Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

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Upscaling sustainability initiatives in international commodity chains : Examples from cocoa, coffee and soy value chains in the Netherlands.
Ingram, V.J. ; Judge, L.O. ; Luskova, Martina ; Berkum, S. van; Berg, J. van den - \ 2016
Wageningen : Statutory Research Tasks Unit for Nature & the Environment (WOt-technical report 67) - 125 p.
value chains, soy, cocoa, coffee, policy, trade, development policy, sustainability, upscaling - waardeketenanalyse - basisproducten - cacao - koffie - glycine soja - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - handel - nederland - value chain analysis - commodities - cocoa - coffee - sustainability - trade - netherlands
This study reports on the extent to which sustainability initiatives in the cocoa, coffee and soy value chains
have been scaled up by companies. We have investigated how the private sector can be further stimulated to engage in, sustain and increase their involvement in actions to increase the sustainability of commodity chains with links to the Netherlands. The report analyses the motives for companies to join sustainability initiatives and their reasons for not engaging. It concludes with several recommendations on how government and value-chain stakeholders could further stimulate the scaling up of sustainability initiatives
Coffee certification in East Africa: Impact on farms, families and cooperatives
Ruben, R. ; Hoebink, Paul - \ 2015
Wageningen Academic Publishers - ISBN 9789086862559 - 264 p.
certification - coffee - small farms - labelling - sustainability - farming systems - east africa - certificering - koffie - kleine landbouwbedrijven - etiketteren - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - bedrijfssystemen - oost-afrika
Certification of coffee producers is frequently suggested as a promising strategy for improving the position of smallholder farmers in the market. After the launch of the first Fairtrade label in 1988, several other standards have been promoted either by voluntary agencies (Utz-certified) or by private coffee companies. Each coffee label relies on different strategies for enhancing sustainable production and responsible trade. Coffee certification in East Africa is of a rather recent nature but has been rapidly expanding, representing currently 26 percent of the world's sustainable certified coffee supply. Marketing channels, cooperative organisation and household structures show notable differences between Kenya, Uganda and Ethiopia. Empirical studies on the effects of standards for smallholders are scarce. This book intends to deepen our understanding on the role and functions of coffee certification regimes, based on three innovative approaches: (1) longitudinal field survey data capturing changes in coffee farming systems and effects on household welfare; (2) in-depth interviews and behavioural experiments regarding risk attitudes, trust and investments at cooperative level; and (3) detailed discourse analyses regarding gender roles and female bargaining power within coffee households. The chapters included in this book provide new and original evidence about the impact of coffee certification based on large-scale field surveys and in-depth interviews.
Total dietary antioxidant capacity, individual antioxidant intake and breast cancer risk: The Rotterdam study
Pantavos, A. ; Ruiter, R. ; Feskens, E.J.M. ; Keyser, C.E. de; Hofman, A. ; Stricker, B.H.C. ; Franco, O.H. ; Kiefte-de Jong, J.C. - \ 2015
International Journal of Cancer 136 (2015)9. - ISSN 0020-7136 - p. 2178 - 2186.
prospective cohort - swedish women - vitamin-c - receptor status - pooled analysis - carotenoids - coffee - fruits - iron - tea
Some studies suggest a favorable role of antioxidants on breast cancer risk but this is still inconclusive. The aim of this study was to assess whether overall dietary antioxidant capacity, as assessed by dietary ferric reducing antioxidant potential (FRAP), and individual dietary antioxidant intake were associated with breast cancer risk. Data was used from women participating in the Rotterdam Study, a prospective cohort study among subjects aged 55 years and older (N¿=¿3,209). FRAP scores and antioxidant intake (i.e., vitamin A, C, E, selenium, flavonoids and carotenoids) was assessed at baseline by a food frequency questionnaire. Incident cases of breast cancer were confirmed through medical reports. During a median follow-up of 17 years, 199 cases with breast cancer were identified. High dietary FRAP score was associated with a lower risk of breast cancer [hazard ratio (HR): 0.68; 95% confidence intervals (CI): 0.49, 0.96]. No overall association between individual antioxidant intake and breast cancer risk was found. However, low intake of alpha carotene and beta carotene was associated with a higher risk of breast cancer among smokers (HR: 2.48; 95% CI: 1.21, 5.12 and HR: 2.31; 95% CI: 1.12, 4.76 for alpha and beta carotene, respectively) and low intake of flavonoids was associated with breast cancer risk in women over the age of 70 (HR: 1.80; 95% CI: 1.09, 2.99). These results suggest that high overall dietary antioxidant capacity is associated with a lower risk of breast cancer. Individual effects of dietary carotenoids and dietary flavonoids may be restricted to subgroups such as smokers and elderly.
Monitoring and estimating the consumption of certified sustainable cocoa and coffee in the Netherlands : availability and application of data
Logatcheva, K. - \ 2014
Wageningen : LEI Wageningen UR (Memoradum / LEI 14-055) - 14
cacao - koffie - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - consumptie - monitoring - cocoa - coffee - sustainability - consumption
Er zijn verschillende instanties die (niet-)systematische informatie verzamelen over de Nederlandse koffie- en cacaosectoren die bruikbaar is om het behalen van de doelstellingen van de intentieverklaringen in de koffie in cacaosectoren12 te meten: individuele bedrijven en sectororganisaties, publieke en private instellingen voor marktonderzoek. Volgens de Koninklijke Nederlandse Vereniging van Koffie en Thee (KNVKT) was het marktaandeel van duurzaam gecertificeerde koffie op de Nederlandse markt in 2012 40%. Dit gegeven zal systematisch en periodiek worden geactualiseerd op de website van de KNVKT. Andere informatie die de monitoring van de resultaten van de inspanningen van de sectoren in Nederland mogelijk zou kunnen maken, is echter beperkt door hoge kosten en complexiteit van de koffie- en cacaoketens. De sectoren worden gedomineerd door grote internationale bedrijven die in meerdere landen actief zijn. Voorts is er sprake van een grote differentiatie van soorten consumentenproducten, met name in de cacaosector. Adhocinformatie maakt slechts een enkele (grove) schatting voor een bepaalde periode mogelijk. Volgens deskundigen uit het cacaoverwerkingssegment was het aandeel gecertificeerde duurzame cacao in consumentenproducten die verkocht zijn op de Nederlandse markt in 2012 niet hoger dan 25%. Andere verzamelde (ad-hoc)informatie over de cacaomarkt geeft geen aanleiding om deze schatting te verwerpen. Het onderzoek naar koffiesector is verricht in 2012 met enkele relevante updates in 2013. Het onderzoek naar cacaosector is verricht in 2012 en 2013 met enkele relevante updates voor 2014.
Quantitation of Acrylamide in Foods by High-Resolution Mass Spectrometry
Troise, A.D. ; Fiore, A. ; Fogliano, V. - \ 2014
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 62 (2014)1. - ISSN 0021-8561 - p. 74 - 79.
liquid-chromatography - maillard reaction - potato-chips - lc-ms/ms - gc-ms - heated foodstuffs - dietary exposure - kinetic-model - fried potato - coffee
Acrylamide detection still represents one of the hottest topics in food chemistry. Solid phase cleanup coupled to liquid chromatography separation and tandem mass spectrometry detection along with GC-MS detection are nowadays the gold standard procedure for acrylamide quantitation thanks to high reproducibility, good recovery, and low relative standard deviation. High-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) is particularly suitable for the detection of low molecular weight amides, and it can provide some analytical advantages over other MS techniques. In this paper a liquid chromatography (LC) method for acrylamide determination using HRMS detection was developed and compared to LC coupled to tandem mass spectrometry. The procedure applied a simplified extraction, no cleanup steps, and a 4 min chromatography. It proved to be solid and robust with an acrylamide mass accuracy of 0.7 ppm, a limit of detection of 2.65 ppb, and a limit of quantitation of 5 ppb. The method was tested on four acrylamide-containing foods: cookies, French fries, ground coffee, and brewed coffee. Results were perfectly in line with those obtained by LC-MS/MS.
RIKILT developed a test to determine the difference between organic and conventional coffee
Ruth, S.M. van - \ 2013
Wageningen : Wageningen UR RIKILT
koffie - biologische voedingsmiddelen - tests - dranken - voedselonderzoek - coffee - organic foods - beverages - food research
Saskia van Ruth, Professor Food Authenticity at RIKILT Wageningen UR, developed a method to distinguish organic from conventional coffee.
Institutions in the Mexican coffee sector : changes and responses
Rodriguez Padron, B. - \ 2012
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Erwin Bulte; Ruerd Ruben, co-promotor(en): Kees Burger. - [S.l.] : s.n. - ISBN 9789461734181 - 201
instellingen - institutionele economie - mexico - koffie - landbouwsector - verandering - samenwerking - contracten - diversificatie - onzekerheid - markten - markthandelaars - institutions - institutional economics - coffee - agricultural sector - change - cooperation - contracts - diversification - uncertainty - markets - market traders

Keywords: Cooperation, contract arrangements, traders´ performance, market uncertainty, diversification, coffee, Mexico.

The main aim of this thesis is to investigate the institutional environment prevailing in the Mexican coffee sector and its effect on the producers, traders and households. Specific topics we examine are the contract arrangements and trade performance, the factors influencing the growers´ willingness to join a cooperative, the effects of cooperation on price variability, the influence of cooperation on the growers’ welfare, and coffee producers’ response to the falling coffee price through their engagement in diversification activities. To accomplish the main objectives we have used primary and secondary data. We applied ordinarily least squares, logistic, probit and multivariate probit regressions in the analysis. The main findings indicate that farmers were better off under the quota system than they are under the free market. Results also indicate that being a roaster and selling cherry coffee negatively affects traders’ use of contracts, whereas being vertically integrated has a positive effect on contracting. On the other hand, selling cherry coffee, participating in a competitive environment and having contracts positively influence intermediaries’ performance. Other results show that some individual, family and farm factors, as well as variability of the coffee price at the municipal level favour cooperative affiliation; whereas housing conditions, the proportion of farmers in the municipality and the level of producers selling to intermediaries at the municipal level negatively affect prospects for cooperative membership. We discovered overall positive effects of cooperative participation on household welfare through an increase in the price and total coffee income; results also indicate that households responded to the low coffee price periods with an increase in diversification.

Tea consumption and incidence of type 2 diabetes in Europe: the EPIC-InterAct case-cohort study
Feskens, E.J.M. ; Groenendijk-van Woudenbergh, G.J. ; Kuijsten, A. - \ 2012
PLoS ONE 7 (2012)5. - ISSN 1932-6203 - 8 p.
black tea - green tea - oolong tea - coffee - risk - obesity - plasma - cancer - milk - metaanalysis
Background In previous meta-analyses, tea consumption has been associated with lower incidence of type 2 diabetes. It is unclear, however, if tea is associated inversely over the entire range of intake. Therefore, we investigated the association between tea consumption and incidence of type 2 diabetes in a European population. Methodology/Principal Findings The EPIC-InterAct case-cohort study was conducted in 26 centers in 8 European countries and consists of a total of 12,403 incident type 2 diabetes cases and a stratified subcohort of 16,835 individuals from a total cohort of 340,234 participants with 3.99 million person-years of follow-up. Country-specific Hazard Ratios (HR) for incidence of type 2 diabetes were obtained after adjustment for lifestyle and dietary factors using a Cox regression adapted for a case-cohort design. Subsequently, country-specific HR were combined using a random effects meta-analysis. Tea consumption was studied as categorical variable (0, >0-
The relationship between in-store marketing and observed sales for organic versus fair trade products
Herpen, E. van; Nierop, J.E.M. van; Sloot, L.M. - \ 2012
Marketing Letters 23 (2012)1. - ISSN 0923-0645 - p. 293 - 308.
attribute-based approach - shelf-space - food-consumption - grocery stores - consumers care - assortment - management - coffee - purchases - choice
To stimulate sales of sustainable products, such as organic and fair trade products, retailers need to know whether their in-store instruments effectively enhance market shares. This study uses sales data and a multilevel modeling approach to explain the market shares of sustainable products according to shelf layout factors, price level, price promotions, and consumer demographics. It argues that the effect of these variables differs between organic versus fair trade products, as buying motives might differ, organic buyers tend to be more loyal, and price is a more informative signal of quality for organic products. Results show that the number of facings has a positive relationship with the market share of fair trade brands, but not with the market share of organic brands. The same holds for the price difference with the leading brand, which is important for fair trade brands but not for organic brands. In contrast, an arrangement of the product category by brand is associated with higher market share for organic brands but not for fair trade brands. Additionally, placement at eye level and clustering of items benefits both types of sustainable brands, whereas they appear to be not very sensitive to price promotions. Finally, higher sales of sustainable products are found in areas where the customer base is older and has a higher education level. Keywords Organic . Fair trade . Shelf layout . Price promotions . Market share . Sales data
Fluid intake and the risk of urothelial cell carcinomas in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)
Ros, M.M. ; Bueno de Mesquita, H.B. ; Büchner, F.L. ; Kampman, E. ; Duijnhoven, F.J.B. van - \ 2011
International Journal of Cancer 128 (2011)11. - ISSN 0020-7136 - p. 2695 - 2708.
food frequency questionnaire - disinfection by-products - lower urinary-tract - bladder-cancer - drinking-water - relative validity - life-style - consumption - epidemiology - coffee
Results from previous studies investigating the association between fluid intake and urothelial cell carcinomas (UCC) are inconsistent. We evaluated this association among 233,236 subjects in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC), who had adequate baseline information on water and total fluid intake. During a mean follow-up of 9.3 years, 513 first primary UCC occurred. At recruitment, habitual fluid intake was assessed by a food frequency questionnaire. Multivariable hazard ratios were estimated using Cox regression stratified by age, sex and center and adjusted for energy intake, smoking status, duration of smoking and lifetime intensity of smoking. When using the lowest tertile of intake as reference, total fluid intake was not associated with risk of all UCC (HR 1.12; 95%CI 0.86–1.45, p-trend = 0.42) or with risk of prognostically high-risk UCC (HR 1.28; 95%CI 0.85–1.93, p-trend = 0.27) or prognostically low-risk UCC (HR 0.93; 95%CI 0.65–1.33, p-trend = 0.74). No associations were observed between risk of UCC and intake of water, coffee, tea and herbal tea and milk and other dairy beverages. For prognostically low-risk UCC suggestions of an inverse association with alcoholic beverages and of a positive association with soft drinks were seen. Increased risks were found for all UCC and prognostically low-risk UCC with higher intake of fruit and vegetable juices. In conclusion, total usual fluid intake is not associated with UCC risk in EPIC. The relationships observed for some fluids may be due to chance, but further investigation of the role of all types of fluid is warranted.
Risk management in organic coffee supply chains : testing the usefulness of critical risk models
Brusselaers, J.F. ; Benninga, J. ; Hennen, W.H.G.J. - \ 2011
Den Haag : LEI Wageningen UR - 17
ketenmanagement - risicobeheersing - koffie - besmetting - biologische voedingsmiddelen - koffie-industrie - kwaliteitscontroles - simulatiemodellen - uganda - nederland - supply chain management - risk management - coffee - contamination - organic foods - coffee industry - quality controls - simulation models - netherlands
This report documents the findings of the analysis of the supply chain of organic coffee from Uganda to the Netherlands using a Chain Risk Model (CRM). The CRM considers contamination of organic coffee with chemicals as a threat for the supply chain, and analyses the consequences of contamination in one stage of the supply chain for the subsequent stages. Next to this, CRM also analyses the effectiveness and efficiency of measures to avoid or detect contamination. In a subsequent phase of this research, the CRM can also be used to analyse the consequences of fraud (= mixing of organic coffee and non-organic coffee) and measures to tackle fraud.
Kosteneffectief koffie controleren
Mheen-Sluijer, J. van der - \ 2011
Kennis Online 8 (2011)nov. - p. 11 - 11.
certificering - biologische voedingsmiddelen - ketenmanagement - risicoanalyse - koffie - kosten - certification - organic foods - supply chain management - risk analysis - coffee - costs
Volgens nieuwe Europese regels voor biologische landbouw en handel moeten inspecties gebaseerd op risicoanalyses de belangrijkste risico’s beperken. Hoe je die risico’s bepaalt is echter niet vastgelegd. Een model van het LEI kan uitkomst bieden.
Immunomagentic microbeads for screening with flow cytometry and identification with nano-liquid chromatography mass spectrometry of ochratoxins in wheat and cereal
Aqai, P. ; Peters, J. ; Gerssen, A. ; Haasnoot, W. ; Nielen, M.W.F. - \ 2011
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry 400 (2011)9. - ISSN 1618-2642 - p. 3085 - 3096.
immunoaffinity column cleanup - bicinchoninic acid - magnetic beads - immunoassay - capillary - proteins - nanoparticles - technology - antibodies - coffee
Multi-analyte binding assays for rapid screening of food contaminants require mass spectrometric identification of compound(s) in suspect samples. An optimal combination is obtained when the same bioreagents are used in both methods; moreover, miniaturisation is important because of the high costs of bioreagents. A concept is demonstrated using superparamagnetic microbeads coated with monoclonal antibodies (Mabs) in a novel direct inhibition flow cytometric immunoassay (FCIA) plus immunoaffinity isolation prior to identification by nanoliquid chromatography–quadrupole time-of-flight-mass spectrometry (nano-LC-Q-ToF-MS). As a model system, the mycotoxin ochratoxin A (OTA) and cross-reacting mycotoxin analogues were analysed in wheat and cereal samples, after a simple extraction, using the FCIA with anti- OTA Mabs. The limit of detection for OTA was 0.15 ng/g, which is far below the lowest maximum level of 3 ng/g established by the European Union. In the immunomagnetic isolationmethod, a 350-times-higher amount of beads was used to trap ochratoxins from sample extracts. Following a wash step, bound ochratoxins were dissociated from the Mabs using a small volume of acidified acetonitrile/water (2/8v/v) prior to separation plus identification with nano-LC-Q-ToF-MS. In screened suspect naturally contaminated samples, OTA and its non-chlorinated analogue ochratoxin B were successfully identified by full scan accurate mass spectrometry as a proof of concept for identification of unknown but crossreacting emerging mycotoxins. Due to the miniaturisation and bioaffinity isolation, this concept might be applicable for the use of other and more expensive bioreagents such as transport proteins and receptors for screening and identification of known and unknown (or masked) emerging food contaminants.
GHG emissions of green coffee production : toward a standard methodology for carbon footprinting : report
Sevenster, M. ; Verhagen, A. - \ 2010
Delft : CE Delft (CE-publication 10.2284.83) - 47
koffie - coffea - coffee
In this project, the scope for product specific rules for carbon footprinting of (green) coffee is investigated and a proposal is drafted for further work toward actual definition and implementation of such a standard.
Cafestol: a multi-faced compound kinetics and metabolic effects of cafestol in mice
Cruchten, S.T.J. van - \ 2010
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Renger Witkamp; Michael Muller, co-promotor(en): Guido Hooiveld. - [S.l. : S.n. - ISBN 9789085855545 - 196
diterpenen - koffie - doseringseffecten - gezondheidsbevordering - gezondheidsgevaren - toxiciteit - cafestol - voeding en gezondheid - biotransformatie - toxicokinetiek - diterpenes - coffee - dosage effects - health promotion - health hazards - toxicity - nutrition and health - biotransformation - toxicokinetics
Cafestol and kahweol are two diterpenes present in unfiltered coffees such as Scandinavian-style boiled coffee, French press coffee and espresso. The health effects of cafestol and kahweol can be positive but also potentially harmful. On the one hand cafestol shows chemo-preventive properties, which might contribute to a reduction of the risk for certain cancers, especially colorectal cancer. On the other hand cafestol is known as the most potent cholesterol-raising compound present in the human diet and also causes a temporally rise in plasma ASAT and ALAT enzymes. This apparently ‘two-faced’ behavior of cafestol was the starting point of this thesis. It was demonstrated that in mice cafestol is extensively metabolized by the liver. Metabolism was found to be associated with Nrf2 activation, causing an induction of biotransformation enzymes and cellular antioxidant defense. This mechanism might explain the proposed anti-carcinogenic effects of cafestol. Furthermore, distribution studies indicated that in mice cafestol accumulates almost exclusively in liver and intestine, and suggested that cafestol undergoes enterohepatic cycling. Further studies showed that cafestol prevents the development of diet-induced obesity, its metabolic complications, and the development of hepatic steatosis in mice. Modulation of the dietary fat content was also used to study the hepatic and intestinal response to cafestol at a transcriptomic level. We showed that dietary fat content is an important determinant of the effects of cafestol. This has been evaluated for several processes already known to be influenced by cafestol, such as bile acid metabolism and Nrf2-mediated biotransformation. Furthermore it was shown that cafestol activated Nrf2-mediated biotransformation both in liver and small intestine.
It is concluded that cafestol behaves as a hormetic compound. It elicits a combination of mechanisms which together determine the balance between positive and negative health outcomes. Although for some mechanisms, i.e. the induction of biotransformation enzymes and acute liver toxicity, a connection seems plausible, several questions remain regarding their interrelations. This thesis has generated new mechanistic insights in the multi-faced behavior of cafestol. More studies, including in humans, are needed to study its dose-effect relations and interactions with dietary compounds. For the time being it is advisable to keep cafestol under scrutiny.

Influence of Roasting on the Antioxidant Activity and HMF Formation of a Cocoa Bean Model Systems
Oliviero, T. ; Capuano, E. ; Cämmerer, B. ; Fogliano, V. - \ 2009
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 57 (2009)1. - ISSN 0021-8561 - p. 147 - 152.
maillard reaction-products - coffee - glycosylation - melanoidins - components - capacity - glycine - lactose - xylose - color
During the roasting of cocoa beans chemical reactions lead to the formation of Maillard reaction (MR) products and to the degradation of catechin-containing compounds, which are very abundant in these seeds. To study the modifications occurring during thermal treatment of fat and antioxidant rich foods, such as cocoa, a dry model system was set up and roasted at 180 °C for different times. The role played in the formation of MR products and in the antioxidant activity of the system by proteins, catechin, and cocoa butter was investigated by varying the model system formulation. Results showed that the antioxidant activity decreased during roasting, paralleling catechin concentration, thus suggesting that this compound is mainly responsible for the antioxidant activity of roasted cocoa beans. Model system browning was significantly higher in the presence of catechin, which contributed to the formation of water-insoluble melanoidins, which are mainly responsible for browning. HMF concentration was higher in casein-containing systems, and its formation was strongly inhibited in the presence of catechin. No effects related to the degree of lipid oxidation could be observed. Data from model systems obtained by replacing fat with water showed a much lower rate of MR development and catechin degradation but the same inhibitory effect of catechin on HMF formation.
Agrarische handel van België met ontwikkelingslanden; Toets op duurzaamheid
Meijerink, G.W. ; Roza, P. ; Berkum, S. van - \ 2008
Den Haag : LEI Wageningen UR (Rapport / LEI : Werkveld 1, Internationaal beleid ) - 137
agrarische economie - agrarische handel - ontwikkelingslanden - ecologie - sociologie - bananen - cacao - koffie - sojabonen - thee - brazilië - costa rica - ivoorkust - tanzania - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - sociale economie - belgië - internationale handel - liberalisering van de handel - handelsrelaties - economische aspecten - agricultural economics - agricultural trade - developing countries - ecology - sociology - bananas - cocoa - coffee - soyabeans - tea - brazil - cote d'ivoire - sustainability - socioeconomics - belgium - international trade - trade liberalization - trade relations - economic aspects
Deze studie voor het Vlaamse ministerie van Landbouw en Visserij belicht de economische, sociale en ecologische gevolgen van agrarische handel van België met ontwikkelingslanden. Het onderzoek spitst zich toe op een vijftal producten (banaan, cacao, koffie, soja en thee) en vier ontwikkelingslanden (Brazilië, Costa Rica, Ivoorkust en Tanzania). Het oordeel over de mate van duurzaamheid wordt gebaseerd op de vier landenstudies, uitgevoerd door lokale onderzoekers, waarbij een beperkt aantal indicatoren is meegenomen. Naar voren komt dat met name de twee Latijns Amerikaanse landen negatieve ecologische gevolgen van handel (in soja en banaan) ondervinden, en dat in de Afrikaanse landen de negatieve sociaal-economische aspecten de meeste aandacht vragen. This study for the Flemish Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries sheds light on the economic, social and ecological effects of Belgium's agricultural trade with developing countries. The study focuses on five products (bananas, cocoa, coffee, soya and tea) and four developing countries (Brazil, Costa Rica, Côte d'Ivoire and Tanzania). The assessment of the level of sustainability is based on the four country studies, conducted by local researchers, and taking into account a limited number of indicators. It emerges that the two Latin American countries experience negative ecological effects of trade (in soya and bananas), and that in the African countries the negative social-economic aspects require most attention.
Coffee brew melanoidins Structural and Functional Properties of Brown-Colored Coffee Compounds
Bekedam, E.K. - \ 2008
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Gerrit Smit; Tiny van Boekel, co-promotor(en): Henk Schols. - [S.l.] : S.n. - ISBN 9789085049517 - 168
koffie - kleurstoffen in voedsel - roosteren - chemische eigenschappen - coffee - food colourants - toasting - chemical properties
The aim of the work presented in this thesis was the identification of structural and functional properties of coffee brew melanoidins, and their formation mechanisms, that are formed upon roasting of coffee beans.
Integrating Agricultural Landscapes with Biodiversity Conservation in the Mesoamerican Hotspot
Harvey, C.A. ; Komar, O. ; Chazdon, R.L. ; Ferguson, B.G. ; Finegan, B. ; Griffith, D.M. ; Martínez-Ramos, M. ; Morales, H. ; Nigh, R. ; Soto-Pinto, L. ; Breugel, M. van; Wishnie, M. - \ 2008
Conservation Biology 22 (2008)1. - ISSN 0888-8892 - p. 8 - 15.
environmental services help - costa-rica - latin-america - countryside biogeography - forest fragments - los-tuxtlas - rain-forest - mexico - coffee - diversity
Why financial incentives can destroy economically valuable biodiversity in Ethiopia
Gatzweiler, F. ; Reichhuber, A. ; Hein, L.G. - \ 2007
Bonn : ZEF (Zentrum fuer Entwicklungs Forschung) (ZEF discussion papers on development policy 115)
koffie - biodiversiteit - coffea arabica - hulpbronnenbeheer - natuurlijke hulpbronnen - boeren - landbouwgrond - bossen - ethiopië - ontwikkelingseconomie - duurzame ontwikkeling - coffee - biodiversity - resource management - natural resources - farmers - agricultural land - forests - ethiopia - development economics - sustainable development
Ethiopian montane rainforests are economically valuable repositories of biodiversity, especially of wild Coffea arabica populations, and they are vanishing at accelerating rates. Our research results confirm theory which explains biodiversity loss by diverging private and social net benefits from land conversion. Poor farmers basically live from hand-to-mouth and manage resources with very short term planning horizons. In such circumstances they cannot afford to carry the cost burden of conservation from which the broader national and global society benefits. Society, on the other hand, highly values the biodiversity of Ethiopia’s montane rainforests, but has not managed to put mechanisms in place which enable to pay for the conservation of these values and conservation policies are in place but are not implemented. While it is economically rational for the farmer to convert forests into agricultural land and thereby improve his income (the financial incentive we refer to here), it is economically irrational for national and global society not to pay for conservation. The core reasons for such divergence is that institutions for conservation and sustainable use are not in place. We identify the most important ones and recommend changes for the Ethiopian case.
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