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Biobased materialen, circulaire economie en natuurlijk kapitaal
Overbeek, M.M.M. ; Smeets, E.M.W. ; Verhoog, A.D. - \ 2017
Wageningen : Wettelijke Onderzoekstaken Natuur & Milieu (WOt-technical report 109) - 37
biomassa - biobased economy - materialen uit biologische grondstoffen - bioplastics - hernieuwbare energie - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - biobrandstoffen - recycling - chemie op basis van biologische grondstoffen - biomass - biobased materials - renewable energy - sustainability - biofuels - biobased chemistry
This preliminary study investigates the amount of biomass that would be needed in the Netherlands to replace the fossil raw materials used in the manufacture of plastics and how this transition to biobased plastics can be achieved. It is based on desk research and calculations of the area of agricultural land that would be needed to produce sufficient biobased material to meet Dutch demand for biobased plastics. In addition, interviews were held with experts on the institutional obstacles to such a transition. Far too little agricultural land is available in the Netherlands to produce the required amount of biomass needed to replace fossil plastics. Research with the aim of increasing the contribution made by biobased materials to the circular economy should focus on assessing the options for producing sustainable raw materials and on a comprehensive assessment of the sustainable use of biomass in various applications.
More food, lower footprint : How circular food production contributes to efficiency in the food system
Scholten, M.C.T. - \ 2017
Wageningen : Wageningen University & Research
biobased economy - biobased chemistry - cycling - environment - sustainability - nutrition - biomass - renewable energy - residual streams - agricultural wastes - organic wastes - crop residues - food production - chemie op basis van biologische grondstoffen - kringlopen - milieu - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - voeding - biomassa - hernieuwbare energie - reststromen - agrarische afvalstoffen - organisch afval - oogstresten - voedselproductie
Martin Scholten on circular food production. Ideas about how circular food production can contribute to the sustainable food security.
Bacterial cell factoriest : applying thermophiles to fuel the biobased economy
Kranenburg, Richard van - \ 2017
Wageningen : Wageningen University & Research - ISBN 9789463431750 - 19
industriële microbiologie - chemie op basis van biologische grondstoffen - biobased economy - bacteriën - genetische modificatie - thermofiele bacteriën - biomassaconversie - industrial microbiology - biobased chemistry - bacteria - genetic engineering - thermophilic bacteria - biomass conversion
The research of Bacterial Cell Factories aims to apply bacteria for production of biobased chemicals from renewable resources. The focus lies on thermophilic Gram-positives. This group of relatively unexplored thermophiles has many relevant characteristics that make them attractive as production organism for green chemicals. Development of genetic tools is a requirement for high-throughput engineering. The scientific challenge lies in exploring and exploiting the microbial physiology of the selected production organisms, involving an integrated approach of various disciplines. Successful development of such Bacterial Cell Factories is crucial for establishing the biobased economy.
PHA’s (Polyhydroxyalkanoates): General information on structure and raw materials for their production : A running document for “Kleinschalige Bioraffinage WP9: PHA”, Task 5
Kootstra, A.M.J. ; Elissen, H.J.H. ; Huurman, Sander - \ 2017
Lelystad : Wageningen UR, PPO/Acrres (Wageningen Plant Research report 727) - 29 p.
biopolymers - biorefinery - polyhydroxyalkanoates - residual streams - bioprocess engineering - biobased chemistry - biobased economy - biopolymeren - bioraffinage - polyhydroxyalkanoaten - reststromen - bioproceskunde - chemie op basis van biologische grondstoffen
This report provides background information on structure and diversity of different polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) and on feedstocks for their microbial production. The information that is contained in this report was compiled as a running document for the project “TKI-AgriFood Kleinschalige Bioraffinage” Work Package 9: “Fatty acid and PHA production based on residues” (In Dutch: “Vetzuuren PHA-productie op basis van residuen”) (TKI-AF-12040), and should be seen as such: a compilation of information regarded as interesting for the project partners.
Biobased itaconzuur en methacrylzuur : Chemische bouwstenen van de toekomst
Es, D.S. van - \ 2016
Fluids Processing Benelux (2016)4. - ISSN 1874-7914 - p. 46 - 47.
biobased economy - chemie op basis van biologische grondstoffen - chemicaliën uit biologische grondstoffen - zuren - biomassa - glucose - biochemie - biobased chemistry - biobased chemicals - acids - biomass - biochemistry
Wageningen UR Food & Biobased Research is van plan een flinke stap te zetten in de productie van biobased itaconzuur en methacrylzuur. Deze zuren kunnen bouwstenen zijn voor hoogwaardige materialen, zoals biobased verf en drukinkt. De stoffen worden geproduceerd uit biomassa (glucose) en vormen alternatieven voor fossiele grondstoffen. Voor verdere ontwikkeling wordt samengewerkt met de Amerikaanse agrifoodproducent Archer Daniels Midland, leverancier voor de verfindustrie EOC Belgium en de Nederlandse verfproducent Van Wijhe Verf. Daan van Es, is senioronderzoeker bij Wageningen UR en treedt op als projectleider.
Biobased Economy: Suikerbieten, basis voor bioplastic
Haveren, J. van - \ 2016
Wageningen : Wageningen University & Research
biobased economy - materialen uit biologische grondstoffen - chemie op basis van biologische grondstoffen - productontwikkeling - suikerbieten - biomassaconversie - biobased materials - biobased chemistry - product development - sugarbeet - biomass conversion
Veel van onze producten, zoals plastics en andere materialen, zijn gebaseerd op niet-hernieuwbare, fossiele grondstoffen. Die grondstoffen -aardolie, aardgas en steenkool- raken langzaam maar zeker op. Suikerrijke biomassa, zoals suikerbieten, kan een goede duurzame bron zijn voor deze materialen. Jacco van Haveren, onderzoeker aan Wageningen University & Research, vertelt over de mogelijkheden.
Biobased chemicals from polyhydroxybutyrate
Spekreijse, Jurjen - \ 2016
University. Promotor(en): Johan Sanders, co-promotor(en): Elinor Scott; Harry Bitter. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462578630 - 148
bioprocess engineering - biopolymers - waste water treatment - polyhydroxyalkanoates - acrylics - propylene - biomass conversion - biobased chemistry - biobased economy - bioproceskunde - biopolymeren - afvalwaterbehandeling - polyhydroxyalkanoaten - acrylaten - propyleen - biomassaconversie - chemie op basis van biologische grondstoffen
Currently, most chemicals and materials are obtained from fossil resources. After use, these chemicals and materials are converted to CO2. As discussed in chapter 1, this causes a build-up of CO2 in the atmosphere, the main driving force of global warming. In order to reach a sustainable system, biomass could be used as a resource for chemicals and materials instead. A biorefinery approach, where all parts of biomass are used to its full potential is essential. Taking this into consideration, wastewater streams of current biobased processes could be an excellent source for chemicals and materials. However, wastewater is often dilute and heterogeneous of nature. To overcome these challenges, wastewater rich in carbon can be processed by microorganisms to obtain a biodegradable polyester, polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA). However, the mechanical properties of this polymer make it unsuitable as polymeric material. Moreover, processing of PHA is challenging. To circumvent these issues, we propose a conversion of the inferior PHA to methyl acrylate and propylene (Figure 7.1) which can be used in current processing infrastructure. PHA rich cells are obtained from the purification of wastewater. The PHA obtained can be purified and converted to MC (Figure 7.1, chapter 2) or the PHA rich cells can be used directly (Figure 7.1, chapter 3). For the second step, the conversion of methyl crotonate (MC) to methyl acrylate and propylene, the catalyst was immobilised (Figure 7.1, chapter 4). The current state of ethenolysis reaction on biomass was reviewed (Figure 7.1, chapter 5). The conversion of PHA to methyl acrylate and propylene enables the use of carbon from wastewater streams without the disadvantages related to the direct use of PHA.
In chapter 2, the first step of the conversion of PHA to methyl acrylate and propylene was investigated. Since PHA obtained from wastewater exists mostly as polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB), this was chosen as a starting material for our studies. It was shown that PHB could be converted to MC using methanol at 200 °C.. MC has the advantage of being immiscible with water, which aids its separation. In chapter 2, the pathway of the reaction was clarified, which was subsequently used to optimise the conditions of this conversion. The conversion of PHB to MC proceeds via a thermolysis to crotonic acid (CA), which is followed by an esterification to MC. The formation of CA is the rate determining step below 18 bar, where above 18 bar this changes to the esterification to MC. A selectivity of 60% to MC is obtained with a full conversion of PHB with 18 bar being the optimal pressure for the conversion.
Microorganisms produce PHA within their cells, which poses challenges to the downstream processing of PHA as the material has to be isolated from within the cells and dried. The isolation and drying of PHB is costly and is responsible for a large part of the production costs of PHA. In order to reduce the costs of PHA for the production of biobased chemicals, the conversion of PHA to MC was tested using whole cells. In chapter 3, PHA rich cells were directly converted to MC using the optimised conditions found in chapter 2. The influence of fermentation salts, water and the presence of valerate monomers in the PHA were studied. It was found that the valerate monomers have no influence on the conversion. Fermentation salts do influence the conversion depending on the salt. Magnesium hydroxide catalyses the conversion of PHB to MC, where magnesium sulphate catalyses the formation of methyl 3-hydroxybutyrate as side product. The reaction tolerates up to 20% water, which means that the drying step in the downstream processing of PHA can be significantly reduced.
The second step of the conversion of PHA to methyl acrylate and propylene involves an ethenolysis, a cross metathesis of MC with ethylene. This ethenolysis reaction requires a homogeneous catalyst. One of the most active catalysts for this conversion is the ruthenium based Hovey-Grubbs 2nd generation. However, the required high loading of this catalyst makes it an expensive part of the conversion. In order to enable reusing of the catalyst, immobilisation of the Hovey-Grubbs catalyst was investigated in chapter 4. The catalyst was immobilised inside a metal organic framework (MOF). For this purpose MIL-101-NH2(Al) was used for its large cavities connected by small openings. This allows the catalyst to reside inside the cavities, while the small openings prevent it from leaching out. The catalyst was successfully immobilised using a mechanochemical approach. This method can be applied on other catalysts as well, which was shown by the immobilisation of Zhan catalyst. Both immobilised catalysts show metathesis activity for multiple reaction cycles. It was found that the MOF, MIL-101-NH2(Al), partially undergoes a structural change to form MIL-53-NH2(Al). When MIL-53-NH2(Al) was used as starting MOF the catalyst was trapped but inactive. It was concluded that when starting from MIL-101-NH2(Al), the catalyst trapped in the parts of the material that was converted to MIL-53-NH2(Al) are catalytically inactive.
To investigate the current state of the art of the use of ethenolysis on biomass, a literature review was performed in chapter 5. The results of the ethenolysis of methyl oleate (MO) were compared in order to investigate the most important parameters. It was found that the purity of the ethylene feed has the biggest influence on the turn over numbers (TONs) and that a higher purity ethylene has shown a larger impact on the ethenolysis of MO than the development of novel catalysts. When electron poor substrates are used, the highest TONs are obtained with the less stable Hoveyda-Grubbs 2nd generation. However, no studies were performed on the influence of ethylene purity on these reactions and higher TONs may be achieved using a higher purity ethylene.
In chapter 6, the results and conclusions of the thesis are summarised. The implications of these findings are discussed and suggestions for further research within the field are given.
Metabolic engineering of Escherichia coli for itaconate production
Vuoristo, K.S. - \ 2016
University. Promotor(en): Gerrit Eggink; Johan Sanders, co-promotor(en): Ruud Weusthuis. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462576001 - 162 p.
fermentation - escherichia coli - aspergillus niger - biobased chemistry - bioengineering - acids - organic acids - glutamates - tca - production - chemicals - fermentatie - chemie op basis van biologische grondstoffen - zuren - organische zuren - glutamaten - productie - chemicaliën
Interest in sustainable development together with limited amounts of fossil resources have increased the demand for production of chemicals and fuels from renewable resources. The market potential for bio-based products is growing and a transition from petrochemicals to biomass-based chemicals is ongoing. Itaconic acid is a C5-dicarboxylic acid which can be produced by microbial conversion processes. It can be easily polymerized and is an appealing building block for the chemical industry with many potential applications. However, biobased chemicals have to compete with their petrochemical counterparts, and yield and productivity of the microbial processes are therefore of the utmost importance. Traditionally itaconic acid is produced using the ascomycete Aspergillus terreus. This process is not competitive with petrochemical processes due to high production costs caused by low yields, and difficult and expensive product recovery. Maximizing product yield is important to lower production costs. This thesis looked at ways to reach theoretical maximum yield in a recombinant production host, Escherichia coli.
Chapter 2 describes the construction of an itaconate biosynthesis pathway in E. coli. The key enzyme of microbial itaconate production is cis-Aconitate decarboxylase (CadA) that converts the citric acid cycle intermediate cis-aconitate into itaconate. We focused on optimizing heterologous expression of cadA from Aspergillus terreus in E. coli. Initially this resulted in low CadA activities and production of trace amounts of itaconate. CadA was primarily present as inclusion bodies, explaining the low activity. The activity was significantly improved by using lower cultivation temperatures and mineral medium and this resulted in enhanced itaconate titres. The itaconate titre was further increased in aerobic bioreactor cultures by introducing citrate synthase and aconitase from Corynebacterium glutamicum and by deleting genes encoding phosphate acetyltransferase and lactate dehydrogenase. The maximum itaconate yield from glucose obtained in this study was only 0.09 mol/mol, due to high flux of carbon to by-products such as acetate and pyruvate. Pyruvate is a precursor molecule for itaconate biosynthesis and its accumulation suggested that the activity of CadA might be one of the rate limiting steps. It was concluded that further optimization of cadA expression, and reduction of acetate formation should be achieved to obtain higher itaconate yield.
As sufficient cis-aconitate decarboxylase activity is crucial for itaconate production, in chapter 3 ways to increase the activity of CadA were investigated. A recently characterized cis-aconitate decarboxylase of mammalian origin was therefore expressed in E.coli. The novel cis-aconitate decarboxylase from Mus musculus encoded by immunoresponsive gene 1 (irg1) produced comparable amounts of itaconate as CadA from A. terreus. In addition, the effects of codon optimization and harmonization on enzymatic activities of heterologously expressed cadA and irg1 were studied. Codon harmonization increased the activity of CadA in cell free extracts, but this did not result in higher itaconate production in bioreactor cultures. This suggests that other factors such as itaconate transport may limit the production.
In chapter 4, proof of principle for an anaerobic fermentation process for the production of itaconic acid was obtained by using the mixed acid fermentation pathway of E. coli. Itaconic acid production was redox balanced by co-producing succinate or ethanol with H2 and CO2. Expression of cadA together with citrate synthase (gltA) and aconitase (acnA) from Corynebacterium glutamicum resulted in 0.66 mM (1.2 % Cmol) itaconate under anaerobic conditions. Unexpectedly, strains started to produce significant amounts of glutamate when the itaconate pathway was introduced. As glutamate production depends on the availability of nitrogen in the medium, a nitrogen-limited medium was tested to diminish glutamate production. This enhanced the production of itaconate to up to 2.9 mM (5.4 % C mol %). Here, anaerobic production of itaconate from glucose was reported for the first time. The observed itaconate yields and productivities were still modest. Eliminating the pathways to major by-products like glutamate, succinate, and acetate, and enhancing the pathway between pyruvate and itaconate is crucial to obtain a cost-competitive anaerobic itaconic acid process production.
To investigate how itaconate production can be improved, the insights from the previous chapters together with existing scientific literature were combined with our pathway design proposals in chapter 5. The tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle is an important source of precursors for biobased chemicals. The opinion article takes a closer look at the metabolic engineering of TCA cycle for the production of chemicals high yield. For most TCA cycle products the maximum pathway yield is much lower than the theoretical maximum yield. For succinate, this was solved by creating two pathways to the product, using both branches of the TCA cycle, connected by the glyoxylate shunt. A similar solution cannot be applied directly for production of compounds from the oxidative branch of the TCA cycle because irreversible reactions are involved: the conversion of acetyl-CoA and glyoxylate to malate in the glyoxylate shunt and the conversion of 2-oxoglutarate into succinyl-CoA in the TCA cycle. This way, the pathway yield for products originating from the oxidative TCA cycle branch such as citrate, itaconate and L-glutamate becomes identical to the theoretical maximum. Future research should focus on implementing these solutions in suitable production hosts, and increasing the ATP yield of the production pathways. This will minimize the oxygen requirement of the process, or even allow for anaerobic operation, and should lead to reduced operational costs and maximal product yields.
In chapter 6 the implications of the overall results of this thesis for the current research status of itaconate production are presented. Solutions to optimize itaconate production strains and production process were proposed.
Biobased products and Biorefinery
Koenders, P. ; Vilsteren, G.E.T. van - \ 2015
Wageningen UR - 11 p.
biobased economy - biobased chemistry - biobased materials - education - teachers - chemie op basis van biologische grondstoffen - materialen uit biologische grondstoffen - onderwijs - docenten
Presentatie van de derde CBBE docentendag met als onderwerp: Biobased Products and Biorefinery.
From the Sugar Platform to biofuels and biochemicals : Final report for the European Commission Directorate-General Energy
Taylor, R. ; Nattrass, L. ; Alberts, G. ; Robson, P. ; Chudziak, C. ; Bauen, A. ; Libelli, I.M. ; Lotti, G. ; Prussi, M. ; Nistri, R. ; Chiaramonti, D. ; lópez-Contreras, A.M. ; Bos, H.L. ; Eggink, G. ; Springer, J. ; Bakker, R. ; Ree, R. van - \ 2015
E4tech/Re-CORD/Wageningen UR - 183
chemie op basis van biologische grondstoffen - chemicaliën uit biologische grondstoffen - gevalsanalyse - suiker - chemische industrie - europa - karteringen - biobased economy - biobased chemistry - biobased chemicals - case studies - sugar - chemical industry - europe - surveys
Numerous potential pathways to biofuels and biochemicals exist via the sugar platform1. This study uses literature surveys, market data and stakeholder input to provide a comprehensive evidence base for policymakers and industry – identifying the key benefits and development needs for the sugar platform. The study created a company database for 94 sugar-based products, with some already commercial, the majority at research/pilot stage, and only a few demonstration plants crossing the “valley of death”. Case studies describe the value proposition, market outlook and EU activity for ten value chains (acrylic, adipic & succinic acids, FDCA, BDO, farnesene, isobutene, PLA, PHAs and PE). Most can deliver significant greenhouse savings and drop-in (or improved) properties, but at an added cost to fossil alternatives. Whilst significant progress has been made, research barriers remain around lignocellulosic biomass fractionation, product separation energy, biological inhibition, chemical selectivity and monomer purity, plus improving whole chain process integration. An assessment of EU competitiveness highlights strengths in R&D, but a lack of strong commercial activity, due to the US, China and Brazil having more attractive feedstock and investment conditions. Further policy development, in particular for biochemicals, will be required to realise a competitive European sugar-based bioeconomy.
Imaging science course: converting organic waste into resources
Chen, W.S. - \ 2015
Wageningen : Wageningen UR
bioproceskunde - chemie op basis van biologische grondstoffen - biobased economy - organisch afval - biomassaconversie - lesmaterialen - bioprocess engineering - biobased chemistry - organic wastes - biomass conversion - teaching materials
Wei-Shan Chen’s research is about Mixed Culture Chain Elongation (MCCE). MCCE is a potentially clean, renewable and economic viable bioprocess that converts organic waste into useful commodity chemicals. This video gives a short and easy explanation.
Macro-economics of algae products : Output WP2A7.02
Voort, M.P.J. van der; Vulsteke, E. ; Visser, C.L.M. de - \ 2015
EnAlgae Swansea University - 47
marktonderzoek - algen - macro-economische analyse - markten - materialen uit biologische grondstoffen - chemie op basis van biologische grondstoffen - biobased economy - biobrandstoffen - market research - algae - macroeconomic analysis - markets - biobased materials - biobased chemistry - biofuels
This report is part of the EnAlgae Workpackage 2, Action 7, directed at the economics of algae production. The goal of this report is to highlight potential markets for algae. Per type of algae market the market size, product alternatives, constraints and prices are highlighted. Based on these market characteristics a conclusion is drawn on the market potential for algae products. Per market desk research is done and literature is consulted to create a reliable market outlook.
Pernis voeden met suikerbieten (interview met Harry Bitter)
Versluis, K. ; Bitter, J.H. - \ 2015
Bionieuws 25 (2015)9. - ISSN 0924-7734 - p. 10 - 10.
bioraffinage - chemie op basis van biologische grondstoffen - materialen uit biologische grondstoffen - biobased economy - agro-industriële ketens - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - biorefinery - biobased chemistry - biobased materials - agro-industrial chains - sustainability
Om aardolie als grondstof te vervangen door biomassa zijn nieuwe raffinaderijen nodig. Wat zijn de kansen en valkuilen van bioraffinage?
Meer ethanol uit suikerbieten halen
Visser, C.L.M. de - \ 2015
Boerderij 100 (2015)25. - ISSN 0006-5617 - p. 70 - 70.
akkerbouw - suikerbieten - ethanol - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - rentabiliteit - chemie op basis van biologische grondstoffen - arable farming - sugarbeet - sustainability - profitability - biobased chemistry
Wageningen UR en adviesbureau DSD testen in proeffabriek Chembeet in Lelystad hoe meer ethanol uit suikerbieten is te halen. Het doel van het onderzoek is na te gaan of uit suikerbieten op een rendabele manier grondstoffen kunnen worden gehaald voor de chemische industrie.
Didde, R. ; Gosselink, R.J.A. ; Haveren, J. van - \ 2014
WageningenWorld 2014 (2014)2. - ISSN 2210-7908 - p. 32 - 39.
lignine - chemie op basis van biologische grondstoffen - biobased economy - chemicaliën uit biologische grondstoffen - bioraffinage - biomassaconversie - onderzoek - lignin - biobased chemistry - biobased chemicals - biorefinery - biomass conversion - research
Lignine geeft planten stevigheid, maar deze verbinding is ook een schatkist vol waardevolle basischemicaliën. Wageningse onderzoekers maken die stap voor stap open. Een duurzaam alternatief voor aardolie is daarmee binnen handbereik.
Doodzonde om op te stoken. Lignine de grondstof van de toekomst
Zundert, M. ; Gosselink, R.J.A. - \ 2014
Chemie Magazine 2014 (2014)3. - ISSN 1572-2996 - p. 24 - 27.
biopolymeren - lignine - toepassingen - bioraffinage - innovaties - chemie op basis van biologische grondstoffen - biobased economy - aromatische koolwaterstoffen - biopolymers - lignin - applications - biorefinery - innovations - biobased chemistry - aromatic hydrocarbons
Onhandelbaar, wee barstig en recalcitrant. Zo staat het houtpolymeer lignine bekend. Maar de stof vervangt steeds vaker fenol. En onderzoekers zijn hoopvol over de ontwikkeling van bio-BTX en koolstofvezels uit lignine.
Food & biobased research : Healthy and sustainable choices : now and in the future
Bino, R.J. ; Gorselink, M. ; Seventer, E. van; Yilmaz, G. ; Timmermans, A.J.M. ; Amerongen, A. van; Bos, H.L. ; Haveren, J. van; Westra, E.H. ; Wijk, R.A. de; Bolck, C.H. ; Boerrigter, H.A.M. ; Matser, A.M. ; Barbosa, M.J. ; Peppelenbos, H.W. ; Maat, H.W. ter; Klemm, W. - \ 2014
Wageningen UR FBR
onderzoeksinstituten - onderzoek - voedingsonderzoek - biobased economy - ketenmanagement - bioraffinage - chemie op basis van biologische grondstoffen - materialen uit biologische grondstoffen - consumentenwetenschappen - research institutes - research - nutrition research - supply chain management - biorefinery - biobased chemistry - biobased materials - consumer sciences
Corporate brochure of Food & Biobased Research (FBR) Wageningen UR.
Evaluating the macroeconomic impacts of bio-based applications in the EU
Smeets, E.M.W. ; Vinyes, C. ; Tabeau, A.A. ; Meijl, J.C.M. van; Brink, C. ; Prins, H. - \ 2014
Luxembourg : Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency (JRC scientific and policy reports ) - ISBN 9789279395369 - 40
macro-economische analyse - biobased economy - chemie op basis van biologische grondstoffen - biobrandstoffen - bio-energie - economische evaluatie - economisch beleid - europese unie - macroeconomic analysis - biobased chemistry - biofuels - bioenergy - economic evaluation - economic policy - european union
In 2012, the European Commission (EC) launched the Bioeconomy Strategy and Action Plan with the objective of establishing a resource efficient and competitive society that reconciles food security with the sustainable use of renewable resources. This report contributes to the plan by evaluating the macroeconomic impacts of bio-based applications in the EU. Such effects can only be evaluated with a computable general equilibrium model such as MAGNET. Four bio-based applications are considered, namely biofuel (second generation), biochemicals, bioelectricity, and biogas (synthetic natural gas). This is done assuming that 1 EJ lignocellulose biomass is converted into fuel, chemicals, electricity and gas and that the final product replaces an equal amount of conventional (e.g. fossil energy) product (on energy basis). The results show that given the assumed efficiency of conversion technology, costs of conversion, biomass price and oil price, the production of second generation biofuel and biochemicals are the only competitive sectors compare to their conventional counterparts in the year 2030 for the EU. In the case of the fuel sectors, it represents a net GDP effect of 5.1 billion US dollars while biochemicals generates 6 billion US dollars. A substantial part of this impact can be explained by the increase in wages, since the production of biomass is relatively labour intensive. The resulting increase in wages is transmitted to other sectors in the economy and increases production and consumption. Another important contributor is the lower oil and fuel price as a result of the substitution of oil based fuel production by bio-based fuel production, which in turn benefits the entire economy
Bioraffinage (Ted lezing 140603 CAH Vilentum)
Teekens, A.M. - \ 2014
bioraffinage - chemie op basis van biologische grondstoffen - biobased economy - raapzaad - systeeminnovatie - biomassa cascadering - diervoedering - agrarisch onderwijs - biorefinery - biobased chemistry - rapeseed - system innovation - biomass cascading - animal feeding - agricultural education
De inspiratiesessie "Schnitzel of bioplastic? Beide mogelijk gemaakt door bioraffinage" door provendus Marja Teekens op dinsdag 3 juni 2014, georganiseerd door KC Agro.
IEA Bioenergy Task42 Biorefining : sustainable and synergetic processing of biomass into marketable food & feed ingredients, chemicals, materials and energy (fuels, power, heat)
Ree, R. van; Zeeland, A.N.T. van - \ 2014
bioraffinage - secundaire sector - chemie op basis van biologische grondstoffen - biobased economy - biobrandstoffen - voedseltechniek - biomassaconversie - biorefinery - secondary sector - biobased chemistry - biofuels - food engineering - biomass conversion
Naast een overzicht van de huidige status van bioraffinage, biedt dit rapport inzicht in waardevolle producten van bioraffinaderijen, zoals eiwitten voor voeding en non-foodtoepassingen en biologische chemicaliën. Ook worden er in het rapport dertig praktische voorbeelden van bioraffinagefaciliteiten genoemd in landen die deelnemen aan IEA Task42, met details over de types bioraffinaderijen, grondstoffen en outputs. Het rapport geeft een onafhankelijk overzicht over bioraffinage in het algemeen, en over de specifieke activiteiten binnen IEA Bioenergy Task42 bioraffinage.