- C.J.R. Cumagun (1)
- D.G. Edwards (1)
- J.Z. Groenewald (1)
- P. Hepburn (1)
- J. Howlett (1)
- M.J. Jonker (1)
- J.E. Kammenga (1)
- J. Kleiner (1)
- D. Knorr (1)
- G. Kozianowski (1)
- D. Müller (1)
- A.A.C.M. Peijnenburg (1)
- I. Perrin (1)
- A.M. Piskiewicz (1)
- M. Poulsen (1)
- H.D. Shin (1)
- B.A. Summerell (1)
- R. Walker (1)
- M.J. Wingfield (1)
- A.R. Wood (1)
Phylogeny and taxonomy of obscure genera of microfungi
Crous, P.W. ; Braun, U. ; Wingfield, M.J. ; Wood, A.R. ; Shin, H.D. ; Summerell, B.A. ; Alfenas, A.C. ; Cumagun, C.J.R. ; Groenewald, J.Z. - \ 2009
Persoonia 22 (2009). - ISSN 0031-5850 - p. 139 - 161.
anamorphic fungi - ribosomal dna - allied genera - leaf-spot - mycosphaerella - dictyosporium - china - combinations - hyphomycete - argentina
The recently generated molecular phylogeny for the kingdom Fungi, on which a new classification scheme is based, still suffers from an under representation of numerous apparently asexual genera of microfungi. In an attempt to populate the Fungal Tree of Life, fresh samples of 10 obscure genera of hyphomycetes were collected. These fungi were subsequently established in culture, and subjected to DNA sequence analysis of the ITS and LSU nrRNA genes to resolve species and generic questions related to these obscure genera. Brycekendrickomyces (Herpotrichiellaceae) is introduced as a new genus similar to, but distinct from Haplographium and Lauriomyces. Chalastospora is shown to be a genus in the Pleosporales, with two new species, C. ellipsoidea and C. obclavata, to which Alternaria malorum is added as an additional taxon under its oldest epithet, C. gossypii. Cyphellophora eugeniae is newly described in Cyphellophora (Herpotrichiellaceae), and distinguished from other taxa in the genus. Dictyosporium is placed in the Pleosporales, with one new species, D. streliziae. The genus Edenia, which was recently introduced for a sterile endophytic fungus isolated in Mexico, is shown to be a hyphomycete (Pleosporales) forming a pyronellea-like synanamorph in culture. Thedgonia is shown not to represent an anamorph of Mycosphaerella, but to belong to the Helotiales. Trochophora, however, clustered basal to the Pseudocercospora complex in the Mycosphaerellaceae, as did Verrucisporota. Vonarxia, a rather forgotten genus of hyphomycetes, is shown to belong to the Herpotrichiellaceae and Xenostigmina is confirmed as synanamorph of Mycopappus, and is shown to be allied to Seifertia in the Pleosporales. Dichotomous keys are provided for species in the various genera treated. Furthermore, several families are shown to be polyphyletic within some orders, especially in the Capnodiales, Chaetothyriales and Pleosporales.
Toxicity of binary mixtures of cadmium-copper and carbendazim-copper to the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans
Jonker, M.J. ; Piskiewicz, A.M. ; Castellà, N.I.I. ; Kammenga, J.E. - \ 2004
Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 23 (2004)6. - ISSN 0730-7268 - p. 1529 - 1537.
phenotypic plasticity - metals - growth - combinations - reproduction - oligochaeta - pesticides - earthworm - soils - zinc
For ecological risk assessment, the additive model may be used to empirically predict toxic mixture effects. Detailed toxicity tests were performed to determine whether effects of mixtures of copper-cadmium and copper-carbendazim on Caenorhabditis elegans were similar to the effects of the individual compounds. Effects on the course of reproduction, the length of the juvenile period, the length of the reproductive period, and body length were analyzed. Dose-response data were compared to the additive model and tested for four deviation patterns from additivity: No deviation, synergistic/antagonistic deviation, dose ratio-dependent deviation, dose level-dependent deviation. During the exposure, the cadmium-copper effect on reproduction changed from a synergistic, to a dose ratio-dependent deviation from additivity. More cadmium in the mixture decreased the toxicity and more copper increased the toxicity. The effect of copper-carbendazim on reproduction was synergistic at low dose levels and antagonistic at high dose levels and independent of time. Mixture effects on the juvenile and reproductive period were similar to single component effects. It was concluded that the observed time-dependence of toxic interactions was small and that interactions on the timing of reproduction were not found. The additive model underestimated mixture effects on reproduction and body length.
The safety assessment of novel foods and concepts to determine their safety in use
Howlett, J. ; Edwards, D.G. ; Cockburn, A. ; Hepburn, P. ; Kleiner, J. ; Knorr, D. ; Kozianowski, G. ; Müller, D. ; Peijnenburg, A.A.C.M. ; Perrin, I. ; Poulsen, M. ; Walker, R. - \ 2003
International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition 54 (2003)1 suppl. 5. - ISSN 0963-7486 - p. S1 - S32.
diet - combinations - ingredients - toxicology - responses - chemicals - protein - energy - rats