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Agro-clusters and rural poverty: a spatial perspective for West Java
Wardhana, D. ; Ihle, R. ; Heijman, W.J.M. - \ 2017
Bulletin of Indonesian Economic Studies 53 (2017)2. - ISSN 0007-4918 - p. 161 - 186.
clusters - farming activities - poverty - spatial dependence - Indonesia
Neighbouring economies are likely to influence one another. The concentration of farming activities referred to as an ‘agro-cluster’ generates opportunities for income and employment in a given region and its surrounding area. We analyse the link between poverty rates and agro-clusters by accounting for spatial spillovers. To quantify agroclusters, we employ one input-oriented and one output-oriented measure. Our analysis applies six spatial econometric specifications and focuses on 545 subdistricts of West Java, where about 10% of the population live in poverty. We find that the concentration of agricultural employment substantially reduces poverty in a subdistrict as well as in neighbouring subdistricts. We also find that specialisation in crop outputs has positive impacts on poverty reduction and that localisation externalities are fundamental to agriculture's success. These findings imply that policy interventions may be applied in a spatially selective manner because they will generate spatial-spillover effects on poverty reduction in surrounding areas.
Attitudes of Dutch Citizens toward Sow Husbandry with Regard to Animals, Humans, and the Environment
Bergstra, Tamara ; Hogeveen, Henk ; Kuiper, Erno ; Oude Lansink, Alfons G.J.M. ; Stassen, Elsbeth N. - \ 2017
Anthrozoos 30 (2017)2. - ISSN 0892-7936 - p. 195 - 211.
attitudes - clusters - people - sow husbandry
The pig industry is struggling with negative attitudes of people toward sow husbandry. To be able to respond to these attitudes, the pig industry first has to understand people’s attitudes. The first objective of this study was to determine the attitudes of Dutch people toward sow husbandry with regard to animals, humans, and the environment. The second objective was to group people based on their attitudes toward sow husbandry and determine and compare the socio-demographic characteristics of these groups. An online survey was conducted in the Netherlands and there were 1,607 respondents. On average, respondents had negative attitudes toward all issues defined in this study. The most negative attitudes were toward the effect on both animals and consumers of the use of antibiotics, the number of animals kept per square meter, the possibility for animals to go outside, food safety risks, public health risks, and environmental waste. The findings indicate the importance of considering all the issues identified in this study during the process of developing measures to improve people’s attitudes toward sow husbandry. Respondents could be divided into four clusters; each cluster represented different attitudes toward sow husbandry and had different socio-demographic characteristics. This makes it possible for the pig industry to assign people with specific socio-demographic characteristics to one of the clusters and predict their attitudes toward sow husbandry. Knowledge of these attitudes enables the pig industry to predict how different groups of people will respond to different animal welfare measures. Results of this study are therefore useful for the pig industry to help improve people’s attitudes toward sow husbandry.
Nonequilibrium thermodynamics of nucleation
Schweizer, M. ; Sagis, L.M.C. - \ 2014
Journal of Chemical Physics 141 (2014). - ISSN 0021-9606 - 13 p.
homogeneous nucleation - inhomogeneous-media - general formalism - complex fluids - systems - clusters - dynamics - temperature - interface - equations
We present a novel approach to nucleation processes based on the GENERIC framework (general equation for the nonequilibrium reversible-irreversible coupling). Solely based on the GENERIC structure of time-evolution equations and thermodynamic consistency arguments of exchange processes between a metastable phase and a nucleating phase, we derive the fundamental dynamics for this phenomenon, based on continuous Fokker-Planck equations. We are readily able to treat non-isothermal nucleation even when the nucleating cores cannot be attributed intensive thermodynamic properties. In addition, we capture the dynamics of the time-dependent metastable phase being continuously expelled from the nucleating phase, and keep rigorous track of the volume corrections to the dynamics. Within our framework the definition of a thermodynamic nuclei temperature is manifest. For the special case of nucleation of a gas phase towards its vapor-liquid coexistence, we illustrate that our approach is capable of reproducing recent literature results obtained by more microscopic considerations for the suppression of the nucleation rate due to nonisothermal effects.
'MeerWaarde uit Innoveren' : Kennis & Innovatieagenda Betuwse Bloem ’13-’15 : selectie thema’s en onderwerpen, uitgebreide rapportage
Werd, H.A.E. de; Schuur, L. ; Kloos, W. ; Pinxterhuis, E.K. - \ 2013
Randwijk : Praktijkonderzoek Plant en Omgeving, Bloembollen, Boomkwekerij & Fruit - 27
tuinbouw - tuinbouwbedrijven - innovaties - clusters - ondernemerschap - kennisoverdracht - economische samenwerking - logistiek - milieufactoren - biobased economy - voeding en gezondheid - betuwe - horticulture - market gardens - innovations - entrepreneurship - knowledge transfer - economic cooperation - logistics - environmental factors - nutrition and health
Dit document vormt de basis voor de kennis-en innovatieagenda Greenport Betuwse Bloem. De kennis- en innovatieagenda bestaat uit een overzicht met thema’s en onderliggende innovatie-onderwerpen waar ondernemers mee aan de slag willen. De selectie van thema’s en onderwerpen dient als startpunt voor innovatieprojecten met ondernemers. De beschrijving van de werkwijze voor selectie en prioritering van onderwerpen, kan gebruikt worden voor het selecteren en prioriteren van toekomstige onderwerpen met ondernemers.
'MeerWaarde uit Innoveren' : Kennis & Innovatieagenda Betuwse Bloem ’13-’15 : samenvattende rapportage
Werd, H.A.E. de; Schuur, L. ; Kloos, W. ; Pinxterhuis, E.K. - \ 2013
Randwijk : Praktijkonderzoek Plant & Omgeving Bloembollen, Boomkwekerij en Fruit - 7
tuinbouw - tuinbouwbedrijven - clusters - innovaties - samenwerking - kennisoverdracht - ondernemerschap - strategisch management - economische aspecten - betuwe - horticulture - market gardens - innovations - cooperation - knowledge transfer - entrepreneurship - strategic management - economic aspects
Het doel van de Greenport Betuwse Bloem is om het tuinbouwcluster in het Gelders Rivierengebied te ondersteunen om haar verdiencapaciteit te vergroten. De ambities en plannen staan in de Strategische agenda Greenport Betuwse Bloem 2012 – 2015 . Het aanjagen van innovaties en het verder versterken van de samenwerking tussen bedrijfsleven en kennisinstellingen is hierin een speerpunt. Innovatie is voor alle onderdelen van de tuinbouwketen van belang : toelevering, teelt, logistiek en afzet. Het biedt nieuwe kansen en is essentieel om te (blijven) voldoen aan de eisen die aan de tuinbouw gesteld worden vanuit de maatschappij.
Betuwse Bloem : regionale visie voor gespecialiseerde ondernemers
Poot, E.H. ; Vellema, S. - \ 2013
Syscope Magazine 2013 (2013)31. - p. 19 - 22.
tuinbouw - tuinbouwbedrijven - agro-industriële complexen - clusters - publiek-private samenwerking - betuwe - innovaties - Nederland - horticulture - market gardens - agroindustrial complexes - public-private cooperation - innovations - Netherlands
Om de tuinbouw in het Rivierengebied een duurzame en economische stimulans te geven, is in 2006 het programma Betuwse Bloem van start gegaan. De vooronderstelling van het publiek-private partnership was dat het samenbrengen van de huidige afgebakende tuinbouwclusters kan leiden tot krachtige synergie en een samenhangend competitief gebied. Daarmee zou het gebied de statuur van een Greenport kunnen krijgen. Het institutionele vraagstuk dat zich aandiende was of en hoe dicht bij elkaar werkende, wonende en gespecialiseerde tuinders zich wilden verbinden aan dit grotere streven. Betuwse Bloem: regionale visie voor gespecialiseerde ondernemers.
Direct synthesis of inverse hexagonally ordered diblock copolymer/polyoxometalate nanocomposite films
Lunkenbein, T. ; Kamperman, M.M.G. ; Li, Z. ; Bojer, C. ; Drechsler, M. ; Forster, S. ; Wiesner, U. ; Muller, A. ; Breu, J. - \ 2012
Journal of the American Chemical Society 134 (2012)30. - ISSN 0002-7863 - p. 12685 - 12692.
surfactant-encapsulated polyoxometalate - block-copolymer surfactants - transition-metal oxides - lyotropic phases - catalysis - nanoparticles - composites - complexes - chemistry - clusters
Nanostructured inverse hexagonal polyoxometalate composite films were cast directly from solution using poly(butadiene-block-2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate) (PB-b-PDMAEMA) diblock copolymers as structure directing agents for phosphomolybdic acid (H(3)[PMo(12)O(40)], H(3)PMo). H(3)PMo units are selectively incorporated into the PDMAEMA domains due to electrostatic interactions between protonated PDMAEMA and PMo(3-) anions. Long solvophilic PB chains stabilized the PDMAEMA/H(3)PMo aggregates in solution and reliably prevented macrophase separation. The choice of solvent is crucial. It appears that all three components, both blocks of the diblock copolymer as well as H(3)PMo, have to be soluble in the same solvent which turned out to be tetrahydrofuran, THF. Evaporation induced self-assembly resulted in highly ordered inverse hexagonal nanocomposite films as observed from transmission electron microscopy and small-angle X-ray scattering. This one-pot synthesis may represent a generally applicable strategy for integrating polyoxometalates into functional architectures and devices.
Industrial clusters and social networks and their impact on the performance of micro- and small-scale enterprises: evidence from the handloom sector in Ethiopia
Ali, M.A. - \ 2012
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Arie Oskam, co-promotor(en): Jack Peerlings. - S.l. : s.n. - ISBN 9789461731272 - 175
agrarische economie - industrie - clusters - sociale netwerken - kleine bedrijven - ondernemingen - weven - industrialisatie - financiën - welzijn - kosten - afrika - ethiopië - etniciteit - agricultural economics - industry - social networks - small businesses - enterprises - weaving - industrialization - finance - well-being - costs - africa - ethiopia - ethnicity
This study empirically investigates how clustering and social networks affect the performance of micro- and small-scale enterprises by looking at the evidence from Ethiopia. By contrasting the performance of clustered micro enterprises with that of dispersed ones, it was first shown that clustering significantly increases profit. The increase in profit from clustering is found to be higher in urban than rural areas. It is also found that regional specific factors determining clustering of micro enterprises are different in urban and rural areas. Second, it is empirically shown that clustering eases the financial constraints of micro enterprises by lowering the capital entry barrier through the reduction of the initial investment required to start a business. This effect is significantly larger for enterprises investing in districts with high capital market inefficiency. Third, the impact of clustering on the entry and exit decisions of farm households into and from non-farm enterprises is examined. Clustering significantly increases the likelihood of entry and enhances the survival of rural enterprises. The impact of entry and exit on household’s well-being is further investigated. Entry into non-farm enterprises significantly increases household’s income and boosts their food security status, while exit from non-farm enterprises is found to significantly reduce household’s income. Finally, the role of ethnic ties on the performance of micro enterprises is investigated. The empirical results show that ethnic ties affect the performance of producers negatively, which implies that the positive effect of ethnic ties, through the reduction of transaction costs arising from market imperfections, does not outweigh the negative effects of closed social networks.
Keywords: clustering, micro enterprises, industrialization, finance, entry, exit, well-being, ethnic ties, transaction cost, Africa, Ethiopia.
Spatial Collocation and venture capital in the US biotechnology industry
Kolympiris, C. ; Kalaitzandonakes, N. ; Miller, D. - \ 2011
Research Policy 40 (2011)9. - ISSN 0048-7333 - p. 1188 - 1199.
research-and-development - geographic localization - knowledge spillovers - empirical-evidence - founding rates - innovation - networks - clusters - firms - entrepreneurship
Biotechnology firms operate in a high-risk and high-reward environment and are in a constant race to secure venture capital (VC) funds. Previous contributions to the literature show that the VC firms tend to invest locally in order to monitor their investments and to provide operating assistance to their target firms. Further, biotechnology is a knowledge-based industry that tends to exhibit spatial clusters, and the firms in such industries may collocate to benefit from gaining access to local markets for specialized inputs (e.g., skilled researchers) and from local knowledge spillovers and network externalities. If such gains exist, we expect that the collocated firms should exhibit positively correlated performance, including in their ability to attract venture capital funds. The purpose of this paper is to empirically measure the strength and spatial extent of the relationships among the amount of funds raised by proximate biotechnology firms. We model these relationships with a spatial autoregression (SAR) model, and we control for characteristics of the biotechnology firms and the VC firms that provide their funds as well as site-specific factors. Based on our fitted SAR model, we find that the amount of venture capital raised by a particular biotechnology firm is significantly influenced by the number of VC firms and the VC funding levels raised by biotechnology firms located within a 10-mile radius, but these relationships are not statistically significant beyond this range.
Economic risk analysis of agroparks : final report
Ge, L. ; Asseldonk, M.A.P.M. van; Galen, M.A. van; Hietbrink, O. ; Verstegen, J.A.A.M. ; Ruijs, M.N.A. ; Mansfeld, M.J.M. van; Smeets, P.J.A.M. ; Simons, A.E. - \ 2011
[Den Haag] : LEI Wageningen UR - 29
agro-industriële complexen - agro-industriële sector - clusters - economische analyse - risicofactoren - risicobeheersing - onzekerheid - modellen - duurzame ontwikkeling - agroindustrial complexes - agroindustrial sector - economic analysis - risk factors - risk management - uncertainty - models - sustainable development
The concept of agroparks is a type of sustainable intensification that is consistent with metropolitan agriculture: an agropark is a spatial cluster of different agricultural functions and related economic activities. The concept of agroparks has been the object of increasing interest in recent years. One of the difficulties facing the development of an agropark is the uncertainty concerning the feasibility and the return to be obtained. This reflects the fact that an agropark consists of various mutually dependent businesses. The result is a complex set of uncertainties in relation to technological, institutional and market development. This research is concerned with analysing the uncertainties and opportunities of agroparks. This has resulted in a risk model that identifies the qualitative and/or quantitative uncertainties of an agropark. Appropriate measures and management strategies can be pinpointed as a result, thereby converting potential risks into realistic opportunities. The risk model goes hand in hand with a four-stage plan for risk analysis and management. The results of this research allow entrepreneurs to make well-founded investment choices, thereby contributing towards the development of agroparks and more sustainable agriculture.
Regional Regulation of Transcription in the Bovine Genome
Kommadath, A. ; Nie, H. ; Groenen, M.A.M. ; Pas, M.F.W. te; Veerkamp, R.F. ; Smits, M.A. - \ 2011
PLoS ONE 6 (2011). - ISSN 1932-6203 - 6 p.
human housekeeping genes - highly expressed genes - coexpressed genes - dna-sequence - selection - biology - clusters - bioconductor - unification - domains
Eukaryotic genes are distributed along chromosomes as clusters of highly expressed genes termed RIDGEs (Regions of IncreaseD Gene Expression) and lowly expressed genes termed anti-RIDGEs, interspersed among genes expressed at intermediate levels or not expressed. Previous studies based on this observation suggested a dual mechanism of gene regulation, where, in addition to transcription factors, the chromosomal domain influences the expression level of their embedded genes. The objectives here were to provide evidence for the existence of chromosomal regional regulation of transcription in the bovine genome, to analyse the genomic features of genes located within RIDGEs versus anti-RIDGEs and tissue-specific genes versus housekeeping and to examine the genomic distribution of genes subject to positive selection in bovines. Gene expression analysis of four brain tissues and the anterior pituitary of 28 cows identified 70 RIDGEs and 41 anti-RIDGEs (harbouring 3735 and 1793 bovine genes respectively) across the bovine genome which are significantly higher than expected by chance. Housekeeping genes (defined here as genes expressed in all five tissues) were over-represented within RIDGEs but tissue-specific genes (genes expressed in only one of the five tissues) were not. Housekeeping genes and genes within RIDGEs had, in general, higher expression levels and GC content but shorter gene lengths and intron lengths than tissue-specific genes and genes within anti-RIDGES. Our findings suggest the existence of chromosomal regional regulation of transcription in the bovine genome. The genomic features observed for genes within RIDGEs and housekeeping genes in bovines agree with previous studies in several other species further strengthening the hypothesis of selective pressure to keep the highly and widely expressed genes short and compact for transcriptional efficiency. Further, positively selected genes were found non-randomly distributed on the genome with a preference for RIDGEs and regions of intermediate gene expression compared to anti-RIDGEs.
Van doorvoerland naar servicenetwerk; welke rol is voor Agrologistiek Nederland weggegelegd?
Scheer, F.P. ; Groot, J.J. ; Snels, J.C.M.A. ; Vorst, J.G.A.J. van der - \ 2010
In: Bijdragen Vervoerslogistieke Werkdagen 2010, 18-19 november 2010, Antwerp, Belgium. - Zelzate : University Press - ISBN 9789490695446 - p. 95 - 110.
landbouwindustrie - agrodistributie - logistiek - transport - agro-industriële complexen - clusters - ketenmanagement - agribusiness - agro distribution - logistics - agroindustrial complexes - supply chain management
Het Nederlandse agro-cluster is een belangrijke peiler onder de Nederlandse economie. Haar netto export (export-import) bedraagt ruim 20 miljard euro en vertegenwoordigt circa 50% van de Nederlandse handelsbalans. Hierbinnen vervult de agrologistiek een belangrijke rol, zowel nationaal (toegevoegde waarde) als internationaal (doorvoer). Dit sterke Nederlandse agro-cluster staat echter ook onder druk. Toenemende congestie en druk op de ruimtelijke omgeving zorgen ervoor dat verdere groei steeds moeilijker realiseerbaar wordt binnen de eigen landsgrenzen. Daarbij komt dat buitenlandse productie in termen van kosten voor arbeid, land en energie vaak beter scoren dan Nederland zodat een verschuiving van productie naar het buitenland plaatsvindt. Tenslotte zorgt schaalvergroting aan de productie- en afzetzijde (metname retail) ervoor dat productstromen steeds vaker rechtstreeks van bron naar bestemming (zonder tussenschakels of draaischijven) getransporteerd worden. De agrologistiek wordt dus steeds internationaler en Nederland moet zich heroriënteren op haar internationale rol, dit alles in combinatie met het verrijken van de eigen kracht van het nationale cluster.
Regional regulation of transcription in the chicken genome
Nie, H. ; Crooijmans, R.P.M.A. ; Bastiaansen, J.W.M. ; Megens, H.J.W.C. ; Groenen, M.A.M. - \ 2010
BMC Genomics 11 (2010). - ISSN 1471-2164 - 12 p.
highly expressed genes - coexpressed genes - evolution - clusters - map - macrochromosome - microchromosome - chromosomes - selection - sequence
Background Over the past years, the relationship between gene transcription and chromosomal location has been studied in a number of different vertebrate genomes. Regional differences in gene expression have been found in several different species. The chicken genome, as the closest sequenced genome relative to mammals, is an important resource for investigating regional effects on transcription in birds and studying the regional dynamics of chromosome evolution by comparative analysis. Results We used gene expression data to survey eight chicken tissues and create transcriptome maps for all chicken chromosomes. The results reveal the presence of two distinct types of chromosomal regions characterized by clusters of highly or lowly expressed genes. Furthermore, these regions correlate highly with a number of genome characteristics. Regions with clusters of highly expressed genes have higher gene densities, shorter genes, shorter average intron and higher GC content compared to regions with clusters of lowly expressed genes. A comparative analysis between the chicken and human transcriptome maps constructed using similar panels of tissues suggests that the regions with clusters of highly expressed genes are relatively conserved between the two genomes. Conclusions Our results revealed the presence of a higher order organization of the chicken genome that affects gene expression, confirming similar observations in other species. These results will aid in the further understanding of the regional dynamics of chromosome evolution. The microarray data used in this analysis have been submitted to NCBI GEO database under accession number GSE17108
Gene Expression in Chicken Reveals Correlation with Structural Genomic Features and Conserved Patterns of Transcription in the Terrestrial Vertebrates
Nie, H. ; Crooijmans, R.P.M.A. ; Lammers, A. ; Schothorst, E.M. van; Keijer, J. ; Neerincx, P. ; Leunissen, J.A.M. ; Megens, H.J.W.C. ; Groenen, M.A.M. - \ 2010
PLoS ONE 5 (2010)8. - ISSN 1932-6203 - 7 p.
human housekeeping genes - salmonella infection - eimeria-maxima - lines - responses - selection - evolution - intestine - clusters - tissues
Background - The chicken is an important agricultural and avian-model species. A survey of gene expression in a range of different tissues will provide a benchmark for understanding expression levels under normal physiological conditions in birds. With expression data for birds being very scant, this benchmark is of particular interest for comparative expression analysis among various terrestrial vertebrates. Methodology/Principal Findings - We carried out a gene expression survey in eight major chicken tissues using whole genome microarrays. A global picture of gene expression is presented for the eight tissues, and tissue specific as well as common gene expression were identified. A Gene Ontology (GO) term enrichment analysis showed that tissue-specific genes are enriched with GO terms reflecting the physiological functions of the specific tissue, and housekeeping genes are enriched with GO terms related to essential biological functions. Comparisons of structural genomic features between tissue-specific genes and housekeeping genes show that housekeeping genes are more compact. Specifically, coding sequence and particularly introns are shorter than genes that display more variation in expression between tissues, and in addition intergenic space was also shorter. Meanwhile, housekeeping genes are more likely to co-localize with other abundantly or highly expressed genes on the same chromosomal regions. Furthermore, comparisons of gene expression in a panel of five common tissues between birds, mammals and amphibians showed that the expression patterns across tissues are highly similar for orthologuous genes compared to random gene pairs within each pair-wise comparison, indicating a high degree of functional conservation in gene expression among terrestrial vertebrates. Conclusions - The housekeeping genes identified in this study have shorter gene length, shorter coding sequence length, shorter introns, and shorter intergenic regions, there seems to be selection pressure on economy in genes with a wide tissue distribution, i.e. these genes are more compact. A comparative analysis showed that the expression patterns of orthologous genes are conserved in the terrestrial vertebrates during evolution
Blue print for detecting and developing regional clusters
Heijman, W.J.M. ; Hulsink, W. ; Altena, P. - \ 2007
Wageningen : Oost NV - 33
clusters - ontwikkeling - huisartsen - economische ontwikkeling - ontwikkelingsbeleid - development - general practitioners - economic development - development policy
The blue print as presented in this report is intended to be a practical guide for regional cluster development for policy- and development practitioners. Four crucial steps for successful regional cluster development have been identified and discussed in the report. Screening, selecting, intervening and monitoring are key to successful cluster development
PCR detection of oxytetracycline resistance genes from diverse habitats in total community DNA and in streptomycete isolates.
Nikolakopoulou, T.L. ; Egan, S. ; Overbeek, L.S. van; Guillaume, G. ; Heuer, H. ; Wellington, E.M.H. ; Elsas, J.D. van; Collard, J.M. ; Smalla, K. ; Karagouni, A.D. - \ 2005
Current Microbiology 51 (2005)4. - ISSN 0343-8651 - p. 211 - 216.
environmental bacteria - efflux protein - mycobacterium - prevalence - validation - plasmids - clusters - rimosus - primers - soil
A range of European habitats was screened by PCR for detection of the oxytetracycline resistance genes otr(A) and otr(B), found in the oxytetracycline-producing strain Streptomyces rimosus. Primers were developed to detect these otr genes in tetracycline-resistant (TcR) streptomycete isolates from environmental samples. Samples were obtained from bulk and rhizosphere soil, manure, activated sludge and seawater. The majority of TcR streptomycetes originated from bulk and rhizosphere soil. Fewer TcR streptomycetes were isolated from manure and seawater and none from sewage. By PCR, three out of 217 isolates were shown to contain the otr(A) gene and 13 out of 217 the otr(B) gene. Surprisingly, these genes were detected in taxonomic groups not known as tetracycline-producing strains. The majority of the otr gene¿carrying strains was assigned to S. exfoliatus or S. rochei and originated from all habitats from which TcR streptomycetes were obtained. Our results indicated that the occurrence of otr(A) and otr(B) genes in natural environments was limited and that otr(B), in comparison to otr(A), seemed to be more common