Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

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Immunological Properties of Inulin-Type Fructans
Vogt, L. ; Meyer, D. ; Pullens, G. ; Faas, M.M. ; Smelt, M.J. ; Venema, K. ; Ramasamy, U. ; Schols, H.A. ; Vos, P. de - \ 2015
Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition 55 (2015)3. - ISSN 1040-8398 - p. 414 - 436.
irritable-bowel-syndrome - aberrant crypt foci - probiotics lactobacillus-rhamnosus - dextran sodium-sulfate - chain fatty-acids - healthy elderly volunteers - colon-cancer patients - tnbs-induced colitis - b-cell responses - fisher 344 rats
Beneficial effects of inulin-type fructans are discussed in view of studies that applied the oligosaccharides in colon cancer, chronic inflammatory diseases, vaccination efficacy, and prevention of infection and allergy. In the present paper, we discuss their immunomodulating effects. It is suggested that immunomodulation is elicited through indirect and direct mechanisms. Indirect mechanisms encompass stimulation of growth and activity of lactic acid bacteria, but can also be caused by fermentation products of these bacteria, i.e., short chain fatty acids. Evidence for direct effects on the immune system generally remains to be confirmed. It is suggested that inulin-type fructans can be detected by gut dendritic cells (DCs), through receptor ligation of pathogen recognition receptors (PRRs) such as Toll-like receptors, nucleotide oligomerization domain containing proteins (NODs), C-type lectin receptors, and galectins, eventually inducing pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines. DCs may also exert antigen presenting capacity toward effector cells, such as B cells, T cells, and natural killer cells locally, or in the spleen. Inulin-type fructans may also ligate PRRs expressed on gut epithelium, which could influence its barrier function. Inulin-type fructans are potent immunomodulating food components that hold many promises for prevention of disease. However, more studies into the mechanisms, dose-effect relations, and structure-function studies are required.
Dietary Pectin-Derived Acidic Oligosaccharides Improve the Pulmonary Bacterial Clearance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Lung Infection in Mice by Modulating Intestinal Microbiota and Immunity
Bernard, H. ; Desseyn, J.L. ; Bartke, N. ; Kleinjans, L.P.J. ; Belzer, C. ; Knol, J. ; Gottrand, F. ; Husson, M.O. - \ 2015
The Journal of Infectious Diseases 211 (2015)1. - ISSN 0022-1899 - p. 156 - 165.
cystic-fibrosis patients - chain fatty-acids - galacto-oligosaccharides - t-cells - cytokine production - virus-infection - human-milk - in-vitro - lactobacillus - butyrate
Background. A predominantly T-helper type 2 (Th2) immune response is critical in the prognosis of pulmonary Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection. But the mucosal and systemic immune responses can be influenced by the intestinal microbiota. Methods. We assessed the effect of microbiota compositional changes induced by a diet enriched in 5% acidic oligosaccharides derived from pectin (pAOS) on the immune response and outcome of chronic pulmonary P. aeruginosa infection in mice. Results. pAOS promoted Th1 polarization by increasing interferon ¿ release, upregulating t-bet gene expression, decreasing interleukin 4 secretion, and downregulating gata3 gene expression. pAOS also sustained the release of keratinocyte chemoattractant, recruited polynuclear leukocytes and macrophages, stimulated M1 macrophage activation and interleukin 10 release, and decreased tumor necrosis factor a release in the lung. These effects led to increased bacterial clearance after the first and second P. aeruginosa infections. pAOS modified the intestinal microbiota by stimulating the growth of species involved in immunity development, such as Bifidobacterium species, Sutturella wadsworthia, and Clostridium cluster XIVa organisms, and at the same time increased the production of butyrate and propionate. Conclusion. These results suggest that pAOS may have beneficial effects by limiting the number and severity of pulmonary exacerbations in patients chronically infected with P. aeruginosa, such as individuals with cystic fibrosis.
Time related alterations in digestibility and faecal characteristics as affected by dietary composition in the Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L.)
Amirkolaie, A.K. ; Schrama, J.W. - \ 2015
Aquaculture Research 46 (2015)5. - ISSN 1355-557X - p. 1078 - 1086.
trout oncorhynchus-mykiss - chain fatty-acids - apparent digestibility - soybean-meal - feces collection - feed ingredients - inclusion level - gut microbes - guar gum - fish
After being shifted to a new diet, time related alterations in digestibility, faecal waste production and faeces recovery in Nile tilapia were assessed in relation with dietary ingredient composition. Four experimental diets were formulated according to a 2 by 2 factorial design: two starch inclusion levels (20 or 40%) and two maize starch types (native versus gelatinized). After introduction to the experimental diets, faeces were collected weekly from Week 2 till 6 using settling tanks. Digestibility of ash, organic matter and dry matter increased with time (P <0.001). For organic and dry matter the time related alteration in digestibility were different between both starch types (P <0.05). All faecal waste characteristics altered with time (P <0.01). The incline in faeces recovery with time was affected by starch type (P <0.01); being the largest at the 40% gelatinized maize diet. In conclusion, the minimal length of the adaptation period in digestibility studies for obtaining unbiased digestibility estimates is dependent on diet composition, in this study with Nile tilapia 4 weeks for diets with gelatinized starch and 6 weeks with native starch.
Long-term acclimation of anaerobic sludges for high-rate methanogenesis from LCFA
Silva, S.A. ; Cavaleiro, A.J. ; Pereira, M.A. ; Stams, A.J.M. ; Alves, M.M. ; Sousa, D.Z. - \ 2014
Biomass and Bioenergy 67 (2014). - ISSN 0961-9534 - p. 297 - 303.
chain fatty-acids - oleic-acid - oxidizing bacteria - methane production - waste-water - digestion - lipids - quantification - hybridization - accumulation
Inhibition of methanogens by long chain fatty acids (LCFA) and the low numbers of LCFA-degrading bacteria are limitations to exploit biogas production from fat-rich wastewaters. Generally reactors fail due to excessive LCFA accumulation onto the sludge. Here, long-term acclimation and bioaugmentation with a LCFA-degrading coculture were hypothesized as strategies to enhance methanogenic conversion of these compounds. Anaerobic sludges previously exposed to LCFA for more than 100 days converted a specific biomass-associated substrate of (3.2 ± 0.1) kg·kg-1 with very short lag phases (
Differential Modulation by Akkermansia muciniphila and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii of Host Peripheral Lipid Metabolism and Histone Acetylation in Mouse Gut Organoids.
Lukovac, S. ; Belzer, C. ; Pellis, L. ; Keijser, B.J. ; Vos, W.M. de; Montijn, R.C. ; Roeselers, G. - \ 2014
MBio 5 (2014)4. - ISSN 2150-7511 - 10 p.
chain fatty-acids - diet-induced obesity - intestinal microbiota - cholesterol-synthesis - adipose factor - gen. nov. - in-vitro - colon - cell - expression
The gut microbiota is essential for numerous aspects of human health. However, the underlying mechanisms of many host-microbiota interactions remain unclear. The aim of this study was to characterize effects of the microbiota on host epithelium using a novel ex vivo model based on mouse ileal organoids. We have explored the transcriptional response of organoids upon exposure to short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) and products generated by two abundant microbiota constituents, Akkermansia muciniphila and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii. We observed that A. muciniphila metabolites affect various transcription factors and genes involved in cellular lipid metabolism and growth, supporting previous in vivo findings. Contrastingly, F. prausnitzii products exerted only weak effects on host transcription. Additionally, A. muciniphila and its metabolite propionate modulated expression of Fiaf, Gpr43, histone deacetylases (HDACs), and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (Ppar¿), important regulators of transcription factor regulation, cell cycle control, lipolysis, and satiety. This work illustrates that specific bacteria and their metabolites differentially modulate epithelial transcription in mouse organoids. We demonstrate that intestinal organoids provide a novel and powerful ex vivo model for host-microbiome interaction studies.
Effects of resistant starch on behaviour, satiety-related hormones and metabolites in growing pigs
Souza Da Silva, C. ; Haenen, D. ; Koopmans, S.J. ; Hooiveld, G.J.E.J. ; Bosch, G. ; Bolhuis, J.E. ; Kemp, B. ; Müller, M.R. ; Gerrits, W.J.J. - \ 2014
Animal 8 (2014)09. - ISSN 1751-7311 - p. 1402 - 1411.
chain fatty-acids - adult female pigs - nonstarch polysaccharides - appetite regulation - feeding motivation - serotonin content - dietary-fibers - food-intake - insulin - fermentation
Resistant starch (RS) has been suggested to prolong satiety in adult pigs. The present study investigated RS-induced changes in behaviour, satiety-related hormones and metabolites in catheterized growing pigs to explore possible underlying mechanisms for RS-induced satiety. In a cross-over design with two 14-day periods, 10 pigs (initial BW: 58 kg) were assigned to two treatments comprising diets containing either 35% pregelatinized starch (PS) or 34% retrograded starch (RS). Diets were isoenergetic on gross energy. Pigs were fed at 2.8× maintenance. Postprandial plasma response of satiety-related hormones and metabolites was measured at the end of each period using frequent blood sampling. Faecal and urinary energy losses were measured at the end of each period. Behaviour was scored 24 h from video recordings using scan sampling. Energy digestibility and metabolizability were ~6% lower in RS compared with PS diet (P
Utilization of carbon isotope enrichments (ð¹³C) of alkanes as faecal markers to estimate diet composition of goats fed with heathland vegetation
Ferreira, L.M.M. ; Daniel, J.B. ; Celaya, R. ; Santos, A.S. ; Osoro, K. ; Rodrigues, M.A.M. ; Pellikaan, W.F. - \ 2014
Animal Feed Science and Technology 191 (2014). - ISSN 0377-8401 - p. 26 - 38.
chain fatty-acids - n-alkanes - labeled supplement - grazing behavior - recovery rates - cuticular wax - mixed forages - sheep - alcohols - c-13
This study aimed to evaluate the possible utilization of carbon isotope enrichments (d13C) of n-alkanes as faecal markers for estimating diet composition of goats fed with diets composed of different proportions of browse (Erica umbellata, Erica cinerea, Calluna vulgaris, Erica arborea, and Ulex gallii) and herbaceous feeds (Lolium perenne and Trifolium repens). Diet composition was estimated from d13C of n-alkanes (C27 and C29–C33) in plant species and faeces alone and/or their combination with alkanes, long-chain fatty acids and long-chain alcohols, using least square optimization procedures. Large variation between plant species in their d13C profiles was observed with the level of enrichment varying from -31.20‰ to -38.40‰ and tending to be higher for the odd-chain d13C compared to even-chain ones (-34.12 ± 1.90‰ vs. -35.13 ± 1.39‰, respectively). Results suggest that d13C values of alkanes provided different discriminatory information to that given by other markers. No differences were found between the faecal recovery of 13C and 12C in individual alkanes, showing evidence that no differential degradation in the gastrointestinal tract occurred between isotopes for any of the alkanes. These results indicate that d13C values of alkanes can be used without the need to apply any faecal correction factor as they are relative values. Accuracy of diet composition estimates based on d13C data alone was lower (P <0.05) than when using alkanes, LCFA and LCOH. Moreover, data showed that the inclusion of d13C in the input data used in diet composition calculations resulted in lower (P <0.05) accuracy of the estimates in several combinations. Results indicate limitations on the use of d13C values of alkanes, possibly because differences between plant species in their profiles may have been not sufficiently wide to obtain accurate estimates of diet composition.
Satiety and energy intake after single and repeated exposure to gel-forming dietary fiber: post-ingestive effects
Wanders, A.J. ; Mars, M. ; Borgonjen-van den Berg, K.J. ; Graaf, C. de; Feskens, E.J.M. - \ 2014
International Journal of Obesity 38 (2014). - ISSN 0307-0565 - p. 794 - 800.
sustained pectin ingestion - libitum food-intake - lupin-kernel fiber - chain fatty-acids - body-weight - in-vitro - glucose-tolerance - sensory exposure - appetite - satiation
Background: Viscous or gel-forming dietary fibers can increase satiety by a more firm texture and increased eating time. Effects of viscous or gel-forming fibers on satiety by post-ingestive mechanisms such as gastric emptying, hormonal signals, nutrient absorption or fermentation are unclear. Moreover, it is unclear whether the effects persist after repeated exposure. Objective: To investigate satiety and energy intake after single and repeated exposure to gelled fiber by post-ingestive mechanisms. Design: In a two-arm crossover design, 32 subjects (24 female subjects, 21±2 y, BMI 21.8±1.9¿kg¿m-2) consumed test foods once daily for 15 consecutive days, with 2 weeks of washout. Test foods were isocaloric (0.5¿MJ, 200¿g) with either 10¿g gel-forming pectin or 3¿g gelatin and 2¿g starch, matched for texture and eating time. Hourly satiety ratings, ad libitum energy intake and body weight were measured on days 1 (single exposure) and 15 (repeated exposure). In addition, hourly breath hydrogen, fasting glucose, insulin, leptin and short-chain fatty acids were measured. Results: Subjects rated hunger, desire to eat and prospective intake about 2% lower (P0.64). After receiving pectin, energy intake was lower (-5.6%, P=0.012) and breath hydrogen was elevated (+12.6%, P=0.008) after single exposure, but not after repeated exposure. Fasting glucose concentrations were higher both after single and repeated exposure to pectin (+2.1%, P=0.019). Body weight and concentrations of insulin, leptin and short-chain fatty acids did not change during the study. Conclusions: Gelled pectin can increase satiety and reduce energy intake by post-ingestive mechanisms. Although the effects were small, the effects on satiety were consistent over time, whereas the effects on energy intake reduction were not
Intestinal microbiology in early life: specific prebiotics can have similar functionalities as human-milk oligosaccharides
Oozeer, R. ; Limpt, K. van; Ludwig, T. ; Amor, K. Ben; Martin, R. ; Wind, R.D. ; Boehm, G. ; Knol, J. - \ 2013
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 98 (2013)2. - ISSN 0002-9165 - p. 561S - 571S.
chain fatty-acids - total parenteral-nutrition - formula-fed infants - bottle-fed infants - segmented filamentous bacteria - breast-fed infants - 1st 6 months - in-vitro - gut microbiota - galacto-oligosaccharides
Human milk is generally accepted as the best nutrition for newborns and has been shown to support the optimal growth and development of infants. On the basis of scientific insights from human-milk research, a specific mixture of nondigestible oligosaccharides has been developed, with the aim to improve the intestinal microbiota in early life. The mixture has been extensively studied and has been shown to be safe and to have potential health benefits that are similar to those of human milk. The specific mixture of short-chain galacto-oligosaccharides and long-chain fructo-oligosaccharides has been found to affect the development of early microbiota and to increase the Bifidobacterium amounts as observed in human-milk-fed infants. The resulting gut ecophysiology is characterized by high concentrations of lactate, a slightly acidic pH, and specific short-chain fatty acid profiles, which are high in acetate and low in butyrate and propionate. Here, we have summarized the main findings of dietary interventions with these specific oligosaccharides on the gut microbiota in early life. The gut ecophysiology in early life may have consequences for the metabolic, immunologic, and even neurologic development of the child because reports increasingly substantiate the important function of gut microbes in human health. This review highlights major findings in the field of early gut colonization and the potential impact of early nutrition in healthy growth and development.
Incubation of selected fermentable fibres with feline faecal inoculum: correlations between in vitro fermentation characteristics and end products
Rochus, K. ; Bosch, G. ; Vanhaecke, L. ; Velde, H. van de; Depauw, S. ; Xu, J. ; Fievez, V. ; Wiele, T. van der; Hendriks, W.H. ; Janssens, G.P.J. ; Hesta, M. - \ 2013
Archives of Animal Nutrition 67 (2013)5. - ISSN 1745-039X - p. 416 - 431.
gas-production kinetics - chain fatty-acids - dietary fiber - domestic cat - human gut - substrate - feces - food - progression - propionate
This study aimed to evaluate correlations between fermentation characteristics and end products of selected fermentable fibres (three types of fructans, citrus pectin, guar gum), incubated with faecal inocula from donor cats fed two diets, differing in fibre and protein sources and concentrations. Cumulative gas production was measured over 72 h, fermentation end products were analysed at 4, 8, 12, 24, 48 and 72 h post-incubation, and quantification of lactobacilli, bifidobacteria and bacteroides in fermentation liquids were performed at 4 and 48 h of incubation. Partial Pearson correlations, corrected for inoculum, were calculated to assess the interdependency of the fermentation characteristics of the soluble fibre substrates. Butyric and valeric acid concentrations increased with higher fermentation rates, whereas acetic acid declined. Concentrations of butyric acid (highest in fructans) and propionic acid were inversely correlated with protein fermentation end products at several time points, whereas concentrations of acetic acid (highest in citrus pectin) were positively correlated with these products at most time points. Remarkably, a lack of clear relationship between the counts of bacterial groups and their typically associated products after 4 h of incubation was observed. Data from this experiment suggest that differences in fibre fermentation rate in feline faecal inocula coincide with typical changes in the profile of bacterial fermentation products. The observed higher concentrations of propionic and butyric acid as a result of fibre fermentation could possibly have beneficial effects on intestinal health, and may be confounded with a concurrent decrease in the production of putrefactive compounds. In conclusion, supplementing guar gum or fructans to a feline diet might be more advantageous compared with citrus pectin. However, in vivo research is warranted to confirm these conclusions in domestic cats.
Immune Modulation by Different Types of ß2¿1-Fructans Is Toll-Like Receptor Dependent
Vogt, L. ; Ramasamy, U. ; Meyer, D. ; Pullens, G. ; Venema, K. ; Faas, M.M. ; Schols, H.A. ; Vos, P. de - \ 2013
PLoS One 8 (2013)7. - ISSN 1932-6203 - 12 p.
chain fatty-acids - nf-kappa-b - blood mononuclear-cells - dendritic cells - lactobacillus-rhamnosus - bifidobacterium-lactis - signal-transduction - innate immunity - dietary fiber - inulin
Introduction ß2¿1-fructans are dietary fibers. Main objectives of this study were 1) to demonstrate direct signalling of ß2¿1-fructans on immune cells, 2) to study whether this is mediated by the pattern recognition receptors Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and nucleotide-binding oligomerisation domain-containing proteins (NODs), and 3) to relate the observed effects to the chain length differences in ß2¿1-fructans. Methods Four different ß2¿1-fructan formulations were characterised for their chain length profile. Human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were stimulated in vitro with ß2¿1-fructans, and production of IL-1Ra, IL-1ß, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12p70, and TNF-a was analysed. Reporter cells for TLRs and NODs were incubated with ß2¿1-fructans and analysed for NF-¿B/AP-1 activation. Results Cytokine production in human PBMCs was dose- and chain length-dependent. Strikingly, short chain enriched ß2¿1-fructans induced a regulatory cytokine balance compared to long chain enriched ß2¿1-fructans as measured by IL-10/IL-12 ratios. Activation of reporter cells showed that signalling was highly dependent on TLRs and their adapter, myeloid differentiation primary response protein 88 (MyD88). In human embryonic kidney reporter cells, TLR2 was prominently activated, while TLR4, 5, 7, 8, and NOD2 were mildly activated. Conclusions ß2¿1-fructans possess direct signalling capacity on human immune cells. By activating primarily TLR2, and to a lesser extent TLR4, 5, 7, 8, and NOD2, ß2¿1-fructan stimulation results in NF-¿B/AP-1 activation. Chain length of ß2¿1-fructans is important for the induced activation pattern and IL-10/IL-12 ratios.
Diet, microbiota, and microbial metabolites in colon cancer risk in rural Africans and African Americans
Ou, J. ; Carbonero, F. ; Zoetendal, E.G. ; Delany, J.P. ; Wang, M. ; Newton, K. ; Gaskins, H.R. ; O'Keefe, S.F. - \ 2013
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 98 (2013)1. - ISSN 0002-9165 - p. 111 - 120.
real-time pcr - chain fatty-acids - butyrate-producing bacteria - sulfate-reducing bacteria - bile-acids - liquid-chromatography - quantitative-analysis - sodium-butyrate - human gut - diversity
BACKGROUND: Epidemiologic studies have suggested that most cases of sporadic colon cancer can be attributed to diet. The recognition that colonic microbiota have a major influence on colonic health suggests that they might mediate colonic carcinogenesis. OBJECTIVE: To examine the hypothesis that the influence of diet on colon cancer risk is mediated by the microbiota through their metabolites, we measured differences in colonic microbes and their metabolites in African Americans with a high risk and in rural native Africans with a low risk of colon cancer. DESIGN: Fresh fecal samples were collected from 12 healthy African Americans aged 50-65 y and from 12 age- and sex-matched native Africans. Microbiomes were analyzed with 16S ribosomal RNA gene pyrosequencing together with quantitative polymerase chain reaction of the major fermentative, butyrate-producing, and bile acid-deconjugating bacteria. Fecal short-chain fatty acids were measured by gas chromatography and bile acids by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. RESULTS: Microbial composition was fundamentally different, with a predominance of Prevotella in native Africans (enterotype 2) and of Bacteroides in African Americans (enterotype 1). Total bacteria and major butyrate-producing groups were significantly more abundant in fecal samples from native Africans. Microbial genes encoding for secondary bile acid production were more abundant in African Americans, whereas those encoding for methanogenesis and hydrogen sulfide production were higher in native Africans. Fecal secondary bile acid concentrations were higher in African Americans, whereas short-chain fatty acids were higher in native Africans. CONCLUSION: Our results support the hypothesis that colon cancer risk is influenced by the balance between microbial production of health-promoting metabolites such as butyrate and potentially carcinogenic metabolites such as secondary bile acids
Resistant Starch Induces Catabolic but Suppresses Immune and Cell Division Pathways and Changes the Microbiome in Proximal Colon of Male Pigs
Haenen, D. ; Souza Da Silva, C. ; Zhang, J. ; Koopmans, S.J. ; Bosch, G. ; Vervoort, J.J.M. ; Gerrits, W.J.J. ; Kemp, B. ; Smidt, H. ; Müller, M.R. ; Hooiveld, G.J.E.J. - \ 2013
The Journal of Nutrition 143 (2013)12. - ISSN 0022-3166 - p. 1889 - 1898.
chain fatty-acids - inflammatory-bowel-disease - endoplasmic-reticulum stress - butyrate-producing bacteria - activated receptor-gamma - human large-intestine - gene-expression - gastrointestinal-tract - transcription factors - gut microbiota
Consumption of resistant starch (RS) has been associated with various intestinal health benefits, but knowledge on its effects on global gene expression in the colon is limited. The main objective of the current study was to identify genes affected by RS in the proximal colon to infer which biologic pathways were modulated. Ten 17-wk-old male pigs, fitted with a cannula in the proximal colon for repeated collection of tissue biopsy samples and luminal content, were fed a digestible starch (DS) diet or a diet high in RS (34%) for 2 consecutive periods of 14 d in a crossover design. Analysis of the colonic transcriptome profiles revealed that, upon RS feeding, oxidative metabolic pathways, such as the tricarboxylic acid cycle and ß-oxidation, were induced, whereas many immune response pathways, including adaptive and innate immune system, as well as cell division were suppressed. The nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ¿ (PPARG) was identified as a potential key upstream regulator. RS significantly (P <0.05) increased the relative abundance of several butyrate-producing microbial groups, including the butyrate producers Faecalibacterium prausnitzii and Megasphaera elsdenii, and reduced the abundance of potentially pathogenic members of the genus Leptospira and the phylum Proteobacteria. Concentrations in carotid plasma of the 3 main short-chain fatty acids acetate, propionate, and butyrate were significantly higher with RS consumption compared with DS consumption. Overall, this study provides novel insights on effects of RS in proximal colon and contributes to our understanding of a healthy diet.
Intestinal colonization: How key microbial players become established in this dynamic process: Microbial metabolic activities and the interplay between the host and microbes
Aidy, S.F. El; Abbeele, P. van den; Wiele, T. van der; Louis, P. ; Kleerebezem, M. - \ 2013
Bioessays 35 (2013)10. - ISSN 0265-9247 - p. 913 - 923.
sulfate-reducing bacteria - butyrate-producing bacteria - chain fatty-acids - inflammatory bowel diseases - human gut microbiota - human colon - ulcerative-colitis - hydrogen-sulfide - immune-system - human feces
In this review, we provide an overview of the dynamic changes within the microbiota and its metabolites that are implicated in establishing and maintaining gastrointestinal homeostasis during various stages of microbial colonization. The gradual conversion of the gut microbiota toward a mutualistic microbial community involves replacement of pioneer gut colonizers with bacterial taxa that are characteristic for the adult gut. An important microbial signature of homeostasis in the adult gut is the prevalence and activity of a diverse spectrum of bacterial species that produce beneficial metabolites through metabolic interactions between microbial groups. Deciphering these microbial signatures and their metabolites that govern short and long-term equilibrium, as well as imbalances in host-microbial relationships, may provide novel diagnostic tools and/or therapeutic targets for specific disorders associated with intestinal dysbiosis and loss of homeostasis.
Enrichment of anaerobic syngas converting bacteria from bioreactor sludges
Alves, J.I. ; Stams, A.J.M. ; Plugge, C.M. ; Alves, M.M. ; Sousa, D.Z. - \ 2013
FEMS Microbiology Ecology 86 (2013)3. - ISSN 0168-6496 - p. 590 - 597.
carbon-monoxide conversion - gradient gel-electrophoresis - chain fatty-acids - 16s ribosomal-rna - sp nov. - methanogenic bacteria - gen. nov. - growth - sulfate - communities
Thermophilic (55°C) anaerobic microbial communities were enriched with a synthetic syngas mixture (composed of CO, H2 and CO2 ) or with CO alone. Cultures T-Syn and T-CO were incubated and successively transferred with syngas (16 transfers) or CO (9 transfers), respectively, with increasing CO partial pressures from 0.09 to 0.88 bar. Culture T-Syn, after 4 successive transfers with syngas, was also incubated with CO and subsequently transferred (9 transfers) with solely this substrate - cultures T-Syn-CO. Incubation with syngas and CO caused a rapid decrease in the microbial diversity of the anaerobic consortium. T-Syn and T-Syn-CO showed identical microbial composition, and were dominated by Desulfotomaculum and Caloribacterium species. Incubation initiated with CO resulted in the enrichment of bacteria from the genera Thermincola and Thermoanaerobacter. Methane was detected in the first two to three transfers of T-Syn, but production ceased afterwards. Acetate was the main product formed by T-Syn and T-Syn-CO. Enriched T-CO cultures showed a two-phase conversion, in which H2 was formed first and then converted to acetate. This research provides insight into how thermophilic anaerobic communities develop using syngas/CO as sole energy and carbon source can be steered for specific end products and subsequent microbial synthesis of chemicals
The intestinal microbiota and host immune interactions in the critically ill
Schuijt, T.J. ; Poll, T. van der; Vos, W.M. de; Wiersinga, W.J. - \ 2013
Trends in Microbiology 21 (2013)5. - ISSN 0966-842X - p. 221 - 229.
ventilator-associated pneumonia - systemic innate immunity - human gut microbiome - toll-like receptors - chain fatty-acids - selective decontamination - critical illness - intensive-care - clostridium-difficile - commensal microbiota
The gastrointestinal tract harbors a complex population of microbes that play a fundamental role in the development of the immune system and human health. Besides an important local contribution in the host defense against infections, it has become increasingly clear that intestinal bacteria also modulate immune responses at systemic sites. These new insights can be of profound clinical relevance especially for intensive care medicine where the majority of patients are treated with antibiotics, which have pervasive and long-term effects on the intestinal microbiota. Moreover, considerable progress has been made in defining the role of the intestinal microbiota in both health and disease. In this review, we highlight these aspects and focus on recent key findings addressing the role of intestinal microbiota in antimicrobial defense mechanisms and its impact on intestinal homeostasis in the critically ill
A diet high in resistant starch modulates microbiota composition, SCFA concentrations, and gene expression in pig intestine
Haenen, D. ; Zhang, J. ; Souza Da Silva, C. ; Bosch, G. ; Meer, I.M. van der; Arkel, J. van; Borne, J.J.G.C. van den; Pérez Gutiérrez, O. ; Smidt, H. ; Kemp, B. ; Müller, M.R. ; Hooiveld, G.J.E.J. - \ 2013
The Journal of Nutrition 143 (2013)3. - ISSN 0022-3166 - p. 274 - 283.
chain fatty-acids - glucagon-like peptide-1 - phylogenetic microarray - gastrointestinal-tract - human gut - appetite regulation - metabolic syndrome - colonic function - us adults - body-fat
Resistant starch (RS) is highly fermentable by microbiota in the colon, resulting in the production of SCFAs. RS is thought to mediate a large proportion of its health benefits, including increased satiety, through the actions of SCFAs. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a diet high in RS on luminal microbiota composition, luminal SCFA concentrations, and the expression of host genes involved in SCFA uptake, SCFA signaling, and satiety regulation in mucosal tissue obtained from small intestine, cecum, and colon. Twenty adult female pigs were either assigned to a digestible starch (DS) diet or a diet high in RS (34%) for a period of 2 wk. After the intervention, luminal content and mucosal scrapings were obtained for detailed molecular analysis. RS was completely degraded in the cecum. In both the cecum and colon, differences in microbiota composition were observed between DS- and RS-fed pigs. In the colon these included the stimulation of the healthy gut-associated butyrate-producing Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, whereas potentially pathogenic members of the Gammaproteobacteria, including Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas spp., were reduced in relative abundance. Cecal and colonic SCFA concentrations were significantly greater in RS-fed pigs, and cecal gene expression of monocarboxylate transporter 1 (SLC16A1) and glucagon (GCG) was induced by RS. In conclusion, our data show that RS modulates microbiota composition, SCFA concentrations, and host gene expression in pig intestine. Combined, our data provide an enhanced understanding of the interaction between diet, microbiota, and host
Effects of dietary fibers with different fermentation characteristics on feeding motivation in adult female pigs
Souza Da Silva, C. ; Bolhuis, J.E. ; Gerrits, W.J.J. ; Kemp, B. ; Borne, J.J.G.C. van den - \ 2013
Physiology and Behavior 110-111 (2013). - ISSN 0031-9384 - p. 148 - 157.
chain fatty-acids - glucagon-like peptide-1 - resistant starch - growing pigs - appetite regulation - guar gum - gastrointestinal peptides - nonstarch polysaccharides - hindgut fermentation - weight regulation
Dietary fibers can be fermented in the colon, resulting in production of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) and secretion of satiety-related peptides. Fermentation characteristics (fermentation kinetics and SCFA-profile) differ between fibers and could impact their satiating potential. We investigated the effects of fibers with varying fermentation characteristics on feeding motivation in adult female pigs. Sixteen pair-housed pigs received four diets in four periods in a Latin square design. Starch from a control (C) diet was exchanged, based on gross energy, for inulin (INU), guar gum (GG), or retrograded tapioca starch (RS), each at a low (L) and a high (H) inclusion level. This resulted in a decreased metabolizable energy intake when feeding fiber diets as compared with the C diet. According to in vitro fermentation measurements, INU is rapidly fermentable and yields relatively high amounts of propionate, GG is moderately rapidly fermentable and yields relatively high amounts of acetate, and RS is slowly fermentable and yields relatively high amounts of butyrate. Feeding motivation was assessed using behavioral tests at 1 h, 3 h and 7 h after the morning meal, and home pen behavioral observations throughout the day. The number of wheel turns paid for a food reward in an operant test was unaffected by diet. Pigs on H-diets ran 25% slower for a food reward in a runway test than pigs on L-diets, and showed less spontaneous physical activity and less stereotypic behavior in the hours before the afternoon meal, reflecting increased interprandial satiety. Reduced feeding motivation with increasing inclusion level was most pronounced for RS, as pigs decreased speed in the runway test and tended to have a lower voluntary food intake in an ad libitum food intake test when fed RS-H. In conclusion, increasing levels of fermentable fibers in the diet seemed to enhance satiety in adult pigs, despite a reduction in metabolizable energy supply. RS was the most satiating fiber, possibly due to its slow rate of fermentation and high production of butyrate
Influence of a diet rich in resistant starch on the degradation of non-starch polysaccharides in the large intestine of pigs
Jonathan, M.C. ; Haenen, D. ; Souza Da Silva, C. ; Bosch, G. ; Schols, H.A. ; Gruppen, H. - \ 2013
Carbohydrate Polymers 93 (2013)1. - ISSN 0144-8617 - p. 232 - 239.
chain fatty-acids - nutrient utilization - constituent sugars - human-colon - fiber - fermentation - tract - digestibility - components - fractions
To investigate the effect of resistant starch to the degradation of other non-starch polysaccharides (NSPs) in the large intestine of pigs, two groups of pigs were fed either a diet containing digestible starch (DS) or a diet containing resistant starch (RS). Both diets contained NSPs from wheat and barley. Digesta from different parts of the large intestine were collected and analysed for sugar composition and carbohydrate-degrading-enzyme activities. Resistant starch, as well as ß-glucans and soluble arabinoxylan, was utilised mainly in the caecum. The utilisation of ß-glucans and soluble arabinoxylan in the caecum was higher in DS-fed pigs than in RS-fed pigs. Analyses on carbohydrate-degrading-enzyme activities demonstrated that microbial enzyme production was stimulated according to the diet composition, and the enzyme profile throughout the large intestine of RS-fed pigs indicated that the presence of resistant starch shifted the utilisation of NSPs to more distal parts of the colon
Intestinal microbiota in functional bowel disorders: a Rome foundation report
Simrén, M. ; Barbara, G. ; Flint, H.J. ; Spiegel, B.M. ; Spiller, R.C. ; Vanner, S. ; Verdu, E.F. ; Whorwell, P.J. ; Zoetendal, E.G. - \ 2013
Gut 62 (2013)1. - ISSN 0017-5749 - p. 159 - 176.
quality-of-life - randomized controlled-trial - placebo-controlled trial - chain fatty-acids - 16s ribosomal-rna - multispecies probiotic supplementation - induced visceral hypersensitivity - postinfective gut dysfunction - mucosa-associated microbiota - human col
It is increasingly perceived that gut host-microbial interactions are important elements in the pathogenesis of functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGID). The most convincing evidence to date is the finding that functional dyspepsia and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) may develop in predisposed individuals following a bout of infectious gastroenteritis. There has been a great deal of interest in the potential clinical and therapeutic implications of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth in IBS. However, this theory has generated much debate because the evidence is largely based on breath tests which have not been validated. The introduction of culture-independent molecular techniques provides a major advancement in our understanding of the microbial community in FGID. Results from 16S rRNA-based microbiota profiling approaches demonstrate both quantitative and qualitative changes of mucosal and faecal gut microbiota, particularly in IBS. Investigators are also starting to measure host-microbial interactions in IBS. The current working hypothesis is that abnormal microbiota activate mucosal innate immune responses which increase epithelial permeability, activate nociceptive sensory pathways and dysregulate the enteric nervous system. While we await important insights in this field, the microbiota is already a therapeutic target. Existing controlled trials of dietary manipulation, prebiotics, probiotics, synbiotics and non-absorbable antibiotics are promising, although most are limited by suboptimal design and small sample size. In this article, the authors provide a critical review of current hypotheses regarding the pathogenetic involvement of microbiota in FGID and evaluate the results of microbiota-directed interventions. The authors also provide clinical guidance on modulation of gut microbiota in IBS
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