Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Selection for associative learning of color stimuli reveals correlated evolution of this learning ability across multiple stimuli and rewards
Liefting, Maartje ; Hoedjes, Katja M. ; Lann, Cécile Le; Smid, Hans M. ; Ellers, Jacintha - \ 2018
Evolution 72 (2018)7. - ISSN 0014-3820 - p. 1449 - 1459.
Artificial selection - associative learning - color - Nasonia vitripennis - odor - sensory modality

We are only starting to understand how variation in cognitive ability can result from local adaptations to environmental conditions. A major question in this regard is to what extent selection on cognitive ability in a specific context affects that ability in general through correlated evolution. To address this question, we performed artificial selection on visual associative learning in female Nasonia vitripennis wasps. Using appetitive conditioning in which a visual stimulus was offered in association with a host reward, the ability to learn visual associations was enhanced within 10 generations of selection. To test for correlated evolution affecting this form of learning, the ability to readily form learned associations in females was also tested using an olfactory instead of a visual stimulus in the appetitive conditioning. Additionally, we assessed whether the improved associative learning ability was expressed across sexes by color-conditioning males with a mating reward. Both females and males from the selected lines consistently demonstrated an increased associative learning ability compared to the control lines, independent of learning context or conditioned stimulus. No difference in relative volume of brain neuropils was detected between the selected and control lines.

Basic principles of analysing biological and technical variation in non-destructive data
Tijskens, L.M.M. ; Schouten, R.E. ; Konopacki, P. ; Jongbloed, G. - \ 2015
Computers and Electronics in Agriculture 111 (2015). - ISSN 0168-1699 - p. 121 - 126.
keeping quality - postharvest - variance - behavior - impact - color - fruit - age
More and more, the omnipresent variation between individual items in a batch is taken into account by using special analysing techniques like mixed effects and indexed regression. In this paper the assumptions upon which these techniques are based, are explained, based on a simulated data set. The most important issue is the separation of biological variation and the technical variation (or measuring error). The techniques are further elucidated with some examples from practise (skin colour apples in storage, softening of melons in storage and water loss in plums, melons and mandarins), to show the increased reliability of the analyses. Since variation is always present in any measured data set, the techniques are applicable in all fields working with living material.
Direct quantification of carotenoids in low fat babyfoods via laser photoacoustics and colorimetric index a
Doka, O. ; Ajtony, Z. ; Bicanic, D.D. ; Valinger, D. ; Vegvari, G. - \ 2014
International Journal of Thermophysics 35 (2014)12. - ISSN 0195-928X - p. 2197 - 2205.
reflectance spectroscopy - lycopene content - cultivars - products - antioxidants - retinol - disease - fruits - color - pulp
Carotenoids are important antioxidants found in various foods including those for nutrition of infants. In this investigation, the total carotenoid content (TCC) of nine different commercially available baby foods was quantified using colorimetric index a * obtained via reflectance colorimetry (RC) and by laser photoacoustic spectroscopy (LPAS) at 473 nm. The latter requires a minimum of sample preparation and only a one time calibration step which enables practically direct quantification of TCC. Results were verified versus UV–Vis spectrophotometry (SP) as the reference technique. It was shown that RC and LPAS (at 473 nm) provide satisfactory results for a *, R 2 = 0.9925 and R 2 = 0.9972, respectively. Other color indices do not show a correlation with TCC. When determining the TCC in baby foods containing tomatoes, it is necessary to select a different analytical wavelength to compensate for the effect of lycopene’s presence in the test samples.
Identification of seed-related QTL in Brassica rapa
Bagheri, H. ; Pino del Carpio, D. ; Hanhart, C.J. ; Bonnema, A.B. ; Keurentjes, J.J.B. ; Aarts, M.G.M. - \ 2013
Spanish Journal of Agricultural Research 11 (2013)4. - ISSN 1695-971X - p. 1085 - 1093.
quantitative trait loci - genetic-linkage map - campestris l - turnip rape - flowering time - oilseed rape - oil content - color - inheritance - napus
To reveal the genetic variation, and loci involved, for a range of seed-related traits, a new F2 mapping population was developed by crossing Brassica rapa ssp. parachinensis L58 (CaiXin) with B. rapa ssp. trilocularis R-o-18 (spring oil seed), both rapid flowering and self-compatible. A linkage map was constructed using 97 AFLPs and 21 SSRs, covering a map distance of 757 cM with an average resolution of 6.4 cM, and 13 quantitative trait loci (QTL) were detected for nine traits. A strong seed colour QTL (LOD 26) co-localized with QTL for seed size (LOD 7), seed weight (LOD 4.6), seed oil content (LOD 6.6), number of siliques (LOD 3) and number of seeds per silique (LOD 3). There was only a significant positive correlation between seed colour and seed oil content in the yellow coloured classes. Seed coat colour and seed size were controlled by the maternal plant genotype. Plants with more siliques tended to have more, but smaller, seeds and higher seed oil content. Seed colour and seed oil content appeared to be controlled by two closely linked loci in repulsion phase. Thus, it may not always be advantageous to select for yellow-seededness when breeding for high seed oil content in Brassicas.
Characteristics of traditionally processed shea kernels and butter
Honfo, G.F. ; Linnemann, A.R. ; Akissoe, N. ; Soumanou, M.M. ; Boekel, M.A.J.S. van - \ 2013
International Journal of Food Science and Technology 48 (2013)8. - ISSN 0950-5423 - p. 1714 - 1721.
fatty-acid-composition - african countries - quality - extraction - color - nuts
The traditional production of shea butter requires a heat treatment of the nuts. This study compared the end products derived by two commonly used heat treatments, namely smoking and boiling followed by sun-drying. Neither treatment influenced the moisture content of the kernels (8–10%), but the boiling treatment resulted in more free fatty acids (FFA) (6%) and a higher fat content (41%) of kernels. A sensory panel preferred shea butter from boiled kernels because of its soft texture and intense smell. This butter also had the highest values for moisture content (2%), unsaponifiable matter (7%), tocopherol compounds (125 mg g-1), peroxide value (8 meq O2 kg-1), iodine value (53 mg I2 100 g-1) and FFA (2%). Minor variations were noticed in the fatty acid profile. Aside from the use of butter from both boiled and smoked kernels in cosmetics, the butter from smoked kernels will be more suitable for food purposes.
The role of textures to improve the detection accuracy of Rumex obtusifolius in robotic systems
Hiremath, S. ; Heijden, G.W.A.M. van der; Evert, F.K. van; Stein, A. - \ 2012
Weed Research 52 (2012)5. - ISSN 0043-1737 - p. 430 - 440.
classification - weed - segmentation - grassland - features - cooccurrence - images - gabor - color
Rumex obtusifolius is a common weed that is difficult to control in organic farming systems. Among the proposed non-chemical treatment methods, robotic systems to mechanically remove the weed have potential for its automatic detection and removal. This article considers a recently developed robot with a real-time vision system capable of detecting R. obtusifolius in a pasture with the objective of improving its detection accuracy. We show that the texture measure used by the current system is equivalent to local variance and has limited value for detecting R. obtusifolius in a complex background like pasture. To improve the system, two different sets of visual texture features corresponding to Gray level Co-occurence Matrix (GLCM) and Laws’ filter masks were investigated. Through feature selection, we determined that GLCM features of contrast, entropy and correlation were the best among the two sets of features and were 25% more accurate in estimating the taproot location than the current system. We incorporated these texture features in a new segmentation algorithm and demonstrated its robustness by testing it on a data set of 92 images with high complexity in terms of variation in illumination and weed size. The new segmentation algorithm had a detection accuracy of 90%, with an average error of 141 mm in the estimation of the location of the taproot of R. obtusifolius, compared with 308 mm with the former algorithm
Effects of Visual Priming on Taste-Odor Interaction
Beilen, M. van; Bult, J.H.F. ; Renken, R. ; Stieger, M.A. ; Thumfart, S. ; Cornelissen, F. ; Kooijman, V.M. - \ 2011
PLoS ONE 6 (2011)9. - ISSN 1932-6203 - 9 p.
olfactory perception - sucrose solutions - perceived flavor - color - sweetness - discrimination - intensity - mixtures - texture - vision
Little is known about the influence of visual characteristics other than colour on flavor perception, and the complex interactions between more than two sensory modalities. This study focused on the effects of recognizability of visual (texture) information on flavor perception of odorized sweet beverages. Participants rated the perceived sweetness of odorized sucrose solutions in the presence or absence of either a congruent or incongruent visual context. Odors were qualitatively reminiscent of sweet foods (strawberry and caramel) or not (savoury). Visual context was either an image of the same sweet foods (figurative context) or a visual texture derived from this product (non-figurative context). Textures were created using a texture synthesis method that preserved perceived food qualities while removing object information. Odor-taste combinations were rated sweeter within a figurative than a non-figurative context. This behaviour was exhibited for all odor-taste combinations, even in trials without images, indicating sustained priming by figurative visual context. A non-figurative context showed a transient sweetening effect. Sweetness was generally enhanced most by the strawberry odor. We conclude that the degree of recognizability of visual information (figurative versus non-figurative), influences flavor perception differently. Our results suggest that this visual context priming is mediated by separate sustained and transient processes that are differently evoked by figurative and non-figurative visual contexts. These components operate independent of the congruency of the image-odor-taste combinations.
Phenotypic analyses of multi-environment data for two diverse tetraploid potato collections: comparing an academic panel with an industrial panel
hoop, B.B. D'; Paulo, M.J. ; Visser, R.G.F. ; Eck, H.J. van; Eeuwijk, F.A. van - \ 2011
Potato Research 54 (2011)2. - ISSN 0014-3065 - p. 157 - 181.
solanum-tuberosum - breeding program - quality traits - selection - color - generations - population - vocabulary - components - cultivars
Phenotypic analyses of two different association panels of tetraploid potato cultivars are presented. Association panels are sets of variously related genotypes assembled for association analysis purposes. The aims of this research were to inspect, analyse and compare two phenotypic data sets, a first step in association mapping analysis. A first panel of 205 contemporary and historical cultivars, selected to represent the commercial potato germplasm pool, was evaluated in two trials in 2006, one on sandy soil and the other on clay soil, both with two replications. It was called the academic panel. Data for the second panel with 299 genotypes were compiled from contributions from five breeding companies and included 66 locations and 18 years. Each of the participating breeding companies contributed data from their clonal selection programmes for 38 advanced breeding clones and a series of standard cultivars. It was called the industrial panel. Variance components for genotypic main effects and genotype-by-environment interactions were calculated, and estimates for the random genotypic main effects were produced. The genotypic main effects for 19 agro-morphological and quality traits were used to study trait by trait correlations within each panel. In addition, for the genotypes shared by both panels, the correlation of genetic main effects between the panels was investigated. The heritability of all traits was high and no large differences were observed between panels. Coefficients of trait variation were highly correlated (r¿=¿0.9) for both panels and trait by trait correlations in both panels showed highly similar patterns. These results demonstrate that a single-year balanced field trial as well as using breeders’ records yields robust phenotypic information that can be used in a genome-wide association study. Issues related to data management and definition of traits are discussed.
A robot to detect and control broad-leaved dock (Rumex obtusifolius L.) in grassland
Evert, F.K. van; Samsom, J. ; Polder, G. ; Vijn, M.P. ; Dooren, H.J.C. van; Lamaker, E.J.J. ; Heijden, G.W.A.M. van der; Kempenaar, C. ; Zalm, A.J.A. van der; Lotz, L.A.P. - \ 2011
Journal of Field Robotics 28 (2011)2. - ISSN 1556-4959 - p. 264 - 277.
vision-based detection - weed-control - system - swards - color - costs
Broad-leaved dock is a common and troublesome grassland weed with a wide geographic distribution. In conventional farming the weed is normally controlled by using a selective herbicide, but in organic farming manual removal is the best option to control this weed. The objective of our work was to develop a robot that can navigate a pasture, detect broad-leaved dock, and remove any weeds found. A prototype robot was constructed that navigates by following a predefined path using centimeter-precision global positioning system (GPS). Broad-leaved dock is detected using a camera and image processing. Once detected, weeds are destroyed by a cutting device. Tests of aspects of the system showed that path following accuracy is adequate but could be improved through tuning of the controller or adoption of a dynamic vehicle model, that the success rate of weed detection is highest when the grass is short and when the broad-leaved dock plants are in rosette form, and that 75% of weeds removed did not grow back. An on-farm field test of the complete system resulted in detection of 124 weeds of 134 encountered (93%), while a weed removal action was performed eight times without a weed being present. Effective weed control is considered to be achieved when the center of the weeder is positioned within 0.1 m of the taproot of the weed—this occurred in 73% of the cases. We conclude that the robot is an effective instrument to detect and control broad-leaved dock under the conditions encountered on a commercial farm. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Heritability of shape in common sole, Solea solea, estimated from image analysis data
Blonk, R.J.W. ; Komen, J. ; Tenghe, A. ; Kamstra, A. ; Arendonk, J.A.M. van - \ 2010
Aquaculture 307 (2010)1-2. - ISSN 0044-8486 - p. 6 - 11.
quantitative genetic-parameters - oreochromis-niloticus l. - large rainbow-trout - salmon salmo-salar - body measurements - fillet traits - color - morphometrics - quality - growth
The spider crab Maja squinado is an endangered Mediterranean species; therefore, culturing it successfully is essential for developing restocking programs. The survival, growth and development of post-larval stages (juvenile crabs, C1–C8) were studied using larvae obtained from adult individuals collected in the Catalan Sea. The juvenile crab stages were cultured individually from a megalopal stage using a semi-open recirculation system to obtain the precise growth data of each juvenile crab stage until C8. Development up to C8 at 20 °C lasted 154 ± 10 days. Survival from C1 to C8 was 5.8%. Moult increment values in cephothoracic length were similar in all the crab stages (21–35%). Intermoult duration (9 ± 1 in C1–C2 to 51 ± 8 days in C7–C8) increased sharply from juvenile stage 5. Males and females can be distinguished from C4 based on sexual dimorphism in the pleopods and the presence of gonopores. The allometric growth of the pleon is sex-dependent from C4, with females showing positive allometry and males isometric growth. The juvenile growth rate was lower compared with that of the previously studied Atlantic species Maja brachydactyla.
Disruption of plant carotenoid biosynthesis through virus-induced gene silencing affects oviposition behaviour of the butterfly Pieris rapae
Zheng, S.J. ; Snoeren, T.A.L. ; Hogewoning, S.W. ; Loon, J.J.A. van; Dicke, M. - \ 2010
New Phytologist 186 (2010)3. - ISSN 0028-646X - p. 733 - 745.
tobacco rattle virus - specialist herbivores - nicotiana-benthamiana - arabidopsis-thaliana - leaf variegation - resistance - chloroplast - insects - vector - color
Optical plant characteristics are important cues to plant-feeding insects. In this article, we demonstrate for the first time that silencing the phytoene desaturase (PDS) gene, encoding a key enzyme in plant carotenoid biosynthesis, affects insect oviposition site selection behaviour. Virus-induced gene silencing employing tobacco rattle virus was used to knock down endogenous PDS expression in three plant species (Arabidopsis thaliana, Brassica nigra and Nicotiana benthamiana) by its heterologous gene sequence from Brassica oleracea. We investigated the consequences of the silencing of PDS on oviposition behaviour by Pieris rapae butterflies on Arabidopsis and Brassica plants; first landing of the butterflies on Arabidopsis plants (to eliminate an effect of contact cues); first landing on Arabidopsis plants enclosed in containers (to eliminate an effect of volatiles); and caterpillar growth on Arabidopsis plants. Our results show unambiguously that P. rapae has an innate ability to visually discriminate between green and variegated green-whitish plants. Caterpillar growth was significantly lower on PDS-silenced than on empty vector control plants. This study presents the first analysis of PDS function in the interaction with an herbivorous insect. We conclude that virus-induced gene silencing is a powerful tool for investigating insect–plant interactions in model and nonmodel plants
Adaptive detection of volunteer potato plants in sugar beet fields
Nieuwenhuizen, A.T. ; Hofstee, J.W. ; Henten, E.J. van - \ 2010
Precision Agriculture 11 (2010)5. - ISSN 1385-2256 - p. 433 - 447.
computer-vision - machine vision - weed-control - color - identification - invariant - daylight - guidance - features - texture
Volunteer potato is an increasing problem in crop rotations where winter temperatures are often not cold enough to kill tubers leftover from harvest. Poor control, as a result of high labor demands, causes diseases like Phytophthora infestans to spread to neighboring fields. Therefore, automatic detection and removal of volunteer plants is required. In this research, an adaptive Bayesian classification method has been developed for classification of volunteer potato plants within a sugar beet crop. With use of ground truth images, the classification accuracy of the plants was determined. In the non-adaptive scheme, the classification accuracy was 84.6 and 34.9% for the constant and changing natural light conditions, respectively. In the adaptive scheme, the classification accuracy increased to 89.8 and 67.7% for the constant and changing natural light conditions, respectively. Crop row information was successfully used to train the adaptive classifier, without having to choose training data in advance
Influence of Roasting on the Antioxidant Activity and HMF Formation of a Cocoa Bean Model Systems
Oliviero, T. ; Capuano, E. ; Cämmerer, B. ; Fogliano, V. - \ 2009
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 57 (2009)1. - ISSN 0021-8561 - p. 147 - 152.
maillard reaction-products - coffee - glycosylation - melanoidins - components - capacity - glycine - lactose - xylose - color
During the roasting of cocoa beans chemical reactions lead to the formation of Maillard reaction (MR) products and to the degradation of catechin-containing compounds, which are very abundant in these seeds. To study the modifications occurring during thermal treatment of fat and antioxidant rich foods, such as cocoa, a dry model system was set up and roasted at 180 °C for different times. The role played in the formation of MR products and in the antioxidant activity of the system by proteins, catechin, and cocoa butter was investigated by varying the model system formulation. Results showed that the antioxidant activity decreased during roasting, paralleling catechin concentration, thus suggesting that this compound is mainly responsible for the antioxidant activity of roasted cocoa beans. Model system browning was significantly higher in the presence of catechin, which contributed to the formation of water-insoluble melanoidins, which are mainly responsible for browning. HMF concentration was higher in casein-containing systems, and its formation was strongly inhibited in the presence of catechin. No effects related to the degree of lipid oxidation could be observed. Data from model systems obtained by replacing fat with water showed a much lower rate of MR development and catechin degradation but the same inhibitory effect of catechin on HMF formation.
Reductive decolorization of the azo dye RR2 in the absence and presence of redox mediator and the electrons acceptor nitrate
Brauna, C.H.D. ; Mota, S. ; Santos, A.B. dos - \ 2009
Engenharia Sanitaria e Ambiental 14 (2009)2. - ISSN 1413-4152 - p. 275 - 284.
anaerobic granular sludge - uasb reactor - textile wastewaters - sulfate reduction - biodegradation - riboflavin - pollutants - quinones - removal - color
This paper aimed at evaluating the effect of nitrate on anaerobic azo dye reduction by using mesophilic bioreactors, in the absence and in the presence of redox mediators. Two anaerobic bioreactors were operated in parallel with a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of ten hours; ethanol was used as co-substrate. The results showed that the bioreactors were efficient on dye reduction, and the ethanol showed to be a good electron donor to sustain it. The redox mediator AQDS increased the rates of reductive decolourisation, but its effect was not so remarkable compared to the previous experiments conducted. Contrary to the raised hypothesis that nitrate addition could decrease the colour removal efficiency and catalytic properties of the redox mediators, no effect of nitrate was observed in the bioreactors
Real-time vision-based detection of Rumex obtusifolius in grassland
Evert, F.K. van; Polder, G. ; Heijden, G.W.A.M. van der; Kempenaar, C. ; Lotz, L.A.P. - \ 2009
Weed Research 49 (2009)2. - ISSN 0043-1737 - p. 164 - 174.
digital images - weed-control - soil - crispus - system - swards - color - crop
Rumex obtusifolius is a common grassland weed that is hard to control in a non-chemical way. The objective of our research was to automate the detection of R. obtusifolius as a step towards fully automated mechanical control of the weed. We have developed a vision-based system that uses textural analysis to detect R. obtusifolius against a grass background. Image sections are classified as grass or weed using 2-D Fourier analysis. We conducted two experiments. In the first (laboratory) experiment, we collected 28 images containing R. obtusifolius and 28 images containing only grass. Between 23 and 25 of 28 images were correctly classified (82-89%) as showing R. obtusifolius; all grass images were correctly classified as such. In the second (field) experiment, a self-propelled platform was used to obtain five sequences of images of R. obtusifolius plants. We used the parameters that gave the best classification results in the first experiment. We found, after changing one of the algorithm's parameters in response to prevailing light conditions, that we were able to detect R. obtusifolius in each image of each sequence. The algorithm scans a ground area of 1.5¿m2 in 30¿ms. We conclude that the algorithm developed is sufficiently fast and robust to eventually serve as a basis for a practical robot to detect and control R. obtusifolius in grassland.
A study on the use of empirical models to predict the formation of acrylamide in potato crisps
Knol, J.J. ; Viklund, G.Å.I. ; Linssen, J.P.H. ; Sjöholm, I.M. ; Skog, K.I. ; Boekel, M.A.J.S. van - \ 2008
Molecular Nutrition & Food Research 52 (2008)3. - ISSN 1613-4125 - p. 313 - 321.
maillard reaction - fried potato - asparagine - systems - foods - temperature - variety - color - wheat - chips
The formation of acrylamide in potato crisps was fitted by empirical mathematical models. Potato slices were fried under the same experimental conditions for different times. Besides the content of precursors in the raw potato slices, acrylamide and water content in the potato crisps were quantified after predetermined times (2-6 min). The temperature developments in the surrounding oil and outer cell layer of the potato slices were monitored, giving more insight in the frying process and making future comparisons between studies possible. The pattern found for the formation of acrylamide, which was similar to earlier studies, was fitted to three empirical models. Statistical methods were used to compare the performance of the models, with the Logistic-Exponential and Empirical model performing equally well. The obtained model parameters were in the range of earlier reported studies, although this comparison is not unequivocal as the experimental conditions differed between studies. The precision of parameter estimates was problematic; this should be improved by better experimental design. Nevertheless, the approach of this study will make it possible to truly compare acrylamide formation patterns and model parameters in the future, with the ability to develop a tool to predict acrylamide formation in potato crisps.
Anticipated identification costs: Improving assortment evaluation by diagnostic attributes
Herpen, E. van; Pieters, F.G.M. - \ 2007
International Journal of Research in Marketing 24 (2007)1. - ISSN 0167-8116 - p. 77 - 88.
multiattribute choice - information search - trivial attributes - decision research - consumer choice - dependence - behavior - attitude - model - color
Abstract Consumers often make quick assessments of product assortments, to determine if these are worthwhile for further investigation. They anticipate how difficult it will be to distinguish the various options in the assortment, which will influence their assortment evaluations. We reason that these anticipated identification costs are conceptually and empirically distinct from anticipated decision-making costs, and that extrinsic product attributes, which are not consumable themselves, can reduce anticipated identification costs and improve assortment evaluation, by highlighting intrinsic product differences. In addition, we posit that the impact of such diagnostic extrinsic attributes depends on the assortment's complexity. Results of two experiments support these predictions. Keywords: Identification costs; Decision costs; Diagnosticity; Extrinsic attribute; Assortment evaluation
Similarities and differences in composition and selected sensory attributes of reindeer, caribou and beef
Rincker, P.J. ; Bechtel, P.J. ; Finstadt, G. ; Buuren, R.G.C. Van; Killefer, J. ; McKeith, F.K. - \ 2006
Journal of Muscle Foods 17 (2006)1. - ISSN 1046-0756 - p. 65 - 78.
meat quality - red deer - venison - ph - extraction - slaughter - carcasses - color
The longissimus from caribou (n = 6), reindeer (n = 6) and beef (n = 6) were evaluated to determine differences in composition, color and sensory properties. Caribou contained the least fat followed by reindeer, and then beef (P <0.05). Both venison sources contained more heme pigment and had a higher glycolytic potential than beef (P <0.05). A trained sensory panel found both sources of venison to be more tender than beef (P <0.05); however Warner-Bratzler shear force yielded no significant differences. The sensory panel scored both reindeer and caribou as having a more intense off-flavor (livery) and less intense meat-flavor than beef (P <0.05). Venison was darker than beef as determined by Minolta L* values (P <0.05). No differences (P > 0.05) were found in ultimate pH or juiciness (sensory panel) among any of the products. Results from this study indicate that reindeer and caribou are a low-fat source of protein with desirable sensory characteristics.
The effect of modified atmosphere packaging with carbon monoxide on the storage quality of master-packaged fresh pork
Wilkinson, B.H.P. ; Janz, J.A.M. ; Morel, P.C.H. ; Purchas, R.W. ; Hendriks, W.H. - \ 2006
Meat Science 73 (2006)4. - ISSN 0309-1740 - p. 605 - 610.
shelf-life - low o-2 - beef - meat - color - dioxide - steaks - flavor - co
Modified atmosphere packaging with carbon dioxide is effective for prolonging shelf-life of fresh meat. Addition of carbon monoxide to the system provides the advantage of enhancing meat colour. The study objective was to determine the effect of CO2-MAP + 0.4% CO, vs. 100% CO2-MAP, on the bacteriology and colour of retail-ready fresh pork stored for 8 weeks in a master-package system. Total plate counts were not affected and listeria was present on meat from both treatments. Colour was enhanced with the inclusion of CO, while no effect on lipid oxidation was observed. Use of CO in MAP provides sufficient storage life and product colour quality to permit shipment of fresh pork to distant markets. However, given the stable fresh colour of CO-treated meat and the lack of inhibition of pathogen growth by CO, there is concern that CO-MAP under certain conditions may pose a food safety risk
Nuclear fragmentation and DNA degradation during programmed cell death in petals of morning glory (Ipomoea nil)
Yamada, T. ; Takatsu, Y. ; Kasumi, K. ; Ichimura, K. ; Doorn, W.G. van - \ 2006
Planta 224 (2006)6. - ISSN 0032-0935 - p. 1279 - 1290.
arabidopsis-thaliana - flower tissue - ethylene - apoptosis - senescence - expression - lethality - tricolor - color - iris
We studied DNA degradation and nuclear fragmentation during programmed cell death (PCD) in petals of Ipomoea nil (L.) Roth flowers. The DNA degradation, as observed on agarose gels, showed a large increase. Using DAPI, which stains DNA, and flow cytometry for DAPI fluorescence, we found that the number of DNA masses per petal at least doubled. This indicated chromatin fragmentation, either inside or outside the nucleus. Staining with the cationic lipophilic fluoroprobe DiOC6 indicated that each DNA mass had an external membrane. Fluorescence microscopy of the nuclei and DNA masses revealed an initial decrease in diameter together with chromatin condensation. The diameters of these condensed nuclei were about 70% of original. Two populations of nuclear diameter, one with an average diameter about half of the other, were observed at initial stages of nuclear fragmentation. The diameter of the DNA masses then gradually decreased further. The smallest observed DNA masses had a diameter less than 10% of that of the original nucleus. Cycloheximide treatment arrested the cytometrically determined changes in DNA fluorescence, indicating protein synthesis requirement. Ethylene inhibitors (AVG and 1-MCP) had no effect on the cytometrically determined DNA changes, suggesting that these processes are not controlled by endogenous ethylene.
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