchange - colloidal properties - netherlands
Simulation of transport processes in soils
Wit, C.T. de; Keulen, H. van - \ 1972
Wageningen : Pudoc (Simulation monographs 2) - ISBN 9789022004173 - 100
kationenwisseling - absorptie - natrium - diffusie - ionen - bodem - bodemkunde - permeabiliteit - bodemtemperatuur - thermische geleiding - thermische bodemeigenschappen - cation exchange - absorption - sodium - diffusion - ions - soil - soil science - permeability - soil temperature - thermal conductivity - soil thermal properties
Simulatie van de diffusie in lineaire, cylindrische en sferische systemen
Barel, D. ; Egmond, F. van; Jonge, C. de; Frissel, M.J. ; Leistra, M. ; Wit, C.T. de - \ 1969
Wageningen : Landbouwhogeschool, Afd. Theoretische Teeltkunde - 30
kationenwisseling - absorptie - natrium - diffusie - ionen - bodem - bodemkunde - bodemlucht - computersimulatie - simulatie - simulatiemodellen - cation exchange - absorption - sodium - diffusion - ions - soil - soil science - soil air - computer simulation - simulation - simulation models
De invloed van den basentoestand van den grond op de ontwikkeling van de theeplant (Thea sinensis Linn.)
Prillwitz, P.M.H.H. - \ 1932
University. Promotor(en): J. Hudig. - Wageningen : Veenman - 120
camellia sinensis - thee - kationenwisseling - absorptie - natrium - diffusie - ionen - bodemkunde - nederlands indië - tea - cation exchange - absorption - sodium - diffusion - ions - soil science - netherlands east indies
Application of slaked lime retarded growth of young tea plants on most soils in pot trials. Application of S, although beneficial to the growth of tea plants, had an adverse effect on the soil, when applied in large amounts. It lowered both the base saturation and the adsorption capacity of the soil. Therefore the

use of S on strongly weathered soils with a poor reserve of minerals could not be recommended. The injurious effect of applying S to slightly weathered soils with a sufficient reserve of minerals had no practical significance, since the adsorption complex impoverished of bases, enriched itself again by gradual weathering.

Another advantage associated with the use of S was that it seemed to control some parasitic root fungi of the tea plant, fungi which mainly occurred on slightly weathered young volcanic soils.

How far these results of pot trials would also hold for field conditions would largely depend on the thoroughness of mixing S and soil. In new plantations, S could be applied primarily to the plant holes. In nursery trials, however, S should be mixed with the whole top soil. The influence of base status of the soil on adult tea plants was not studied.

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