Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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How Sensitive Are Ecosystem Services in European Forest Landscapes to Silvicultural Treatment?
Biber, P. ; Borges, J.G. ; Moshammer, R. ; Barreiro, S. ; Botequim, B. ; Brodrechtová, Y. ; Brukas, V. ; Chirici, G. ; Cordero-Debets, R. ; Corrigan, E. ; Eriksson, L.O. ; Favero, M. ; Galev, E. ; Garcia-Gonzalo, J. ; Hengeveld, G.M. ; Kavaliauskas, M. ; Marchetti, M. ; Marques, S. ; Mozgeris, G. ; Navrátil, R. ; Nieuwenhuis, M. ; Orazio, C. ; Paligorov, I. ; Pettenella, D. ; Sedmák, R. ; Smrecek, R. ; Stanislovaitis, A. ; Tomé, M. ; Trubins, R. ; Tucek, J. ; Vizzarri, M. ; Wallin, I. ; Pretzsch, H. ; Sallnäs, O. - \ 2015
Forests 6 (2015)5. - ISSN 1999-4907 - p. 1666 - 1695.
scenario analysis - simulator silva - climate-change - management - growth - tree - impacts - regions - yield - stand
While sustainable forestry in Europe is characterized by the provision of a multitude of forest ecosystem services, there exists no comprehensive study that scrutinizes their sensitivity to forest management on a pan-European scale, so far. We compile scenario runs from regionally tailored forest growth models and Decision Support Systems (DSS) from 20 case studies throughout Europe and analyze whether the ecosystem service provision depends on management intensity and other co-variables, comprising regional affiliation, social environment, and tree species composition. The simulation runs provide information about the case-specifically most important ecosystem services in terms of appropriate indicators. We found a strong positive correlation between management intensity and wood production, but only weak correlation with protective and socioeconomic forest functions. Interestingly, depending on the forest region, we found that biodiversity can react in both ways, positively and negatively, to increased management intensity. Thus, it may be in tradeoff or in synergy with wood production and forest resource maintenance. The covariables species composition and social environment are of punctual interest only, while the affiliation to a certain region often makes an important difference in terms of an ecosystem service’s treatment sensitivity.
Strong recovery of dragonflies in recent decades in The Netherlands
Termaat, T. ; Grunsven, R.H.A. van; Plate, C.L. ; Strien, A. van - \ 2015
Freshwater Science 34 (2015)3. - ISSN 2161-9549 - p. 1094 - 1104.
change odonata corduliidae - boreal forest lakes - climate-change - trends - conservation - assemblages - indicators - integrity - abundance - plants
Many dragonfly species in The Netherlands declined in the 20th century because of acidification, eutrophication, and desiccation of lotic and lentic habitats and canalization of streams and rivers. These pressures peaked in the 1970s, when 26 of 65 native species had an unfavorable conservation status on the 1997 Dutch Red List. Since the 1980s, environmental regulations have led to improved water quality, and any habitat restoration projects have been carried out. We used standardized monitoring data (1999–2013) and unstandardized observations (1991–2013) to investigate how dragonflies have changed in the last 20 y on a national scale. We compared trends of dragonfly species from different habitat types and with southern vs northern distribution in Europe. Dragonflies recovered strongly in The Netherlands in a period of ~20 y, probably because of recent habitat improvements. Lotic species have benefitted more than lentic species, and southern species have more positive trends than northern species, suggesting that climate change has contributed to the recovery. Dragonflies were resilient and able to quickly recover when their habitats were restored. Recovery has led to a better conservation status for many species. Unstandardized data delivered results consistent with those from monitoring data and had greater statistical power to detect trends because many more unstandardized data than standardized data were available. Thus, when the goal is to provide a general overview of changes in dragonflies, unstandardized data can outperform standardized abundance data. However, abundance data may deliver complementary information for individual species. Our results support the suitability of dragonflies as indicators of freshwater habitat condition, but they recover more strongly in The Netherlands than many other insects, possibly because of their higher dispersal abilities or different habitat requirements.
Sectorial Water Use Trends in the Urbanizing Pearl River Delta, China
Yao, M. ; Werners, S.E. ; Hutjes, R.W.A. ; Kabat, P. ; Huang, H.Q. - \ 2015
PLoS One 10 (2015)2. - ISSN 1932-6203 - 20 p.
south china - climate-change - demand model - availability - drainage - impacts - streams - system - growth
Assessing and managing water use is crucial for supporting sustainable river basin management and regional development. The first consistent and comprehensive assessment of sectorial water use in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) is presented by analysing homogenized annual water use data from 2000 to 2010 in relation to socio economic statistics for the same period. An abstraction of water use, using the concept of water use intensity, and based on equations inspired by those used in global water resource models, is developed to explore the driving forces underlying water use changes in domestic, industrial and agricultural sectors. We do this at both the level of the region as a whole, as well as for the nine cities that constitute the PRD separately. We find that, despite strong population and economic growth, the PRD managed to stabilize its absolute water use by significant improvements in industrial water use intensities, and early stabilisation of domestic water use intensities. Results reveal large internal differentiation of sectorial water use among the cities in this region, with industrial water use intensity varying from -80 to +95% and domestic water use intensity by +/- 30% compared to the PRD average. In general, per capita water use is highest in the cities that industrialised first. Yet, all cities except Guangzhou are expected to approach a saturation value of per capita water use much below what is suggested in recent global studies. Therefore, existing global assessments probably have overestimated future domestic water use in developing countries. Although scarce and uncertain input data and model limitations lead to a high level of uncertainty, the presented conceptualization of water use is useful in exploring the underlying driving forces of water use trends.
Rapid diversity loss of competing animal sppecies in well-connected landscapes
Schippers, P. ; Hemerik, L. ; Baveco, J.M. ; Verboom, J. - \ 2015
PLoS One 10 (2015)8. - ISSN 1932-6203 - 17 p.
woodpecker dendrocopos-medius - squirrel sciurus-carolinensis - great spotted woodpeckers - neutral-theory - habitat fragmentation - riverine forest - climate-change - coexistence - abundance - metapopulations
Population viability of a single species, when evaluated with metapopulation based landscape evaluation tools, always increases when the connectivity of the landscape increases. However, when interactions between species are taken into account, results can differ. We explore this issue using a stochastic spatially explicit meta-community model with 21 competing species in five different competitive settings: (1) weak, coexisting competition, (2) neutral competition, (3) strong, excluding competition, (4) hierarchical competition and (5) random species competition. The species compete in randomly generated landscapes with various fragmentation levels. With this model we study species loss over time. Simulation results show that overall diversity, the species richness in the entire landscape, decreases slowly in fragmented landscapes whereas in well-connected landscapes rapid species losses occur. These results are robust with respect to changing competitive settings, species parameters and spatial configurations. They indicate that optimal landscape configuration for species conservation differs between metapopulation approaches, modelling species separately and meta-community approaches allowing species interactions. The mechanism behind this is that species in well-connected landscapes rapidly outcompete each other. Species that become abundant, by chance or by their completive strength, send out large amounts of dispersers that colonize and take over other patches that are occupied by species that are less abundant. This mechanism causes rapid species loss. In fragmented landscapes the colonization rate is lower, and it is difficult for a new species to establish in an already occupied patch. So, here dominant species cannot easily take over patches occupied by other species and higher diversity is maintained for a longer time. These results suggest that fragmented landscapes have benefits for species conservation previously unrecognized by the landscape ecology and policy community. When species interactions are important, landscapes with a low fragmentation level can be better for species conservation than well-connected landscapes. Moreover, our results indicate that metapopulation based landscape evaluation tools may overestimate the value of connectivity and should be replaced by more realistic meta-community based tools.
Macroecological factors explain large-scale spatial population patterns of ancient agriculturalists
Xu, C. ; Chen, B. ; Abades, S. ; Reino, L. ; Teng, S. ; Ljungqvist, F.C. ; Huang, Z.Y.X. ; Liu, X. - \ 2015
Global Ecology and Biogeography 24 (2015)9. - ISSN 1466-822X - p. 1030 - 1039.
climate-change - last millennium - growth dynamics - autocorrelation - collapse - distributions - abundance - richness - ecology - europe
Aim: It has been well demonstrated that the large-scale distribution patterns of numerous species are driven by similar macroecological factors. However, understanding of this topic remains limited when applied to our own species. Here we take a large-scale look at ancient agriculturalist populations over the past two millennia. The main aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that the patterns of agriculturalist populations were shaped by relevant macroecological factors. Location: China. Methods: Using detailed historical census data, we reconstructed spatial patterns of human population density over 13 imperial dynasties in ancient China, which was dominated by agrarian societies. We used simultaneous autoregressive models to examine the population densities of agriculturalists in relation to climatic, topographic, edaphic and hydrological variables, together with the spatial structure of a concentration of population toward national capitals. The pure and shared effects of these variables and the population-concentration structure were decomposed using a variation partitioning procedure. Results: Spatial population patterns of ancient agriculturalists can be well modelled by climate, topography, soil properties and local hydrological systems. A plausible explanation is that by influencing crop yield these environmental factors essentially drive the distribution of agriculturalists. The population-concentration structure can also explain agriculturalist patterns to a considerable extent. This structure and those environmental factors have largely shared effects in simultaneously shaping these agriculturalist patterns. Main conclusions: While humans can effectively temper environmental constraints at small spatial scales, our results demonstrate that macroecological factors underpin the spatial patterns of humans at large scales. Macroecological constraints and their relative importance are found to be similar for humans and other species, suggesting that similar mechanisms are likely to underlie these macroecological patterns. Our findings have potential implications for the assessment of future responses of humans to global environmental changes.
Towards spatially smart abatement of human pharmaceuticals in surface waters: defining impact of sewage treatment plants on susceptible functions
Gils, J.A.G. ; Coppens, L.J.C. ; Laak, T.L. ter; Raterman, B.W. ; Wezel, A.P. van - \ 2015
Water Research 81 (2015). - ISSN 0043-1354 - p. 356 - 365.
afvalwaterbehandeling - waterzuivering - geneesmiddelen - oppervlaktewater - inventarisaties - nederland - waste water treatment - water treatment - drugs - surface water - inventories - netherlands - personal care products - endocrine disrupting compounds - organic persistent pollutants - health-risk assessment - municipal waste-water - aquatic environment - drinking-water - climate-change - transformation products - continental-scale
For human pharmaceuticals, sewage treatment plants (STPs) are a major point of entry to surface waters. The receiving waters provide vital functions. Modeling the impact of STPs on susceptible functions of the surface water system allows for a spatially smart implementation of abatement options at, or in the service area of, STPs. This study was performed on a nation-wide scale for the Netherlands. Point source emissions included were 345 Dutch STPs and nine rivers from neighboring countries. The Dutch surface waters were represented by 2511 surface water units. Modeling was performed for two extreme discharge conditions. Monitoring data of 7 locations along the rivers Rhine and Meuse fall mostly within the range of modeled concentrations. Half of the abstracted volumes of raw water for drinking water production, and a quarter of the Natura 2000 areas (European Union nature protection areas) hosted by the surface waters, are influenced by STPs at low discharge. The vast majority of the total impact of all Dutch STPs during both discharge conditions can be attributed to only 19% of the STPs with regard to the drinking water function, and to 39% of the STPs with regard to the Natura 2000 function. Attributing water treatment technologies to STPs as one of the possible measures to improve water quality and protect susceptible functions can be done in a spatially smart and cost-effective way, using consumption-based detailed hydrological and water quality modeling.
Soil carbon storage and stratification under different tillage/residue-management practices in double rice cropping system
Chen, Z. ; Zhang, H. ; dikgwatlhe, S.B. ; Xue, J. ; Qiu, K. ; Tang, H. ; Chen, F. - \ 2015
Journal of Integrative Agriculture 14 (2015)8. - ISSN 2095-3119 - p. 1551 - 1560.
no-tillage - organic-matter - conservation tillage - climate-change - sequestration - impacts - agriculture - phosphorus - nitrogen
The importance of soil organic carbon (SOC) sequestration in agricultural soils as climate-change-mitigating strategy has become an area of focus by the scientific community in relation to soil management. This study was conducted to determine the temporal effect of different tillage systems and residue management on distribution, storage and stratification of SOC, and the yield of rice under double rice (Oryza sativa L.) cropping system in the southern China. A tillage experiment was conducted in the southern China during 2005-2011, including plow tillage with residue removed (PT0), plow tillage with residue retention (PT), rotary tillage with residue retention (RT), and no-till with residue retention on the surface (NT). The soil samples were obtained at the harvesting of late rice in October of 2005, 2007 and 2011. Multiple-year residue return application significantly increased rice yields for the two rice-cropping systems; yields of early and late rice were higher under RT than those under other tillage systems in both years in 2011. Compared with PT0, SOC stocks were increased in soil under NT at 0-5, 5-10, 10-20, and 20-30 cm depths by 33.8, 4.1, 6.6, and 53.3%, respectively, in 2011. SOC stocks under RT were higher than these under other tillage treatments at 0-30 cm depth. SOC stocks in soil under PT were higher than those under PT0 in the 0-5 and 20-30 cm soil layers. Therefore, crop residues played an important role in SOC management, and improvement of soil quality. In the 0-20 cm layer, the stratification ratio (SR) of SOC followed the order NT>RT>PT>PT0; when the 0-30 cm layer was considered, NT also had the highest SR of SOC, but the SR of SOC under PT was higher than that under RT with a multiple-year tillage practice. Therefore, the notion that conservation tillage lead to higher SOC stocks and soil quality than plowed systems requires cautious scrutiny. Nevertheless, some benefits associated with RT system present a greater potential for its adoption in view of the multiple-year environmental sustainability under double rice cropping system in the southern China.
Effects of salinity on growth of plant species from terrestrializing fens
Stofberg, S.F. ; Klimkovska, A. ; Paulissen, M.P.C.P. ; Witte, J.Ph.M. ; Zee, S.E.A.T.M. van der - \ 2015
Aquatic Botany 121 (2015). - ISSN 0304-3770 - p. 83 - 90.
climate-change - water - tolerance - salt - nutrient - netherlands - macrophytes - competition - vegetation - diversity
Terrestrializing lowland fens may be temporarily exposed to elevated surface water salinity, which may have serious consequences for nature conservation. We investigated the response of five fresh water fen plant species to elevated salinity. In a controlled greenhouse experiment, these species were exposed to salt concentrations up to 3000 mg Cl- l-1. Total biomass of the five species together was significantly reduced for salinity levels from 200 mg Cl- l-1. Four individual species showed leaf death and relative growth rate reduction, with effects at 1000 mg Cl- l-1 for Succisa pratensis, Thelypteris palustris and Viola palustris, and 3000 mg Cl- l-1 for Myosotis scorpioides. Comarum palustre showed no significant (.05 level) sensitivity. Biomass distribution was investigated as well. Root-shoot ratio of four species was affected by salinity, which in at least two cases seemed to be related to leaf death. Differences in specific leaf area as a result of salinity were only observed for C. palustre. Dry matter content increased in four species as a result of salinity. Salinity tolerance did not correspond to the environmental distributions of the species, nor could species traits be related to tolerance. Surface water salinity may affect vegetation development in terrestrializing fens at low concentrations. A reduction of plant growth would cause reduced fitness of some species and may lead to reduced root mat growth. Exposure to higher concentrations could eventually lead to a decrease of species richness.
Establishing the link between habitat-selection and animal population dynamics
Matthiopoulos, J. ; Fieberg, J. ; Aarts, G.M. ; Beyer, H.L. ; Morales, J.M. ; Haydon, D.T. - \ 2015
Ecological Monographs 85 (2015)3. - ISSN 0012-9615 - p. 413 - 436.
species distribution models - point process models - resource selection - functional-responses - growth rate - large herbivores - climate-change - niche breadth - fitness - ecology
Although classical ecological theory (e.g., on ideal free consumers) recognizes the potential effect of population density on the spatial distribution of animals, empirical species distribution models assume that species–habitat relationships remain unchanged across a range of population sizes. Conversely, even though ecological models and experiments have demonstrated the importance of spatial heterogeneity for the rate of population change, we still have no practical method for making the connection between the makeup of real environments, the expected distribution and fitness of their occupants, and the long-term implications of fitness for population growth. Here, we synthesize several conceptual advances into a mathematical framework using a measure of fitness to link habitat availability/selection to (density-dependent) population growth in mobile animal species. A key feature of this approach is that it distinguishes between apparent habitat suitability and the true, underlying contribution of a habitat to fitness, allowing the statistical coefficients of both to be estimated from multiple observation instances of the species in different environments and stages of numerical growth. Hence, it leverages data from both historical population time series and snapshots of species distribution to predict population performance under environmental change. We propose this framework as a foundation for building more realistic connections between a population's use of space and its subsequent dynamics (and hence a contribution to the ongoing efforts to estimate a species' critical habitat and fundamental niche). We therefore detail its associated definitions and simplifying assumptions, because they point to the framework's future extensions. We show how the model can be fit to data on species distributions and population dynamics, using standard statistical methods, and we illustrate its application with an individual-based simulation. When contrasted with nonspatial population models, our approach is better at fitting and predicting population growth rates and carrying capacities. Our approach can be generalized to include a diverse range of biological considerations. We discuss these possible extensions and applications to real data.
Cumulative ozone effect on canopy stomatal resistance and the impact on boundary layer dynamics and CO2 assimilation at the diurnal scale: A case study for grassland in the Netherlands
Super, I. ; Vilà-Guerau De Arellano, J. ; Krol, M.C. - \ 2015
Journal of Geophysical Research: Biogeosciences 120 (2015). - ISSN 2169-8953 - p. 1348 - 1365.
climate-change - soil-moisture - vegetation - exposure - drought - yield - l. - conductance - sensitivity - atmosphere
Biological, chemical, and dynamical processes occurring at the surface strongly interact at diurnal scales. Therefore, this study examines the seasonal ozone impact on stomatal resistance, surface energy balance, boundary layer dynamics, and CO2 assimilation at this (sub)diurnal scale under changing conditions. We combine a seasonal canopy resistance module with a surface-boundary layer model that solves the diurnal evolution of dynamical and chemical variables in a well-mixed, convective boundary layer. The model is constrained with observations from Cabauw (Netherlands) for the dry year 2003, representing a well-mixed boundary layer at midlatitudes over water-stressed grassland. To quantify the ozone impact, the Cumulative Uptake of Ozone is calculated over a growing season, which gives an estimate of the reduction in stomatal aperture and photosynthesis. From a sensitivity analysis with mixed-layer temperature and soil moisture content we conclude that drought is the dominant factor that determines the surface energy partitioning and limits CO2 assimilation. Although drought causes stomatal closure, the results indicate that ozone damage, nevertheless, occurs. A second sensitivity analysis with CO2 and ozone shows that ozone damage causes an increase in stomatal resistance of up to 40% under high ozone levels and that CO2-induced stomatal closure limits ozone damage. The impact on boundary layer development through the effect of CO2 and ozone on the stomatal resistance is much smaller. At the diurnal scale soil moisture influences the surface energy partitioning, which affects the entrainment of ozone-rich air. Due to ozone damage, the CO2 assimilation flux is reduced by about 15%.
Simulation of the phenological development of wheat and maize at the global scale
Bussel, L.G.J. van; Stehfest, E. ; Siebert, S. ; Müller, C. ; Ewert, F. - \ 2015
Global Ecology and Biogeography 24 (2015)9. - ISSN 1466-822X - p. 1018 - 1029.
climate-change - winter-wheat - annual crops - photoperiod sensitivity - geographical variation - temperature - responses - adaptation - cultivars - model
To derive location-specific parameters that reflect the geographic differences among cultivars in vernalization requirements, sensitivity to day length (photoperiod) and temperature, which can be used to simulate the phenological development of wheat and maize at the global scale. Location: Global. Methods: Based on crop calendar observations and literature describing the large-scale patterns of phenological characteristics of cultivars, we developed algorithms to compute location-specific parameters to represent this large-scale pattern. Vernalization requirements were related to the duration and coldness of winter, sensitivity to day length was assumed to be represented by the minimum and maximum day lengths occurring at a location, and sensitivity to temperature was related to temperature conditions during the vegetative development phase of the crop. Results: Application of the derived location-specific parameters resulted in high agreement between simulated and observed lengths of the cropping period. Agreement was especially high for wheat, with mean absolute errors of less than 3 weeks. In the main maize cropping regions, cropping periods were over- and underestimated by 0.5-1.5 months. We also found that interannual variability in simulated wheat harvest dates was more realistic when accounting for photoperiod effects. Main conclusions: The methodology presented here provides a good basis for modelling the phenological characteristics of cultivars at the global scale. We show that current global patterns of growing season length as described in cropping calendars can be largely reproduced by phenology models if location-specific parameters are derived from temperature and day length indicators. Growing seasons can be modelled more accurately for wheat than for maize, especially in warm regions. Our method for computing parameters for phenology models from temperature and day length offers opportunities to improve the simulation of crop productivity by crop simulation models developed for large spatial areas and for long-term climate impact projections that account for adaptation in the selection of varieties.
Sapwood allocation in tropical trees: a test of hypotheses
Schippers, P. ; Vlam, M. ; Zuidema, P.A. ; Sterck, F.J. - \ 2015
Functional Plant Biology 42 (2015)7. - ISSN 1445-4408 - p. 697 - 709.
temperate forest trees - global vegetation models - carbon allocation - shade-tolerance - rain-forest - biomass allocation - seasonal dynamics - use efficiency - climate-change - growth habits
Carbon allocation to sapwood in tropical canopy trees is a key process determining forest carbon sequestration, and is at the heart of tree growth and dynamic global vegetation models (DGVM). Several allocation hypotheses exist including those applying assumptions on fixed allocation, pipe model, and hierarchical allocation between plant organs. We use a tree growth model (IBTREE) to evaluate these hypotheses by comparing simulated sapwood growth with 30 year tree ring records of the tropical long-lived tree Toona ciliata M. Roem. in Thailand. Simulated annual variation in wood production varied among hypotheses. Observed and simulated growth patterns matched most closely (r2 = 0.70) when hierarchical allocation was implemented, with low priority for sapwood. This allocation method showed realistic results with respect to reserve dynamics, partitioning and productivity and was the only one able to capture the large annual variation in tree ring width. Consequently, this method might also explain the large temporal variation in diameter growth and the occurrence of missing rings often encountered in other tropical tree species. Overall, our results show that sapwood growth is highly sensitive to allocation principles, and that allocation assumptions may greatly influence estimated carbon sequestration of tropical forests under climatic change.
Street greenery and its physical and psychological impact on outdoor thermal comfort
Klemm, W. ; Heusinkveld, B.G. ; Lenzholzer, S. ; Hove, B. van - \ 2015
Landscape and Urban Planning 138 (2015). - ISSN 0169-2046 - p. 87 - 98.
urban-environment - climate-change - human health - vegetation - spaces - infrastructure - design - model - landscapes - trees
This study focuses on the benefits of street greenery for creating thermally comfortable streetscapes in moderate climates. It reports on investigations on the impact of street greenery on outdoor thermal comfort from a physical and psychological perspective. For this purpose, we examined nine streets with comparable geometric configurations, but varying amount of street greenery (street trees, front gardens) in the city of Utrecht, the Netherlands. Mobile micrometeorological measurements including air temperature (Ta), solar and thermal radiation were performed, enabling the calculation of mean radiant temperature (Tmrt). Additionally, semi-structured interviews with pedestrians about their momentary and long-term perceived thermal comfort and their esthetical appreciation of the green street design were conducted. Measurements showed a clear impact (p = 0.0001) of street greenery on thermal comfort through tree shading: 10% tree crown cover within a street canyon lowered street averaged Tmrt about 1 K. In contrast, our results did not show an influence of street greenery on street averaged Ta. Interview results indicated that momentary perceived thermal comfort tended to be related to the amount of street greenery. However, the results were not statistically significant. Related to long-term perceived thermal comfort respondents were hardly consciously aware of influences by street greenery. Yet, people significantly (p <0.001) valued the presence of street greenery in esthetic terms. In conclusion, street greenery forms a convenient adaptive strategy to create thermally comfortable and attractive living environments. Our results clearly indicate that both physical and psychological aspects of thermal comfort have to be considered in urban design processes.
Fairly efficient, efficiently fair: Lessons from designing and testing payment schemes for ecosystem services in Asia
Leimona, B. ; Noordwijk, M. van; Groot, J.C.J. ; Leemans, R. - \ 2015
Ecosystem Services 12 (2015). - ISSN 2212-0416 - p. 16 - 28.
pacific decadal oscillation - normalized burn ratio - western united-states - climate-change - interior alaska - north-america - landsat data - new-mexico - vegetation - area
Paymentforecosystemservices(PES)iscommonlydefined asamarket-basedenvironmentalpolicy instrument toefficiently achieveecosystemservicesprovision.However,anincreasingbodyofliterature showsthatthisprescriptiveconceptualizationofPEScannotbeeasilygeneralizedandimplementedin practice, andthatthecommodification ofecosystemservices(ES)isproblematicandmayleadtounfair situations forrelevantPESactors.ThispapersynthesizescasestudiesinIndonesia,thePhilippinesand Nepal toprovideempiricalobservationsonemergingPESmechanismsinAsia.Lessonslearnedshow that fairnessandefficiency objectivesmustbeachievedsimultaneouslyindesigningandimplementing a sustainablePESscheme,especiallyindevelopingcountrycontexts.Neitherfairnessnorefficiency isa primary aimbutanintermediate ‘fairlyefficient andefficiently fair’ PES maybridgethegapbetweenPES theory andpracticetoincreasesustainableESprovisionandimprovelivelihoods.
Mapping future changes in livelihood security and environmental sustainability based on perceptions of small farmers in the Brazilian Amazon.
Diniz, F.H. ; Kok, K. ; Hoogstra-Klein, M.A. ; Arts, B.J.M. - \ 2015
Ecology and Society 20 (2015)2. - ISSN 1708-3087 - 15 p.
fuzzy cognitive maps - mental models - settlement projects - climate-change - land-use - deforestation - conservation - cattle - cows
ABSTRACT Deforestation is a widely recognized problem in the Brazilian Amazon. Small farmers play a key role in this process in that they earn their livelihood by ranching and farming. Many studies have addressed the link between deforestation and livelihood strategies adopted by small farmers. Most have focused on advanced monitoring systems, simulation models, and GIS approaches to analyze the interaction of both dimensions, i.e., livelihoods and forest cover change. Although the current toolbox of methods has proved successful in increasing our understanding of these interactions, the models and approaches employed do not consider small farmers’ perspectives. On the assumption that local small farmers are agents of land-cover change, understanding how they perceive their own situation is essential to elucidate their actions. Our objective is to explore future changes in livelihood security and environmental sustainability as envisaged by local small farmers in the Brazilian Amazon. Previous livelihood cluster analysis of small farmers located in southeast Pará was integrated with fuzzy cognitive mapping to determine present perceptions and to explore future changes, using global scenarios downscaled to the local situation. Overall, system description differs only on details; all results indicate a strong trade-off between livelihood security and environmental sustainability in all livelihood systems, as identified by the small farmers. However, fundamentally different outcomes are obtained from the future analysis, depending on the livelihood strategy cluster. Achieving win-win outcomes does not necessarily imply a positive scenario, especially if small farmers are dependent on income transfers from the government to provide their livelihood.
Detecting clear-cuts and decreases in forest vitality using MODIS NDVI time series
Lambert, J. ; Denux, J.P. ; Verbesselt, J. ; Balent, G. ; Cheret, V. - \ 2015
Remote Sensing 7 (2015)4. - ISSN 2072-4292 - p. 3588 - 3612.
coarse spatial-resolution - vegetation indexes - climate-change - landsat imagery - boreal forest - cover - trends - avhrr - disturbance - drought
This paper examines the potential of MODIS-NDVI time series for detecting clear-cuts in a coniferous forest stand in the south of France. The proposed approach forms part of a survey monitoring the status of forest health and evaluating the forest decline phenomena observed over the last few decades. One of the prerequisites for this survey was that a rapid and easily reproducible method had to be developed that differentiates between forest clear-cuts and changes in forest health induced by environmental factors such as summer droughts. The proposed approach is based on analysis of the breakpoints detected within NDVI time series, using the “Break for Additive Seasonal and Trend” (BFAST) algorithm. To overcome difficulties detecting small areas on the study site, we chose a probabilistic approach based on the use of a conditional inference tree. For model calibration, clear-cut reference data were produced at MODIS resolution (250 m). According to the magnitude of the detected breakpoints, probability classes for the presence of clear-cuts were defined, from greater than 90% to less than 3% probability of a clear-cut. One of the advantages of the probabilistic model is that it allows end users to choose an acceptable level of uncertainty depending on the application. In addition, the use of BFAST allows events to be dated, thus making it possible to perform a retrospective analysis of decreases in forest vitality in the study area.
Consumer-Related Food Waste: Causes and Potential for Action
Aschemann-Witzel, J. ; Hooge, I.E. de; Amani, P. ; Bech-Larsen, T. ; Oostindjer, M. - \ 2015
Sustainability 7 (2015). - ISSN 2071-1050 - p. 6457 - 6477.
climate-change - behavior - consumption - households - separation - emissions - knowledge - attitude - impacts - system
In the past decade, food waste has received increased attention on both academic and societal levels. As a cause of negative economic, environmental and social effects, food waste is considered to be one of the sustainability issues that needs to be addressed. In developed countries, consumers are one of the biggest sources of food waste. To successfully reduce consumer-related food waste, it is necessary to have a clear understanding of the factors influencing food waste-related consumer perceptions and behaviors. The present paper presents the results of a literature review and expert interviews on factors causing consumer-related food waste in households and supply chains. Results show that consumers’ motivation to avoid food waste, their management skills of food provisioning and food handling and their trade-offs between priorities have an extensive influence on their food waste behaviors. We identify actions that governments, societal stakeholders and retailers can undertake to reduce consumer-related food waste, highlighting that synergistic actions between all parties are most promising. Further research should focus on exploring specific food waste contexts and interactions more in-depth. Experiments and interventions in particular can contribute to a shift from analysis to solutions.
The implementation of Natura 2000 in forests: A trans- and interdisciplinary assessment of challenges and choices.
Winkel, G. ; Blondet, M. ; Borrass, L. ; Frei, T. ; Geitzenauer, M. ; Gruppe, A. ; Jump, A. ; Koning, J. de; Sotirov, M. ; Weiss, G. ; Winter, S. ; Turnhout, E. - \ 2015
Environmental Science & Policy 52 (2015). - ISSN 1462-9011 - p. 23 - 32.
climate-change - biodiversity conservation - european-union - management - science - policy - network - stand
Natura 2000 is the core of the EU's biodiversity conservation policy. 50% of the overall protected area under Natura 2000 is forest. Yet, comparatively little is known about the implementation of the policy in forests. Building on a rich set of social and natural science data, and an inter- and transdisciplinary discussion process involving scientists from different disciplines as well as EU, national and local stakeholders, this paper identifies five important challenges related to the implementation of Natura 2000 in forests: (1) the balancing of biodiversity conservation and timber production, (2) the integration of conservation (science) and local stakeholders’ demands, (3) climate change, (4) lacking and less effective funding, and (5) conflicts related to other sectoral policies. Subsequently, five possible pathways to tackle these challenges are proposed: (1) a learning approach through better communication and transparency, (2) a pathway emphasizing the role of conservation science in developing management strategies and responding to climate change, (3) an approach of better integrating Europe's citizens in the design and implementation of the policy, (4) an approach highlighting the necessity of an effective funding strategy, and (5) the vision to work towards an integrated European land use and conservation policy. In conclusion, we emphasize, on one hand, the distinct character of the five pathways but, on the other hand, underline that probably all of them need to be followed in order to make the implementation of Natura 2000 in Europe's forests a success story.
Synergistic effects of drought and deforestation on the resilience of the south-eastern Amazon rainforest
Staal, A. ; Dekkers, S. ; Hirota Magalhaes, M. ; Nes, E.H. van - \ 2015
Ecological Complexity 22 (2015). - ISSN 1476-945X - p. 65 - 75.
tropical tree cover - critical transitions - global resilience - african savannas - tipping points - linking theory - climate-change - woody cover - fire - feedbacks
The south-eastern Amazon rainforest is subject to ongoing deforestation and is expected to become drier due to climate change. Recent analyses of the distribution of tree cover in the tropics show three modes that have been interpreted as representing alternative stable states: forest, savanna and treeless states. This situation implies that a change in environmental conditions, such as in the climate, could cause critical transitions from a forest towards a savanna ecosystem. Shifts to savanna might also occur if perturbations such as deforestation exceed a critical threshold. Recovering the forest would be difficult as the savanna will be stabilized by a feedback between tree cover and fire. Here we explore how environmental changes and perturbations affect the forest by using a simple model with alternative tree-cover states. We focus on the synergistic effects of precipitation reduction and deforestation on the probability of regime shifts in the south-eastern Amazon rainforest. The analysis indicated that in a large part of the south-eastern Amazon basin rainforest and savanna could be two alternative states, although massive forest dieback caused by mean-precipitation reduction alone is unlikely. However, combinations of deforestation and climate change triggered up to 6.6 times as many local regime shifts than the two did separately, causing large permanent forest losses in the studied region. The results emphasize the importance of reducing deforestation rates in order to prevent a climate-induced dieback of the south-eastern Amazon rainforest.
Competing discourses on REDD+: Global debates versus the first Indian REDD+ project
Vijge, M.J. - \ 2015
Forest Policy and Economics 56 (2015). - ISSN 1389-9341 - p. 38 - 47.
ecosystem services - forest governance - costa-rica - social safeguards - carbon offsets - climate-change - co-benefits - trade-offs - deforestation - interests
This article analyzes three of themost contentious scholarly and political debates regarding REDD+, focusing on 1) what REDD+ should achieve; 2) who should monitor REDD+ outcomes; and 3) how REDD+ should be financed. In analyzing these, the article conceptualizes three sets of storylines and assesseswhich of the identified storylines resonate in the first Indian REDD+ project, focusing on both stakeholders' views and project design. The three identified questions do not give rise to contentious debates among stakeholders of the REDD+project. Contrasting views on REDD+found in scholarly and political debates – such as carbon versus non-carbon objectives, authority of technical experts versus local communities, and market versus fund-based approaches – are not prevalent among project stakeholders, who believe that different approaches to REDD+ can be combined and can even reinforce each other. Project stakeholders prefer non-carbon benefits as the project's main objective to be monitored jointly by experts and local communities, and favor a mix of fund- and market-based approaches. This is also reflected in the project design. The conclusion reflects on the insights that the multi-level discourse analysis in this article generated, including for REDD+ in general.
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