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Validation of a serum neutralization test for detection of antibodies specific to cyprinid herpesvirus 3 in infected common and koi carp (Cyprinus carpio)
Cabon, J. ; Louboutin, L. ; Castric, J. ; Bergmann, S. ; Bovo, G. ; Matras, M. ; Haenen, O. ; Olesen, N.J. ; Morin, T. - \ 2017
Journal of Fish Diseases 40 (2017)5. - ISSN 0140-7775 - p. 687 - 701.
common carp - CyHV-3-specific antibodies - Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 - koi - method validation - serum neutralization test
Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3) is the aetiological agent of a serious infective, notifiable disease affecting common carp and varieties. In survivors, infection is generally characterized by a subclinical latency phase with restricted viral replication. The CyHV-3 genome is difficult to detect in such carrier fish that represent a potential source of dissemination if viral reactivation occurs. In this study, the analytical and diagnostic performance of an alternative serum neutralization (SN) method based on the detection of CyHV-3-specific antibodies was assessed using 151 serum or plasma samples from healthy and naturally or experimentally CyHV-3-infected carp. French CyHV-3 isolate 07/108b was neutralized efficiently by sera from carp infected with European, American and Taiwanese CyHV-3 isolates, but no neutralization was observed using sera specific to other aquatic herpesviruses. Diagnostic sensitivity, diagnostic specificity and repeatability of 95.9%, 99.0% and 99.3%, respectively, were obtained, as well as a compliance rate of 89.9% in reproducibility testing. Neutralizing antibodies were steadily detected in infected carp subjected to restrictive or permissive temperature variations over more than 25 months post-infection. The results suggest that this non-lethal diagnostic test could be used in the future to improve the epidemiological surveillance and control of CyHV-3 disease.
A role for melatonin in maintaining the pro- and anti-inflammatory balance by influencing leukocyte migration and apoptosis in carp
Kepka, M. ; Szwejser, E. ; Pijanowski, L. ; Verburg-van Kemenade, B.M.L. ; Chadzinska, M.K. - \ 2015
Developmental and Comparative Immunology 53 (2015). - ISSN 0145-305X - p. 179 - 190.
coupled receptor dimerization - messenger-rna expression - pineal hormone melatonin - innate immune parameters - common carp - dna-damage - in-vitro - neutrophilic granulocytes - glucocorticoid-receptor - phagocytic-activity
Melatonin is responsible for the synchronization of many physiological processes, including the immune response. Here we focus on the expression of melatonin MT1 receptors in/on leukocytes, and on the effects of melatonin administration on the inflammatory processes of carp. For the first time, we showed that fish leukocytes express MT1 receptors, implicating direct responsiveness to melatonin stimulation. Moreover, both in vitro and in vivo, melatonin modulated the immune response. The most potent effects of melatonin concerned the regulation of leukocyte migration. Melatonin reduced chemotaxis of leukocytes towards CXC chemokines in vitro. In vivo, during zymosan induced peritonitis, i.p. administration of melatonin reduced the number of neutrophils. This correlated with a melatonin-induced decrease of gene expression of the CXCa chemokine. Moreover, melatonin induced a decrease of the respiratory burst in inflammatory leukocytes. Although these data do suggest a potent anti-inflammatory function for this hormone, melatonin-induced inhibition of leukocyte apoptosis clearly indicates towards a dual function. These results show that also in carp, melatonin performs a pleiotropic and extra-pineal function that is important in maintaining the delicate pro- and anti-inflammatory balance during infection. They furthermore demonstrate that neuroendocrine–immune interaction via melatonin is evolutionary conserved.
Effects of seed traits for the potential of seed dispersal by fish with contrasting modes of feeding
Boedeltje, G. ; Spannings, T. ; Flik, G. ; Pollux, B.J.A. ; Sibbing, F.A. ; Verberk, W.C.E.P. - \ 2015
Freshwater Biology 60 (2015)5. - ISSN 0046-5070 - p. 944 - 959.
carp cyprinus-carpio - life-history traits - common carp - digestive-tract - ruppia-maritima - wetland plants - size - fruit - germination - floodplain
For aquatic and riparian plants, the important role of fish in seed dispersal is increasingly recognised. While the propensity of seeds to disperse is known to be a function of morphological, physical and chemical traits of the seed, in the case of fish-mediated seed dispersal (ichthyochory), it is largely unknown how seed traits modulate the potential for seed ingestion and their subsequent survival through the gut. Furthermore, which seed traits are important may vary among fish species. To evaluate the role of both seed and fish traits in ichthyochory, we fed seeds of 19 aquatic and riparian plant species to fish with differing feeding mechanisms. Cyprinus carpio (common carp) has a pharyngeal ‘mill’, which it uses physically to crush hard food, while Oreochromis mossambicus (Mozambique tilapia) has only tiny oral and pharyngeal teeth and instead relies more on chemical digestion. A number of seed traits, including hardness, size and shape, were important determinants of the potential of seeds for ichthyochory. Certain traits (e.g. seed dimensions) were more important during ingestion, whereas other traits were more important for seed survival and subsequent germination (e.g. seed hardness, mucilaginous coat). Compared to controls, germination of retrieved seeds in carp was lower in 10 and higher in two plant species, whereas for tilapia, it was lower in seven and higher in three species. Overlap between these plant species was low, indicating clear difference between the fish studied in their potential for seed dispersal. Carp increased in size during the experiment and concomitant decreases in seed survival and retrieval were found, suggesting that body size and the correlated bite force is an important fish trait in ichthyochory. Overall, seed hardness, size and shape appear crucial for the survival of seeds passing through the guts of carp and tilapia. Beyond this general pattern, a greater complexity of trait-performance relationships appeared: different seed traits are involved during each of the stages of ichthyochory. Moreover, the importance of seed traits differed between carp and tilapia, with some traits having interactive and contrasting effects in both fish species. Aquatic plants with floating seeds adapted to hydrochorous dispersal were less likely to be dispersed by tilapia than plants with non-floating seeds, suggesting a dispersal trade-off between ichthyochory and hydrochory. Thus, depending on their seed characteristics, fish may offer an additional dispersal route to aquatic and riparian plants.
Carp Il10 has anti-inflammatory activities on phagocytes, promotes proliferation of memory T-cells and regulates B-cell differentiation and antibody secretion
Piazzon de Haro, M.C. ; Savelkoul, H.F.J. ; Pietretti, D. ; Wiegertjes, G. ; Forlenza, M. - \ 2015
The Journal of Immunology 194 (2015)1. - ISSN 0022-1767 - p. 187 - 199.
carassius-auratus l. - inhibits cytokine production - trout oncorhynchus-mykiss - zebrafish danio-rerio - necrosis-factor-alpha - mhc class-i - cyprinus-carpio - common carp - expression analysis - interleukin-10 receptor
In the current study, we investigated the effects of carp Il10 on phagocytes and lymphocytes. Carp Il10 shares several prototypical inhibitory activities on phagocytes with mammalian IL-10, including deactivation of neutrophils and macrophages, as shown by inhibition of oxygen and nitrogen radical production, as well as reduced expression of proinflammatory genes and mhc genes involved in Ag presentation. Similar to mammalian IL-10, carp Il10 acts through a signaling pathway involving phosphorylation of Stat3, ultimately leading to the early upregulation of socs3 expression. To our knowledge, this is the first study of the effects of Il10 on lymphocytes in fish. Although Il10 did not affect survival and proliferation of T cells from naive animals, it greatly promoted survival and proliferation of T cells in cultures from immunized animals, but only when used in combination with the immunizing Ag. Preliminary gene expression analysis suggests that, under these circumstances, carp Il10 stimulates a subset of CD8+ memory T cells while downregulating CD4+ memory Th1 and Th2 responses. In addition to the regulatory effect on T cells, carp Il10 stimulates proliferation, differentiation, and Ab secretion by IgM+ B cells. Overall, carp Il10 shares several prototypical activities with mammalian IL-10, including downregulation of the inflammatory response of phagocytes, stimulation of proliferation of subsets of memory T lymphocytes, and proliferation, differentiation, and Ab secretion by IgM+ B lymphocytes. To our knowledge, this is the first comprehensive analysis of biological activities of fish Il10 on both phagocytes and lymphocytes showing functional conservation of several properties of Il10.
Recovery from transportation by road of farmed European eel (Anguilla anguilla)
Boerrigter, J.G.J. ; Manuel, R. ; Bos, R. van den; Roques, J.A.C. ; Spanings, T. ; Flik, G. ; Vis, J.W. van de - \ 2015
Aquaculture Research 46 (2015)5. - ISSN 1355-557X - p. 1248 - 1260.
cyprinus-carpio l. - stress-response - common carp - oncorhynchus-kisutch - animal-welfare - coho salmon - cortisol - fish - gluconeogenesis - metabolism
The objective of this study was to assess the effects of transportation of marketable eel (0.15 kg) in the Netherlands with respect to welfare. Eels (Anguilla anguilla) were obtained from a commercial farm and acclimatized for 7 weeks at the laboratory. Fish were transported according to regular commercial procedures. The animals were placed in water-filled transport tanks on the trailer. Fish density increased from 72 kg m-3 (husbandry) to 206 kg m-3 (fasting) and was further increased to 270–290 kg m-3 during transport. Fish transport lasted 3 h after which the eels were returned to laboratory recirculation systems to measure parameters indicative of stress load, i.e. mortality, plasma cortisol, lactate and non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) as well as gill morphology. Samples were taken at 0, 6, 24, 48 and 72 h after transport in transported fish and non-transported counterparts (controls). Transportation affected water quality within known tolerable limits. No mortality during or after transport was observed. After 6 h, plasma cortisol levels had returned to baseline. However, energy metabolism had increased suggesting that transportation of eels resulted in an increased energy demand that lasted for at least 72 h in the fasted animals. Thus, it is conceivable that exposure to adverse conditions, prior to stunning/killing, in a slaughterhouse may result in allostatic overload in eel.
Identification and functional characterization of nonmammalian Toll-like receptor 20
Pietretti, D. ; Scheer, M.H. ; Fink, I.R. ; Taverne, N. ; Savelkoul, H.F.J. ; Spaink, H.P. ; Forlenza, M. ; Wiegertjes, G. - \ 2014
Immunogenetics 66 (2014)2. - ISSN 0093-7711 - p. 123 - 141.
carp cyprinus-carpio - leucine-rich repeats - common carp - ictalurus-punctatus - monoclonal-antibodies - pathogen recognition - accessory molecules - expression analysis - sequence-analysis - channel catfish
Like other vertebrate Toll-like receptors (TLRs), the TLRs of teleost fish can be subdivided into six major families, each of which recognize a general class of molecular patterns. However, there also are a number of Tlrs with unknown function, the presence of which seems unique to the bony fish, among which is Tlr20. We identified full-length complementary DNA (cDNA) sequences for tlr20 of zebrafish and common carp, two closely related fish species. Zebrafish have six copies of tlr20, whereas carp express only a single copy. Both zebrafish Tlr20 (at least Tlr20a–d) and carp Tlr20 have 26 leucine-rich repeats (LRRs). Three-dimensional modeling indicates a best fit to the crystal structure of TLR8. Phylogenetic analyses place Tlr20 in the TLR11 family closest to Tlr11 and Tlr12, which sense ligands from protozoan parasites in the mouse. Conservation of genes on zebrafish chromosome 9, which carries tlr20, with genes on mouse chromosome 14, which carries tlr11, indicates Tlr11 could be a possible ortholog of Tlr20. Confocal microscopy suggests a subcellular localization of Tlr20 at the endoplasmatic reticulum. Although in vitro reporter assays could not identify a ligand unique to Tlr20, in vivo infection experiments indicate a role for Tlr20 in the immune response of carp to protozoan parasites (Trypanoplasma borreli). Carp tlr20 is mainly expressed in peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL) with B lymphocytes, in particular, expressing relatively high levels of Tlr20. In vitro stimulation of PBL with T. borreli induces an upregulation of tlr20, supportive of a role for Tlr20 in the immune response to protozoan parasites.
Stress in African catfish (clarias gariepinus) following overland transportation
Manuel, R. ; Boerrigter, J. ; Roques, J. ; Heul, J.W. van der; Bos, R. van den; Flik, G. ; Vis, J.W. van de - \ 2014
Fish Physiology and Biochemistry 40 (2014)1. - ISSN 0920-1742 - p. 33 - 44.
oncorhynchus-mykiss walbaum - carp cyprinus-carpio - common carp - animal-welfare - rainbow-trout - responses - fish - l. - temperature - aggression
Of the many stressors in aquaculture, transportation of fish has remained poorly studied. The objective of this study was therefore to assess the effects of a (simulated) commercial transportation on stress physiology of market-size African catfish (Clarias gariepinus). Catfish weighing approximately 1.25 kg were returned to the farm after 3 h of truck-transportation, and stress-related parameters were measured for up to 72 h following return. Recovery from transportation was assessed through blood samples measuring plasma cortisol, glucose and non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) and gill histology. Also, the number of skin lesions was compared before and after transport. Pre-transport handling and sorting elevated plasma cortisol levels compared to unhandled animals (before fasting). Plasma cortisol levels were further increased due to transportation. In control fish, plasma cortisol levels returned to baseline values within 6 h, whereas it took 48 h to reach baseline values in transported catfish. Plasma glucose and NEFA levels remained stable and were similar across all groups. Transported catfish did not, on average, have more skin lesions than the handling group, but the number of skin lesions had increased compared to unhandled animals. The macroscopic condition of the gills was similar in control, transported and unhandled catfish; however, light microscopy and immunohistochemistry revealed atypical morphology and chloride cell migration normally associated with adverse water conditions. From our data, we conclude that transportation may be considered a strong stressor to catfish that may add to other stressors and thus inflict upon the welfare of the fish.
Detection of novel strains of cyprinid herpesvirus closely related to koi herpesvirus
Engelsma, M.Y. ; Way, K. ; Dodge, M.J. ; Voorbergen-Laarman, H.A. ; Panzarin, V.M. ; Abbadi, M. ; El-Matbouli, M. ; Skall, H.F. ; Kahns, S. ; Stone, D.M. - \ 2013
Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 107 (2013)2. - ISSN 0177-5103 - p. 113 - 120.
common carp - thymidine kinase - 1st detection - genome - aquaculture - cloning - disease - khv
Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3) or koi herpesvirus (KHV) is a devastating virus of carp. Using generic primers for the DNA polymerase and the major capsid protein genes of cyprinid herpesviruses, nucleotide sequences divergent from previously described CyHV-3 were obtained. At least 3 novel groups of putative CyHV-3-like viruses were identified, sharing 95 to 98% nucleotide identity with CyHV-3 strains. Carp carrying the CyHV-3 variants did not show clinical signs consistent with CyHV-3 infection and originated from locations with no actual CyHV-3 outbreaks. These strains might represent low- or non-pathogenic variants of CyHV-3.
Neuroendocrine-immune interaction: regulation of inflammation via G-protein coupled receptors
Verburg-van Kemenade, B.M.L. ; Aa, L.M. van der; Chadzinska, M.K. - \ 2013
General and Comparative Endocrinology 188 (2013). - ISSN 0016-6480 - p. 94 - 101.
cyprinus-carpio l. - toll-like receptors - common carp - chemokine receptor - cxc chemokine - expression analysis - innate immunity - teleost fish - gene family - in-vivo
Neuroendocrine- and immune systems interact in a bi-directional fashion to communicate the status of pathogen recognition to the brain and the immune response is influenced by physiological changes. The network of ligands and their receptors involved includes cytokines and chemokines, corticosteroids, classical pituitary hormones, catecholamines and neuropeptides (e.g. opioids), as well as neural pathways. We studied the role of opioid, adrenergic and melatonin G-protein coupled receptors (GPCR) on carp (Cyprinus carpio) leucocytes. Ligand interaction by morphine and adrenaline both in vitro and in vivo resulted in considerable decrease of chemotaxis and expression of CXC chemokines and chemokine CXC receptors. These effects may have substantial influence on the process of inflammation, the efficacy of which is crucial for an effective immune response. Both opioid receptors and chemokine receptors are G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs), and were classically assumed to function as monomers. This paradigm is now challenged by the emerging concept of homo- and hetero dimerization which may represent the native form of many receptors. G-protein coupling, downstream signaling and regulatory processes such as receptor internalization are largely influenced by the dimeric nature. The true functional importance of GPCR interactions remains enigmatic, but it certainly has implications with respect to the specificity of currently used medications. This review focuses on the important function of chemokine GPCRs during inflammation and the potential neuroendocrine modulation of this process through “neuroendocrine” GPCRs.
Anguillid herpesvirus 1 transcriptome
Beurden, S.J. van; Gatherer, D. ; Kerr, K. ; Galbraith, J. ; Herzyk, P. ; Peeters, B.P.H. ; Rottier, P.J.M. ; Engelsma, M.Y. ; Davidson, A.J. - \ 2012
Journal of Virology 86 (2012)18. - ISSN 0022-538X - p. 10150 - 10161.
channel catfish virus - human cytomegalovirus transcriptome - european eel - structural proteins - genome sequences - gene-expression - koi herpesvirus - common carp - identification - persistence
We used deep sequencing of poly(A) RNA to characterize the transcriptome of an economically important eel virus, anguillid herpesvirus 1 (AngHV1), at a stage during the lytic life cycle when infectious virus was being produced. In contrast to the transcription of mammalian herpesviruses, the overall level of antisense transcription from the 248,526-bp genome was low, amounting to only 1.5% of transcription in predicted protein-coding regions, and no abundant, nonoverlapping, noncoding RNAs were identified. RNA splicing was found to be more common than had been anticipated previously. Counting the 10,634-bp terminal direct repeat once, 100 splice junctions were identified, of which 58 were considered likely to be involved in the expression of functional proteins because they represent splicing between protein-coding exons or between 5' untranslated regions and protein-coding exons. Each of the 30 most highly represented of these 58 splice junctions was confirmed by RT-PCR. We also used deep sequencing to identify numerous putative 5' and 3' ends of AngHV1 transcripts, confirming some and adding others by rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). The findings prompted a revision of the AngHV1 genome map to include a total of 129 protein-coding genes, 5 of which are duplicated in the terminal direct repeat. Not counting duplicates, 11 genes contain integral, spliced protein-coding exons, and 9 contain 5' untranslated exons or, because of alternative splicing, 5' untranslated and 5' translated exons. The results of this study sharpen our understanding of AngHV1 genomics and provide the first detailed view of a fish herpesvirus transcriptome.
Effects of on-board storage and electrical stunning of wild cod (Gadus morhua) and haddock (Melanogrammus aeglefinus) on brain and heart activity
Lambooij, E. ; Digre, H. ; Reimert, H.G.M. ; Aursand, I.G. ; Grimso, L. ; Vis, J.W. van de - \ 2012
Fisheries Research 127-128 (2012)2012. - ISSN 0165-7836 - p. 1 - 8.
farmed atlantic cod - common carp - fish - pain - welfare - stress - l.
Cod and haddock captured with commercial trawling gear were taken immediately after landing on deck to on-board storage in dry bins for measuring brain and heart activity, and behaviour. Other groups were first stored in holding tanks and then electrically stunned with a prototype "dry stunner". For stunning 52 V-rms was applied on individual fish for 1 s. As a result, the cod and haddock received an electrical current of 0.34 +/- 0.09 and 0.36 +/- 0.12 A(rms), respectively. Electrical activity in the brain and heart was measured before and after electrical stunning. The fish remained conscious for at least 2 h after landing and during on-board storage as indicated by the electrical activity measured in brain and heart. Behavioural responsiveness to administered stimuli was absent in both species. After electrical stunning, both species showed a general epileptiform insult which was characterised by a tonic phase followed by a clonic phase and terminating with an exhaustion phase. Since the fish remained conscious after landing and storage, electrical stunning and subsequent killing with a throat cut, may provide an option for improving fish welfare on-board commercial fishing vessels. In particular, we recommend to stun and kill wild cod and haddock as soon as possible after landing on deck using a dry stunner applying 52 V-rms (coupled AC/DC current) for more than 3 s. (C) 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Physiological and behavioral responses to an electrical stimulus in Mozambique tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus)
Roques, J.A.C. ; Abbink, W. ; Chereau, G. ; Fourneyron, A. ; Spanings, T. ; Burggraaf, D. ; Bos, R. van de; Vis, J.W. van de; Flik, G. - \ 2012
Fish Physiology and Biochemistry 38 (2012)4. - ISSN 0920-1742 - p. 1019 - 1028.
pain perception - rainbow-trout - na+/k+-atpase - common carp - fish - welfare - stress - evolution - cells - water
Consumer awareness of the need to improve fish welfare is increasing. Electrostunning is a clean and potentially efficient procedure more and more used to provoke loss of consciousness prior to killing or slaughtering (reviewed by Van de Vis et al. in Aquac Res 34:211–220, 2003). Little is known how (powerful) electrical stimuli, which do not stun immediately, are perceived by fish. We investigated responses of hand-held Mozambique tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) to a standardized electric shock applied to the tailfin. The handling with the resulting unavoidable acute stress response was carefully controlled for. Fish responses were analyzed up to 24 h following the shock. Electric shock resulted in slightly higher levels in plasma cortisol, lactate, ionic levels, and osmolality, than handling alone. Plasma glucose had significantly increased 6 h after shock compared to handling, indicative of enhanced adrenergic activity. Mucus release from the gills, branchial Na+/K+ ATPase activity, and chloride cell migration and proliferation, parameters that will change with strong adrenergic activation, were not affected. Decreased swimming activity and delay in resumption of chafing behavior indicated a stronger and differential response toward the electric shock. Responses to handling lasted shorter compared to those to an electric shock. The differential and stronger responses to the electric shock suggest that fish perceived the shock potentially as painful.
Genotype by production environment interaction in the GIFT strain of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)
Khaw, H.L. ; Ponzonia, R.W. ; Hamzah, A. ; Abu-Bakara, K.R. ; Bijma, P. - \ 2012
Aquaculture 326-329 (2012). - ISSN 0044-8486 - p. 53 - 60.
trout oncorhynchus-mykiss - genetic-parameters - body-weight - rainbow-trout - common carp - breed improvement - sexual-dimorphism - european races - growth traits - selection
Three discrete generations of GIFT fish (Nile tilapia strain, Oreochromis niloticus; a total of 10,065 fish with pedigree and phenotypic information) were tested in pond and cage culture environments to determine genotype by production environment interaction between both environments in Malaysia. Live weight (selected trait), standard length, body depth and width were recorded. A bivariate animal model was used to estimate variance and covariance components, whereby the homologous body traits in pond and cage environments were treated as genetically distinct traits. The heritabilities estimated for these body traits ranged from 0.19 to 0.40 in the pond environment, and from 0.23 to 0.34 in the cage environment. Across all traits the maternal common environmental effects ranged from 0.14 to 0.26 and were greater for the pond than for the cage environment. The genetic correlations between the pond and cage environments were 0.73 ± 0.09 for live weight, 0.81 ± 0.09 for standard length, 0.78 ± 0.10 for body depth, and 0.85 ± 0.13 for body width. Coupled with the total selection responses for live weight after two generations of selection, being 35% for the pond environment and 45% for the cage environment, we concluded that genotype by environment interaction for GIFT strain between pond and cage environments was not important. Hence, it would not be necessary to have two separate selective breeding programs for the GIFT strain in Malaysia. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Differential expression of immune and stress genes in the skin of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua)
Caipang, C.M.A. ; Lazado, C.C. ; Brinchmann, M. ; Rombout, J.H.W.M. ; Kiron, V. - \ 2011
Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. D, Genomics and Proteomics 6 (2011)2. - ISSN 1744-117X - p. 158 - 162.
cyprinus-carpio l. - oncorhynchus-mykiss walbaum - rainbow-trout skin - salmo-salar l. - ichthyophthirius-multifiliis - common carp - lepeophtheirus-salmonis - inflammatory responses - antibacterial activity - infection
The present study describes the transcriptional profiles of selected immune and stress genes with putative important roles in the cutaneous immune defense of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua). In addition it shows differential expression of many genes at the dorsal and ventral sides of fish, in general having the highest expression at the latter side. Genes related to antibacterial activity, antiviral response, cytokine production, glucose transport, stress response and anti-apoptotic activity were monitored and bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein/lipopolysaccharide-binding protein (BPI-LBP), g-type lysozyme, transferrin, metallothionein, fortilin, interferon regulatory factor-1 (IRF-1), a CC chemokine isoform, interleukin-8 (IL-8), glucose transport (GLUT)-1, -3 and -4, Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase (Cu,Zn-SOD), catalase and hsp 70 showed significantly higher expression at the ventral side. Further g-type lysozyme, metallothionein, fortilin, IRF-1, interferon ¿, interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß), GLUT-3 and -4, catalase and anti apoptotic gene Bcl-X1 were highly expressed in adult cod skin. Therefore fish skin can be considered an immunological active site, especially at the ventral side of Atlantic cod
Neuroendocrine immune interaction in fish: differential regulation of phagocyte activity by neuroendocrine factors
Verburg-van Kemenade, B.M.L. ; Ribeiro, C.M.S. ; Chadzinska, M.K. - \ 2011
General and Comparative Endocrinology 172 (2011)1. - ISSN 0016-6480 - p. 31 - 38.
carp cyprinus-carpio - zebrafish danio-rerio - tilapia oreochromis-niloticus - beta-adrenergic-receptors - trout oncorhynchus-mykiss - delta-opioid receptor - bream sparus-aurata - common carp - functional-characterization - molecular characterization
Coping with physical, chemical and biological disturbances depends on an extensive repertoire of physiological, endocrinological and immunological responses. Fish provide intriguing models to study bi-directional interaction between the neuroendocrine and the immune systems. Macrophages and granulocytes are the main actors in the first and rapid innate immune response. They are resident in different organs and are moreover rapidly recruited and activated upon infection. They act in response to recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) via a repertoire of surface and intracellular receptors by inducing a plethora of defense reactions aiming to eradicate the pathogen. Subsequent production of inflammatory mediators stimulates other leukocytes required to develop an adaptive and specific antibody response. The type of phagocyte reaction will therefore depend on their differentiation state, specific receptor repertoire and their specific location. Apart from these pathogen induced responses, immune reactivity may be modulated by neuroendocrine factors. Over the last years we extensively studied changes in carp stress axis activity and the effect of its end-products on the immune system in an acute stress paradigm. We focus on specific neuroendocrine receptors on leukocytes and their effect on crucial phagocyte activities. We performed identification and functional analyses of different glucocorticoid, opioid and adrenergic receptors on carp phagocytes. Results show that their ligands of neuroendocrine origin may have substantial impact on specific phagocyte functions in a differential way. Inflammatory and microbicidal responses fight pathogens but may be detrimental to the host tissue. Neuroendocrine modulation may regulate inflammation to reach an optimum defense while preventing excessive host cell damage.
Investigation of Cyprinidherpesvirus-3 genetic diversity by a multi-locus variable number of tandem repeats analysis.
Avarre, J.C. ; Madeira, J.P. ; Santika, A. ; Zainunb, Z. ; Baud, M. ; Cabon, J. ; Caruso, D. ; Castric, J. ; Bigarré, L. ; Engelsma, M.Y. ; Maskur, M. - \ 2011
Journal of Virological Methods 173 (2011)2. - ISSN 0166-0934 - p. 320 - 327.
mediated isothermal amplification - koi-herpesvirus - common carp - r-package - virus - khv - sequences - pcr - dna - mortality
Cyprinid herpesvirus-3 (CyHV-3), or koi herpesvirus (KHV), is responsible for high mortalities in aquaculture of both common carp (Cyprinus carpio carpio) and koi carp (Cyprinus carpio koi) worldwide. The complete genomes of three CyHV-3 isolates showed more than 99% of DNA sequence identity, with the majority of differences located in short tandem repeats, also called VNTR (variable number of tandem repeats). By targeting these variations, eight loci were selected for genotyping CyHV-3 by multiple locus VNTR analysis (MLVA). CyHV-3 strains obtained after sequential in vivo infections exhibited identical MLVA profiles, whereas samples originating from a single isolate passaged 6 and 82 times in vitro exhibited mutations in two of the eight loci, suggesting a relatively slow genetic evolution rate of the VNTRs. The method was subsequently applied on 38 samples collected in Indonesia, France and the Netherlands. Globally, the isolates grouped in two main genetic clusters, each one divided in two subgroups including either CyHV-3-U/I or CyHV3-J. Interestingly, Indonesian strains were rather distant from CyHV-3-J isolate. The results of the present study indicate that these VNTR molecular markers are efficient in estimating the genetic diversity among CyHV-3 isolates and are therefore suitable for further molecular epidemiological studies.
Seed dispersal by fishes in tropical and temperate fresh waters: The growing evidence
Horn, M.H. ; Correa, S.B. ; Parolin, P. ; Pollux, B.J.A. ; Anderson, J.T. ; Lucas, C. ; Widmann, P. ; Tjiu, A. ; Galetti, M. ; Goulding, M. - \ 2011
Acta Oecologica-International Journal of Ecology 37 (2011)6. - ISSN 1146-609X - p. 561 - 577.
zambezi river floodplain - carp cyprinus-carpio - common carp - colossoma-macropomum - rain-forest - piaractus-mesopotamicus - submerged macrophytes - amazonian floodplains - potential dispersal - systematic revision
Fruit-eating by fishes represents an ancient (perhaps Paleozoic) interaction increasingly regarded as important for seed dispersal (ichthyochory) in tropical and temperate ecosystems. Most of the more than 275 known frugivorous species belong to the mainly Neotropical Characiformes (pacus, piranhas) and Siluriformes (catfishes), but cypriniforms (carps, minnows) are more important in the Holarctic and Indomalayan regions. Frugivores are among the most abundant fishes in Neotropical floodplains where they eat the fruits of a wide variety of trees and shrubs. By consuming fruits, fishes gain access to rich sources of carbohydrates, lipids and proteins and act as either seed predators or seed dispersers. With their often high mobility, large size, and great longevity, fruit-eating fishes can play important roles as seed dispersers and exert strong influences on local plant-recruitment dynamics and regional biodiversity. Recent feeding experiments focused on seed traits after gut passage support the idea that fishes are major seed dispersers in floodplain and riparian forests. Overfishing, damming, deforestation and logging potentially diminish ichthyochory and require immediate attention to ameliorate their effects. Much exciting work remains in terms of fish and plant adaptations to ichthyochory, dispersal regimes involving fishes in different ecosystems, and increased use of nondestructive methods such as stomach lavage, stable isotopes, genetic analyses and radio transmitters to determine fish diets and movements.
Nitrosative stress during infection-induced inflammation in fish: lessons from a host-parasite infection model
Wiegertjes, G.F. ; Forlenza, M. - \ 2010
Current Pharmaceutical Design 16 (2010)38. - ISSN 1381-6128 - p. 4194 - 4202.
carp cyprinus-carpio - tumor-necrosis-factor - nitric-oxide response - carassius-auratus l. - hemoflagellate trypanoplasma-borreli - alternatively activated macrophages - reduced glutathione pool - salmo-salar l. - common carp - head kidney
The inflammatory response should be considered a protective immune reaction of the host aimed at the removal of pathogens, sometimes irrespective of negative side-effects. In this review we discuss the differential contribution of macrophages and neutrophilic granulocytes to nitrosative stress in vivo and discuss how the timing and concentration of nitric oxide (NO.) are important factors determining the degree of nitrosative stress during parasite-induced inflammation. Infections of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) with the extracellular protozoan parasite Trypanoplasma borreli provide an excellent example of how adaptation and homeostasis are essential elements of the host-pathogen relationship. On the one hand, host-derived NO. interferes with clearance of IgM from the parasite surface and thus can be considered a protective immune reaction of the host. On the other hand, it is essential that the host limits the risks associated with the production of NO., preventing suppressive effects on lymphocyte proliferation. We review, for both host and parasite, the role of oxygen and nitrogen radicals in the induction of nitrosative stress and the importance of antioxidant compounds for protection against these radicals. Finally, mediators of inflammation such as cytokines, chemokines or alarmins that are involved in the inflammatory response will be discussed in the context of the carp-T. borreli infection model
Effects of carbohydrate source for maintaining a high C:N ratio and fish driven re-suspension on pond ecology and production in periphyton-based freshwater prawn culture systems
Asaduzzaman, M. ; Wahab, M.A. ; Verdegem, M.C.J. ; Adhikary, R.K. ; Rahman, S.M.S. ; Azim, M.E. ; Verreth, J.A.J. - \ 2010
Aquaculture 301 (2010)1-4. - ISSN 0044-8486 - p. 37 - 46.
tilapia oreochromis-niloticus - indian major carps - macrobrachium-rosenbergii - cyprinus-carpio - common carp - extensive aquaculture - artificial substrate - cirrhinus-mrigala - stocking density - fertilizer value
The present research investigated the effect of carbohydrate (CH) source for maintaining a high C:N ratio, and tilapia driven bioturbation on pond ecology, production and economical performances in C/N controlled periphyton-based (C/N-CP) freshwater prawn ponds. Two carbohydrate sources (high-cost tapioca starch and low-cost maize flour) were compared in 40 m2 ponds stocked with 80 freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) juveniles (individual weight 0.81 ± 0.03 g) and 20 finfish fingerlings (Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus and Indian major carp rohu, Labeo rohita) in three different combinations: 100% tilapia, 50% tilapia + 50% rohu, and 100% rohu (individual weight 27.7 ± 0.6 g). The CH sources for increasing C:N ratio from 10 (as in feed) to 20 had no significant effect (P>0.05) on water quality parameters, abundance of natural food (plankton, periphyton and benthos) and production of prawn and finfish. However, different fish combination had significant effects on pond ecology. The highest P04-P (P0.05) by the different stocking combinations of finfish. The net yield and survival of finfish were significantly higher in 100% tilapia ponds and lower in 100% rohu ponds resulting in 58% higher combined net yield (both prawn and finfish) in the former treatment during a 120-d culture period. This treatment gave the best economic return in terms of benefit-cost ratio while maize flour was used as CH source. In conclusion, maize flour can be used as an alternative cheap on-farm CH source for maintaining a high C:N ratio and tilapia driven re-suspension in C/N-CP system improves culture environment, natural food utilization, production and economic return, further enhancing economic sustainability of C/N-CP freshwater prawn farming system.
Functional analysis of carp interferon-y: Evolutionary conservation of classical phagocyte acativation
Arts, J.A.J. ; Tijhaar, E. ; Chadzinska, M.K. ; Savelkoul, H.F.J. ; Verburg-van Kemenade, B.M.L. - \ 2010
Fish and Shellfish Immunology 29 (2010)5. - ISSN 1050-4648 - p. 793 - 802.
nitric-oxide synthase - common carp - ifn-gamma - molecular characterization - expression analysis - messenger-rna - tnf-alpha - nf-kb - macrophages - l.
In teleost fish two IFN-¿ gene sequences were found for which two phylogenetic clusters can be distinguished. Our previous analysis of expression of these in carp led us to hypothesize that a classical IFN-¿ function is associated with the IFN-¿2 cluster. We investigated the evolutionary conservation of the IFN-¿ function, inducing classical activation of phagocytes, thus skewing towards a Th1-like profile of immune activation. Recombinant proteins for the carp IFN-¿ sequences of both clusters were made and we studied their effects on expression of proinflammatory mediators. Carp IFN-¿2, in contrast to carp IFN-¿1, was powerful in inducing a proinflammatory reaction in phagocytes: a classical synergistic response with lipopolysaccharide was observed for the induction of iNOS expression and NO release, for expression of CXCL9-11-like chemokines and the expression of proinflammatory cytokines IL-1ß, TNFa and the IL-12 subunits p35 and p40. In contrast, like in mammals, the CXCL8-like cytokines are LPS but not IFN-¿ sensitive. These results corroborate an evolutionary conserved nature of IFN-¿ function in lower vertebrates including classical activation of phagocytes