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|Ecology of lianas
Schnitzer, S.A. ; Bongers, F. ; Burnham, R.J. ; Putz, F.E. - \ 2015
Oxford : Wiley-Blackwell - ISBN 9781118392492 - 504
klimplanten - plantenecologie - plantenanatomie - plantenfysiologie - evolutie - tropische bossen - bossen - climbing plants - plant ecology - plant anatomy - plant physiology - evolution - tropical forests - forests
A liana is a long-stemmed, woody vine that is rooted in the soil at ground level and uses trees to climb up to the canopy to get access to well-lit areas of the forest. The main goal of this book is to present the current status of liana ecology in tropical and temperate forests. In essence, it is a forum to summarize and synthesize the most recent research in liana ecology and to address how this research fits into the broader field of ecology.
Different biomechanical design and ecophysiological strategies in juveniles of two liana species with contrasting growth habit
Chen, Y.J. ; Bongers, F. ; Zhang, J.L. ; Liu, J.Y. ; Cao, K.F. - \ 2014
American Journal of Botany 101 (2014)6. - ISSN 0002-9122 - p. 925 - 934.
vine ipomoea-purpurea - seasonal rain-forest - support availability - tropical forest - hydraulic conductivity - phenotypic responses - aboveground biomass - light interception - climbing plants - wood density
Premise of the study: Lianas constitute a major functional type in tropical zones. While some liana species start climbing immediately after germination (shade-avoidance), others have a long self-supporting phase (shade-tolerance). The morphophysiological characteristics of these two growth habits are unknown. Methods: We quantified growth traits, biomass allocation, mechanics, anatomy, and hydraulics for saplings of Ventilago calyculata (an immediate obligate climber) and Ziziphus attopensis (having a long self-supporting phase), both in the family Rhamnaceae. The mechanics, anatomy, and hydraulics for the mature individuals of the two species were also evaluated. Key results: In the juvenile stage, V. calyculata had a higher slenderness ratio, height growth rate, and photosynthetic rate but similar biomass growth rate compared with Z. attopensis. In contrast, Z. attopensis had a higher leaf area growth rate, specific leaf area, and leaf mass fraction. Ziziphus attopensis had stiffer, but less conductive stems than V. calyculata. Stem rigidity of saplings decreased from base to apex in Z. attopensis, but increased in V. calyculata. Both species had similar resistance to xylem embolism. However, the leaves of V. calyculata were able to resist greater water deficits. At the mature stage, wider and longer vessels emerged in the xylem, and both species increased stem specific conductivity and drought resistance in stems and leaves. Ventilago calyculata had significantly higher specific conductivity and was more drought tolerant than Z. attopensis. Conclusions: The two lianas differed significantly in growth, biomass allocation, anatomy, mechanics, ecophysiology, and hydraulic properties in line with their growth habits and shade adaptation strategies.
The Liana assemblage of a Congolian rainforest : diversity, structure and dynamics
Ewango Ekokinya, Corneille - \ 2010
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Frans Bongers; Marc Sosef; Lourens Poorter. - [S.l.] : s.n. - ISBN 9789085858133 - 161 p.
climbing plants - rain forests - species diversity - species richness - forest ecology - congo - forest structure - klimplanten - regenbossen - soortendiversiteit - soortenrijkdom - bosecologie - bosstructuur
Key words: Liana assemblage, species composition, community, dynamics, canopy openness, Manniophyton fulvum, functional traits, population density, pervasive change.
This study analyzes the diversity, composition, and dynamics of the liana assemblage of the Ituri rain forest in northeastern DR Congo. I used data from two 10-ha plots of the Ituri Forest Dynamics Plots, in which all liana stems ≥2 cm diameter at breast height (dbh) were marked, mapped, measured and identified in 1994, 2001 and 2007. In addition, the plot topography and canopy structure were measured.
Chapter 2 analyzes the liana assemblage (in terms of species richness, abundance and diversity), characterizes liana functional traits and determines effects of forest structure, topography and edaphic variation on liana species composition. In 20 ha, 15008 liana individuals were found, representing 195 species, 83 genera and 34 plant families. Per hectare species number averaged 64, basal area was 0.71 m2 and Fisher alpha, Shannon and Simpson diversity indices were 17.9, 3.1 and 11.4, respectively. There was oligarchic dominance of 10 plant families that represented 69% of total species richness, 92% of liana abundance and 92% of basal area, while ten dominant species accounted for 63% of abundance and 59% of basal area. Forty-one species (21%) were represented by one individual only. Most lianas were light-demanding, climbed their hosts by twining, and had conspicuous flowers, medium-sized leaves and animal-dispersed propagules. Liana abundance increased with abundance of medium-sized and large trees but was, surprisingly, independent of small-tree abundance. Canopy openness, soil moisture, and tree size were the most important environmental factors influencing abundance and distribution of lianas.
In Chapter 3 I investigate changes in structural characteristics, diversity, recruitment, mortality and growth of the liana community over the thirteen years (1994 ¬- 2007). Liana density decreased from 750 (1994) through 547 (2001) to 499 (2007) stems ha-1, with concomitant declines in basal area and above-ground biomass. Despite lower stem densities the species richness remained constant over time. Total liana recruitment rates decreased slightly from 8.6% per year in the first period to 6.6% in the second, but this decrease was not significant. Liana mortality rates decreased significantly from 7.2% to 4.4% per year over the two census intervals. Diameter growth rates and survival increased with liana stem diameter. Surprisingly, liana abundance in Ituri showed recent declines, rather than recent increases, as has been reported for tropical and temperate forests in the Americas. Interestingly, changes in overall liana community structure and composition were mostly driven by one species only: the dramatic collapse of superabundant Manniophyton fulvum between the first and the second census.
In chapter 4 I investigated species-specific dynamics of the 79 most abundant liana species, representing 13,156 of the stems (97% of total) in two 10-ha plots. I evaluated their demographic performance and the relation if the vital rates (growth, mortality, recruitment) to the species abundance and four functional traits (climbing strategy, dispersal syndrome, leaf size and light requirements) to determine across species variations and major strategies characterizing species. Vital rates shared a wide interspecific variation; species-specific recruitment rates varied from 0.0-10.9%, mortality rates from 0.43-7.89% over 13-year, and growth rates from -0.03-3.51 mm y-1. Most species had low to moderate rates. Species that grew fast tended also to recruit and die fast, but recruitment and mortality rates were not directly related, suggesting that species shift in absolute abundance over the 13 year period. However, with the exception of the collapsing Manniophyton fulvum population, species maintained their rank-dominance over time. Species growth declined with abundance, but recruitment and mortality rates were not related to abundance. The demographic performance of liana species varied weakly with their climbing strategy and dispersal mode but was, surprisingly, not related to their lifetime light requirements. A principle components analysis of liana strategies in terms of functional traits and vital rates showed that light demand, and dispersal syndrome were the most determining traits. Based on the PCA three functional guilds were distinguished. I conclude that old-growth forest liana species show a large variation in abundance and vital rates, and that density-dependent mechanisms are insufficient to explain the species abundance patterns over time.
Lianas are thought to globally increase in density, but we have limited knowledge about the taxonomic patterns of change in liana abundance, and the underlying vital rates that explain changes in liana density. In chapter 5 the changes in abundance of 79 relatively abundant liana species are evaluated. The Ituri forest showed a pervasive change in liana population density in the last decade. 37 species changed significantly in their abundance over time: 12 (15% of total) species increased, and 25 (32%) species decreased. 42 (53%) species did not change. Of the 48 genera, 40% decreased and 52% stayed the same. Five of the 12 increasing species belonged to the Celastraceae, which also was the only significantly increasing family. Surprisingly, none of the four functional traits (lifetime light requirements, climbing mechanism, dispersal mechanism, and leaf size) was significantly associated with species change in population density. Many decreasing species, however, are associated with disturbed habitats and are short-lived. Many increasing species are late successional and longer-lived. Increasing species have a slightly higher recruitment, decreasing species a higher mortality. This study suggests that changes in the liana community result from forest recovery from past disturbances. Rising atmospheric CO2 level was not a likely explanation for liana change: more species declined than increased, and increasing species did not have higher growth rates. In the Ituri Forest local stand dynamics override more global drivers of liana change.
Klimplanten - sierlijk en functioneel
Hop, M.E.C.M. - \ 2009
Dendroflora 46 (2009). - ISSN 0374-7247 - p. 4 - 24.
klimplanten - sierplanten - soortendiversiteit - rassen (planten) - cultivars - groene gevels - gebruikswaarde - climbing plants - ornamental plants - species diversity - varieties - green walls - use value
Het laten begroeien van gevels is op dit moment een populaire methode om gebouwen aan te kleden. In navolging van de Franse pionier Patrick Blanc worden vaak systemen gekozen die los staan van de grond. De planten vinden houvast aan een lichtgewicht substraat en worden met druppelslangen van water voorzien. Hoewel dit systeem prachtige wandbegroeiingen kan opleveren, is het nogal onderhoudsintensief. Van oudsher kennen we echter ook de onderhoudsvriendelijke variant hiervan: het laten begroeien van wanden met klimplanten die wortelen in de grond. Hierover valt nog veel interessants te vertellen.
Seasonal differences in leaf-level physiology give lianas a competitive advantage over trees in a tropical seasonal forest
Cai, Z.Q. ; Schnitzer, S.A. ; Bongers, F. - \ 2009
Oecologia 161 (2009)1. - ISSN 0029-8549 - p. 25 - 33.
barro-colorado island - rain-forest - eastern amazonia - functional-groups - secondary forest - nitrogen-content - climbing plants - elevated co2 - moist forest - dry forest
Lianas are an important component of most tropical forests, where they vary in abundance from high in seasonal forests to low in aseasonal forests. We tested the hypothesis that the physiological ability of lianas to fix carbon (and thus grow) during seasonal drought may confer a distinct advantage in seasonal tropical forests, which may explain pan-tropical liana distributions. We compared a range of leaf-level physiological attributes of 18 co-occurring liana and 16 tree species during the wet and dry seasons in a tropical seasonal forest in Xishuangbanna, China. We found that, during the wet season, lianas had significantly higher CO2 assimilation per unit mass (A mass), nitrogen concentration (N mass), and ¿13C values, and lower leaf mass per unit area (LMA) than trees, indicating that lianas have higher assimilation rates per unit leaf mass and higher integrated water-use efficiency (WUE), but lower leaf structural investments. Seasonal variation in CO2 assimilation per unit area (A area), phosphorus concentration per unit mass (P mass), and photosynthetic N-use efficiency (PNUE), however, was significantly lower in lianas than in trees. For instance, mean tree A area decreased by 30.1% from wet to dry season, compared with only 12.8% for lianas. In contrast, from the wet to dry season mean liana ¿13C increased four times more than tree ¿13C, with no reduction in PNUE, whereas trees had a significant reduction in PNUE. Lianas had higher A mass than trees throughout the year, regardless of season. Collectively, our findings indicate that lianas fix more carbon and use water and nitrogen more efficiently than trees, particularly during seasonal drought, which may confer a competitive advantage to lianas during the dry season, and thus may explain their high relative abundance in seasonal tropical forests
Klimop 1, Nut en schadelijkheid : je bent onvoorwaardelijk vóór of faliekant tegen
Kopinga, J. - \ 2008
Bomen, het vakblad voor de boomverzorging 2008 (2008)6. - p. 12 - 15.
hedera - klimplanten - plantenontwikkeling - ranken - openbare parken - bomen - openbare mening - bosschade - waardplanten - risicofactoren - openbaar groen - groenbeheer - boomverzorging - climbing plants - plant development - tendrils - public parks - trees - public opinion - forest damage - host plants - risk factors - public green areas - management of urban green areas - tree care
Dit artikel is het eerste in een serie van drie over de toepassing en het beheer van klimop. Het is gebaseerd op het rapport Klimop in het stedelijk groen, dat schrijver dezes opstelde op verzoek van stadsdeel Amsterdam-Noord. Dit eerste deel gaat over het nut en de schadelijkheid van klimop en de biologische kenmerken.
Lianas and trees in tropical forests in south China
Cai, Z.Q. - \ 2007
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Frans Bongers, co-promotor(en): K.F. Cao. - [S.l.] : S.n. - ISBN 9789085046530 - 162
klimplanten - bosbomen - bomen - tropische bossen - biodiversiteit - plantenecologie - plantenmorfologie - china - ecofysiologie - climbing plants - forest trees - trees - tropical forests - biodiversity - plant ecology - plant morphology - ecophysiology
|Woody plants of Western African forests, A guide to the forest trees, shrubs and lianes from Senegal to Ghana
Hawthorne, W.D. ; Jongkind, C.C.H. - \ 2006
Richmond, Surrey UK : Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew - ISBN 1842460897 - 1023
houtachtige planten - bomen - struiken - bosbomen - klimplanten - identificatie - determinatietabellen - taxonomie - soorten - klassen - tropische bossen - foto's - illustraties - west-afrika - woody plants - trees - shrubs - forest trees - climbing plants - identification - keys - taxonomy - species - genera - tropical forests - photographs - illustrations - west africa
A guide to the identification of all the woody plants (c. 2,250 species in 740 genera) of the forest region of West Africa called 'Upper Guinea', between Togo and Senegal. Upper Guinea is one of the world's most important centres of biodiversity, from the mountain forests of Liberia, Guinea and Sierra Leone, to the lowland evergreen, and semideciduous forests widespread also in Ghana and Ivory Coast.
|Forest climbing plants of West Africa: diversity, ecology and management
Bongers, F.J.J.M. ; Parren, M.P.E. ; Traoré, D. - \ 2005
Wallingford (UK) : CAB International - ISBN 085199914X - 273
klimplanten - bossen - plantenecologie - bosecologie - biodiversiteit - taxonomie - plantengeografie - etnobotanie - bosbouw - west-afrika - climbing plants - forests - plant ecology - forest ecology - biodiversity - taxonomy - phytogeography - ethnobotany - forestry - west africa
Climbing plants, including lianas, represent a fascinating component of the ecology of tropical forests. This book focuses on the climbing plants of West African forests. Based on original research, it presents information on the flora (including a checklist), diversity (with overviews at several levels of integration), ecology (distribution, characteristics in relation to environment, their role in forest ecosystems) and ethnobotany. Forestry aspects, such as their impact on tree growth and development, and the effects of forestry interventions on climbers are also covered
Klimplanten op geluidsschermen
Hiemstra, J.A. ; Hop, M.E.C.M. ; Aendekerk, T.G.L. ; Hoffman, M.H.A. ; Langedijk, R.P.J. - \ 2004
Boskoop : Praktijkonderzoek Plant & Omgeving, Sector Bomen - 100
wegen - lawaaibestrijding - wegbeplantingen - soortenkeuze - klimplanten - bouwtechnologie - onderzoek - roads - noise abatement - roadside plantations - choice of species - climbing plants - construction technology - research
De Nederlandse bevolking ondervindt door de toenemende drukte op de rijkswegen steeds meer overlast van het verkeerslawaai. Uit onderzoek is gebleken dat bewoners overwegend de voorkeur hebben voor begroeide schermen. Door wildgroei van verschillende typen geluidsschermen werd het totaalbeeld rommelig en chaotisch. Dit was voor Rijkswaterstaat de aanleiding geweest om het project Modulaire geluidsschermen in het leven te roepen. Het doel van dit onderzoek is om meer inzicht in de factoren te krijgen, die bepalen of de begroeiing van een scherm wel of niet zal slagen. Tevens worden praktische adviezen gegeven die in de ontwerpfase, de realisatiefase of beheerfase van een scherm toegepast kunnen worden.
Lianas and logging in West Africa
Parren, M.P.E. - \ 2003
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Frans Bongers; Frits Mohren. - Wageningen : Wageningen Universiteit - ISBN 9058088715 - 168
klimplanten - houtkap - snijden - gaten in het kroondak - houtteelt - tropische bossen - bosbedrijfsvoering - bosecologie - west-afrika - climbing plants - logging - cutting - canopy gaps - silviculture - tropical forests - forest management - forest ecology - west africa
The role of lianas in relation to logging activities is analysed in a lowland moist forest in Cameroon. Lianas are an abundant, diverse, and conspicuous growth form in nearly all tropical forests. Lianas are mostly seen as a nuisance by foresters. Cutting of liana stems is an important operation in forest management practices. Pre-harvest liana cutting is aimed at a reduction of logging damage, an improved precision of felling, an enhancement of the development of the growing tree stock and a reduction of the regrowth capacity of lianas. Lianas were very abundant: on average nearly 5000 individuals per ha of which over 100 large ones (³ 5 cm dbh). Felling gap sizes, tree mortality and damage were not significantly affected by pre-harvest liana cutting. However, this intervention significantly reduced the number of lianas and also the number of liana-infested trees in logging gaps. Cut lianas were monitored and proved that certain species were extremely vulnerable while others hardly. To avoid problems related to the negative impacts that both liana cutting and fire can have on liana species, which are vulnerable to these interventions, it is recommended to apply this treatment only selectively. Spatially, treatments should be limited to zones where lianas are heavily interfering with trees to be felled. Treatments also should be species-specific, by limiting liana cutting to those species, which cause most of the damage.
Vervroegen en verlaten van clematis, skimmia en spiraea
Verhoeven, E.J.M. - \ 1995
Boskoop : Boomteeltpraktijkonderzoek (Rapport / Boomteeltpraktijkonderzoek 37) - 30
houtachtige planten als sierplanten - groeistadia - gewassen, groeifasen - rutaceae - spiraea - klimplanten - ranunculaceae - nederland - ornamental woody plants - growth stages - crop growth stage - climbing plants - netherlands
Exploitation, natural regeneration and increment
Jonkers, W.B.J. - \ 1984
[Paramaribo] : Universiteit van Suriname - 17
klimplanten - snijden - bosbouw - ringen van bomen (girdling) - natuurlijke verjonging - vergiftiging - selectiesysteem - selectiekap - grondvoorbereiding - suriname - bomen - climbing plants - cutting - forestry - girdling - natural regeneration - poisoning - selection system - selective felling - site preparation - trees
Successie op ontbost terrein : terreinvoorbereiding en boomopname ten behoeve van inrichting proefperken Saraweg (Mapanegebied); Lianenpopulatie in ongerept drooglandbos en daarvan afgeleide vegetaties : het inzamelen van herbariummateriaal aan de Saraweg; Successie op ontbost terrein : inrichten en eerste en tweede opname proefperk Blakawatra
Consen, J.R. ; Lavieren, L.P. van; Boerboom, J.H.A. - \ 1968
Paramaribo : [s.n.] (CELOS rapporten no. 8) - 47
klimplanten - bosbouw - periodiciteit - plantensuccessie - secundaire bossen - suriname - vegetatie - climbing plants - forestry - periodicity - plant succession - secondary forests - vegetation
Chemische bestrijding van enkele grassen en houtige gewassen in de bosbouw
Goor, C.P. van; Zonderwijk, P. ; Drift, J. van der - \ 1957
Wageningen : Stichting Bosbouwproefstation "De Dorschkamp" (Uivoerige verslagen van de Stichting Bosbouwproefstation "De Dorschkamp" Bd. 3, nr. 2, p. 21-59)
chemische bestrijding - schoonmaken - klimplanten - epifyten - bosbouw - maretakken - nederland - parasitaire planten - pesticiden - wieden - onkruiden - bosopstanden - chemical control - cleaning - climbing plants - epiphytes - forestry - mistletoes - netherlands - parasitic plants - pesticides - weeding - weeds - forest stands