Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Groene initiatieven in de stad : handelingsperspectief provincies voor het stimuleren van maatschappelijke betrokkenheid bij groen in de stad
Dijkshoorn-Dekker, M.W.C. ; Soma, K. ; Blaeij, A.T. - \ 2017
Wageningen : Wageningen Economic Research (Wageningen Economic Research rapport 2017-012) - ISBN 9789463438032 - 47
participatie - groene gevels - groene daken - planten - gezondheid - luchtkwaliteit - communicatie - klimaat - regenwateropvang - participation - green walls - green roofs - plants - health - air quality - communication - climate - water harvesting
Returning information back to fishers: Graphical and numerical literacy of small-scale Indonesian tuna fishers
Neitzel, Sophie ; Zwieten, P.A.M. van; Hendriksen, A. ; Duggan, Deirdre ; Bush, S.R. - \ 2017
Fisheries Research 196 (2017). - ISSN 0165-7836 - p. 96 - 105.
numerical and graphical literacy - scientific information displays - communication - small-scale fisheries - decision-making - tuna
Developing world fishers are often assumed unable to comprehend fisheries management information because of their poor numerical and graphical literacy. This study questions this assumption by assessing the extent to which small-scale tuna fishers in Indonesia engaged in enumeration programs are able to understand, interpret and find value in the data collected from them when presented in graphical and numerically-aggregated forms. The analysis was based on structured interviews held with twenty tuna hand-line fishers on Buru Island, Maluku, Indonesia. We found that scientific displays such as graphs, tables and maps are understandable even for semi-literate fishers. Different forms of displays have more or less relevance and value for them in reflexive way. The sequence in which scientific displays are presented also matters, indicating that displays should be presented and explained in gradations from simple to more complex forms. Overall, however, the results show that face-to-face explanation remains necessary when communicating graphical and numerical information to fishers. Further attention should be given to forms of communication with fishers that allow for more reflexive decision-making and a shift to user-centric information systems. The ongoing development of mobile technologies aimed at incentivizing fishers to engage with and contribute to data and information collection, would benefit from selecting suitable information displays, presenting these in a guided sequence, and monitoring how fishers use this information to make decisions on the water.
Leveraging social networks for agricultural development in Africa
Ross, Martha - \ 2017
University. Promotor(en): Erwin Bulte, co-promotor(en): Maarten Voors. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463431910 - 174
social networks - agricultural development - economic development - agricultural production - networks - technology transfer - innovations - innovation adoption - diffusion - interpersonal relations - communication - observation - social learning - social interaction - sociale netwerken - landbouwontwikkeling - economische ontwikkeling - landbouwproductie - netwerken - technologieoverdracht - innovaties - innovatie adoptie - diffusie - intermenselijke relaties - communicatie - observatie - sociaal leren - sociale interactie

This thesis contributes to a growing literature that explores relationships between social networks and innovation diffusion within a developing country context. Given this context, the networks of interest within this thesis are the offline interpersonal relationships between community members. Diffusion channels for new innovation are therefore limited to word-of-mouth communication, observation, and personal experience.

Chapter 2 of this thesis analyses two policy tools in targeting these information gaps. The first is through social learning as part of a farmer extension program. The second combines social learning with experiential learning, reducing the cost to personal experimentation with subsidized improved input packages. Our results indicate that farmers who are exposed to both social learning and learning-by-doing more significantly impacts farmer productivity relative to those receiving no intervention and those exposed only to social learning. I interpret this result as an indication of learning-by-doing combined with social learning being a more effective strategy for facilitating adoption of technologies that have more heterogeneous returns to adoption.

Chapter 3 of this thesis tests the difference in diffusion patterns that result by varying the network contact- point. Specifically, network contact-points are selected as being either the most central or least central individuals within the network. I find evidence that centrality affects the speed of distribution but does not affect the width of diffusion nor which individuals are participating within the diffusion process. Furthermore, large attenuation is observed throughout the diffusion process, which suggests the importance of selecting a sufficiently large set of lead community members for the spread of new technology.

Chapter 4 combines a community-wide polling of network entry-points combined with detailed community network and socio-economic data. First we explore what attributes are prioritized by community members in nominating a resident farmer as an extension contact-point. Second, we use simulations to compare the diffusion spread of top-nominated individuals as network entry-points compared to entry-points that achieve maximal spread within diffusion simulations. We find that community members prioritize network connectedness, pro-social preferences, and socioeconomic indicators of gender, age, formal leadership, and education levels within their nomination decisions. Furthermore, receiving the top three most amount of nominations is found to be significantly correlated with selection as an optimal entry-point within the diffusion simulation. These results suggest that community-wide polling offers a less data-intensive opportunity to realize gains in diffusion warranted through network-based seeding.

Chapter 5 explore whether an individual’s observed social preferences is correlated with an individual’s centrality within the network structure. Our results indicate that individuals with high centrality are more trusting and more trustworthy than individuals with lower centrality. Moreover, individuals with low centrality are treated worse in these interactions—people trust them less initially, and return less money to them. Within a group context, little evidence is found of more central individuals displaying more cooperative behavior. Instead, for group cooperation, when a single monitor can observe contribution decisions, the presence of a direct link and more mutual network connections with a monitor correlates to more cooperative behavior by that individual. Our results suggest that network centrality and pro-social preferences are related but more localized network ties are more strongly correlated with pro-sociality than overall network connectedness.

Framing nature : searching for (implicit) religious elements in the communication about nature
Jansen, Peter - \ 2017
University. Promotor(en): Henk Jochemsen, co-promotor(en): Jozef Keulartz; J. van der Stoep. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463431323 - 200
nature - policy - netherlands - communication - religion - case studies - frames - perception - public authorities - landscape experience - identity - natuur - beleid - nederland - communicatie - religie - gevalsanalyse - geraamten - perceptie - overheid - landschapsbeleving - identiteit

This PhD thesis is about communication concerning nature in the Netherlands. The purpose of this exploratory study is to take both a theoretical and an empirical look at whether (implicit) religious elements play a role in this communication about nature in the Netherlands.

In this PhD thesis it is argued that the role of communication practitioners is to signal, articulate, and interpret normative elements in the discourse. In other words, to make (non-) congruent frames explicit and clarifying the associated world views in the discourse, including that of the government itself. The government has to be impartial as possible in its communications, but the communications about nature shows that there are questions to be asked about this neutrality. Although not explicit, but through the communications of NGOs, who operate as delegated executors of the Dutch nature policy in the context of this PhD thesis, certain images, i.e., frames regarding nature are communicated. However, the question is raised to what extent the government, based on its alleged neutrality, should condition the communication of NGOs. Here, tension can be observed. If nature conservation NGOs (explicitly) communicate a specific vision about nature, using ‘religious subtexts’, the government appears to support these ‘subtexts’. For nature conservation NGOs, it is appropriate to put forth a certain opinion to raise support for their actions among the public. However, in this PhD thesis it is argued that it is not the responsibility of the government to promote a specific religiously phrased view of nature and nature policy. Hence, this PhD thesis reveals a necessity for reflection on the relationship between government and NGOs regarding their communication, i.e., awareness of distinction and a need for mutual adjustment in the case of close cooperation.

The results of this PhD thesis are placed in a broader cultural context with respect to nature development. A paradox is highlighted: creating nature ‘according to our view of nature’ and, simultaneously, wanting to experience wilderness-nature, preferably without too much human influence. This paradox appears to form a cultural basis for many new nature development projects. In other words, nature development is no longer just driven by ecological interests. In today’s ‘wilderness desire’, a certain form of anthropocentric thinking also manifests, because it focuses on the human experience of nature. In addition, because (new) nature projects can be places to have meaningful experiences, in this PhD thesis it is concluded that (new) nature projects, such as Tiengemeten, not only have ecological value, but societal value as well. It is also argued that in a secular society, we should not lose sight of the mediating role of creating and maintaining nature parks. Designing or maintaining natural areas in a certain way can create conditions for certain meaningful experiences. With our designing vision and communication, we can reap ‘benefits’ from nature. With this conclusion, this PhD thesis shines a different light on the concept of nature development and, indirectly, on the Dutch nature policy.

Finally, this PhD thesis shows that religious elements play a role in the communication about nature. These are linked to meaningful experiences that people can have in nature. A religious depth dimension can be discovered in meaningful experiences. This religious depth dimension is the reason that there are ‘religious subtexts’ in the communication about nature. However, the word ‘subtext’ is crucial. The communication about nature is ‘religionised’ to some extent, but there is no mentioning of a personal God or other reference to a supernatural reality. This PhD thesis also shows that the religious depth dimension does not explicitly come to the fore in what visitors are saying. This means that this PhD thesis, in addition to questioning the appropriateness of ‘religious subtexts’ in the communication about nature, also doubts whether those ‘subtexts’ are convincing from visitors’ perspective.

Wistful wilderness : communication about ‘new’ nature in the Netherlands
Jansen, Peter ; Stoep, Jan van der; Keulartz, Jozef ; Jochemsen, Henk - \ 2017
Journal of Environmental Policy and Planning 19 (2017)2. - ISSN 1523-908X - p. 197 - 213.
communication - Nature development - nature policy - qualitative research - Tiengemeten
Based on in-depth interviews, this article presents findings of a study centred on public communication regarding Tiengemeten, a Dutch island previously occupied by farmers. An answer is sought to the question of how visitors to Tiengemeten evaluate, according to their own experiences, the discourse of people involved in Tiengemeten from a policy and communication perspective. This study showed that visitors’ experiences do not always match the emotions appealed to in public communication materials. It is also suggested that people involved from a policy and communication perspective should refrain from using ‘heavily value-laden’ phraseology. For reasons of trust, this article suggests aligning public communication with genuine experiences of visitors. This is also necessary for avoiding scepticism of visitors as policy makers and communication professionals run a risk that public communication regarding nature becomes counterproductive.
Shaping tomorrow’s urban environment today : Environmental Policy Integration in urban planning: the challenges of a communicative approach
Grift-Simeonova, V.S. van der - \ 2016
University. Promotor(en): Arnold van der Valk. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462578364 - 215 p.
urban planning - environmental policy - urban areas - ecological network - communication - participation - nature conservation - bulgaria - netherlands - stedelijke planning - milieubeleid - stedelijke gebieden - ecologische hoofdstructuur - communicatie - participatie - natuurbescherming - bulgarije - nederland

The debate on sustainable development emphasizes the importance of integrating environmental policy into other policy sectors. It is increasingly recognized that such integration is needed at the national, regional and local levels of governance. Hence the Environmental Policy Integration (EPI) principle has been proposed, which is defined as “the incorporation of the environmental objectives into all stages of policy making in non-environmental policy sectors, with the recognition of this goal as the guiding principle for the planning and execution of policy”. Currently EPI is agreed upon in a number of EU commitments and is receiving the attention of urban planning scholars. The achievability of EPI, however, has not yet been well studied, particularly in the urban planning context, while its implementation often seems to be hindered by organizational fragmentation.

This thesis assesses the potential role of EPI as an operational principle for achieving sustainable urban development in Europe. It addresses the scientific premises of EPI and the current knowledge gaps in applying it in the urban planning domain. The research combines theoretical and empirical dimensions. The theoretical dimension includes evidence of the current knowledge gap regarding the integration of environmental aspects into urban planning and the emergence of EPI as a promising perspective in urban sustainability research and planning practice. This includes reflections on EPI’s definitions, interpretations and its different approaches. The empirical dimension of the thesis explores evidence regarding the EPI process in actual planning practices, with an assessment of the relevance of different EPI approaches. Based on the exploration of case studies within different planning contexts, the empirical research provides insights into the key challenges and barriers to achieving EPI in urban planning and identifies key success factors for local governments addressing specific environmental issues in urban land-use plans. The key objective of the thesis is, therefore, to explore the responses of planning systems to the current EPI challenges, with the twin goals of gaining insight into the role of EPI in integrating environmental concerns in urban land-use planning processes and of identifying the most promising approaches for achieving EPI. The thesis provides an answer about the potential benefits of, among other approaches, a communicative approach to achieve EPI in urban planning practice.

Silence in Interdisciplinary Research Collaboration : Not Everything Said is Relevant, Not Everything Relevant is Said
Verouden, Nick W. ; Sanden, Maarten C.A. van der; Aarts, Noelle - \ 2016
Science as Culture 25 (2016)2. - ISSN 0950-5431 - p. 264 - 288.
collaboration - communication - positioning - silence - situational analysis - university

Solving publicly important issues asks for the development of socio-technical approaches, which demands collaboration between researchers with different perspectives, values, and interests. In these complex interdisciplinary collaborations, the course of communication is of utmost importance, including the moments when people, consciously or not, keep silent. In 2012, an interdisciplinary group of water management engineers and scientists collaborated to explore how the university's separate water management research fields could fit better in today's socio-technical trends. Studying the interactional process revealed that during the collaboration many issues were not said by various parties at various times. Results show that, in particular, engineers and scientists stayed silent to secure group performance, to keep disagreements from surfacing, and manage conflicts of interest in the bargaining process. Although silence served various interactional functions, it also shaped the course of interaction in ways that were not intended, resulting in the development of a latent conflict. It is concluded that the concept of silence adds a relevant dimension to our understanding of interaction among engineers and scientists participating in interdisciplinary collaboration that is currently absent in existing literature on scientific collaboration.

The art of dialogue
Aarts, M.N.C. - \ 2015
Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462577077 - 24 p.
communication - social change - communicatie - sociale verandering
Duurzaamheid, communicatie en veiligheid : verslag van de landelijke bijeenkomst 'Kenniskringen Visserij en duurzaamheid'
Zaalmink, W. ; Smith, S.R. ; Steenbergen, J. ; Trapman, B.K. ; Valk, O.M.C. van der - \ 2015
LEI Wageningen UR (Rapport / LEI Wageningen UR 2015-160) - 25 p.
visserij - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - biobrandstoffen - communicatie - familiebedrijven, landbouw - veiligheid - coöperaties - nederland - fisheries - sustainability - biofuels - communication - family farms - safety - cooperatives - netherlands
Op 6 juni 2015 vond op Fort IJmuiden een landelijke bijeenkomst plaats van het project Kenniskringen Visserij. Het doel van deze dag was te komen tot een uitwisseling van kennisvragen over verschillende visserij gerelateerde thema’s. Het programma bestond uit een plenaire bijeenkomst en uit een aantal zogenoemde cafébijeenkomsten. Bij elke cafébijeenkomst was een relevante expert aanwezig, die de bijeenkomst inleidde. Hierna konden de aanwezigen vragen aan de expert en aan elkaar stellen. Dit verslag is een samenvatting van de uitspraken die door de deelnemers en experts op deze dag gedaan zijn rond de thema’s: 1. Duurzaamheid en de visser als onderzoeker (expert: Bas Haring, volksfilosoof) 2. Communicatie (expert: Marissa Tanis, GoMaris) 3. Fuel of the future (expert: Dirk Kronemeijer) 4. Veiligheid aan boord (expert: Cor Blonk) 5. Coöperaties (expert: Thomas Højrup)
Handboek Varkenshouderij 2015
Vermeij, I. - \ 2015
V-focus 12 (2015)4. - ISSN 1574-1575 - p. 39 - 39.
varkenshouderij - handboeken - technische informatie - bedrijfsmanagement - dierenwelzijn - diergezondheid - huisvesting, dieren - kwaliteitszorg - communicatie - kennisoverdracht - pig farming - handbooks - technical information - business management - animal welfare - animal health - animal housing - quality management - communication - knowledge transfer
Onlangs verscheen de volledig herziene editie van het Handboek Varkenshouderij. De vorige editie werd in 2010 uitgebracht. Deskundigen van Wageningen UR Livestock Research en enkele externe deskundigen hebben de inhoud volledig geactualiseerd. Ook zijn nieuwe onderwerpen toegevoegd.
Noelle Aarts over The art of dialogue
Aarts, M.N.C. - \ 2015
Luc Dinnissen
communicatietheorie - communicatie - informatieverspreiding - gedragsveranderingen - organisaties - natuurbeheer - voedingsgedrag - communication theory - communication - diffusion of information - behavioural changes - organizations - nature management - feeding behaviour
Communication and change in the field of life sciences. The focus of Noelle Aarts is on inter-human processes and communication with an emphasis on the significance of conversations and stories in change processes.
Experimental Evidence for Phonemic Contrasts in a Nonhuman Vocal System
Engesser, S. ; Crane, J.M.S. ; Savage, J.L. ; Russell, A.F. ; Townsend, S.W. - \ 2015
PloS Biology 13 (2015)6. - ISSN 1545-7885
phonological awareness - language - evolution - song - vocalizations - syntax - roles - calls - bird - communication
The ability to generate new meaning by rearranging combinations of meaningless sounds is a fundamental component of language. Although animal vocalizations often comprise combinations of meaningless acoustic elements, evidence that rearranging such combinations generates functionally distinct meaning is lacking. Here, we provide evidence for this basic ability in calls of the chestnut-crowned babbler (Pomatostomus ruficeps), a highly cooperative bird of the Australian arid zone. Using acoustic analyses, natural observations, and a series of controlled playback experiments, we demonstrate that this species uses the same acoustic elements (A and B) in different arrangements (AB or BAB) to create two functionally distinct vocalizations. Specifically, the addition or omission of a contextually meaningless acoustic element at a single position generates a phoneme-like contrast that is sufficient to distinguish the meaning between the two calls. Our results indicate that the capacity to rearrange meaningless sounds in order to create new signals occurs outside of humans. We suggest that phonemic contrasts represent a rudimentary form of phoneme structure and a potential early step towards the generative phonemic system of human language.
Song trait similarity in great tits varies with social structure
Snijders, L. ; Eijk, J.A.J. van der; Rooij, E.P. van; Goede, P. de; Oers, K. van; Naguib, M. - \ 2015
PLoS One 10 (2015)2. - ISSN 1932-6203 - 14 p.
parus-major - dawn chorus - bird song - honest advertisement - extrapair paternity - territory defense - neighbors - communication - behavior - songbirds
For many animals, long-range signalling is essential to maintain contact with conspecifics. In territorial species, individuals often have to balance signalling towards unfamiliar potential competitors (to solely broadcast territory ownership) with signalling towards familiar immediate neighbours (to also maintain so-called “dear enemy” relations). Hence, to understand how signals evolve due to these multilevel relationships, it is important to understand how general signal traits vary in relation to the overall social environment. For many territorial songbirds dawn is a key signalling period, with several neighbouring individuals singing simultaneously without immediate conflict. In this study we tested whether sharing a territory boundary, rather than spatial proximity, is related to similarity in dawn song traits between territorial great tits (Parus major) in a wild personality-typed population. We collected a large dataset of automatized dawn song recordings from 72 unique male great tits, during the fertile period of their mate, and compared specific song traits between neighbours and non-neighbours. We show here that both song rate and start time of dawn song were repeatable song traits. Moreover, neighbours were significantly more dissimilar in song rate compared to non-neighbours, while there was no effect of proximity on song rate similarity. Additionally, similarity in start time of dawn song was unrelated to sharing a territory boundary, but birds were significantly more similar in start time of dawn song when they were breeding in close proximity of each other. We suggest that the dissimilarity in dawn song rate between neighbours is either the result of neighbouring great tits actively avoiding similar song rates to possibly prevent interference, or a passive consequence of territory settlement preferences relative to the types of neighbours. Neighbourhood structuring is therefore likely to be a relevant selection pressure shaping variation in territorial birdsong.
I was totally there! : understanding engagement in entertainment-ducation narratives
Leeuwen, L. van - \ 2015
University. Promotor(en): Cees Leeuwis; S.J.H.M. Putte, co-promotor(en): Reint-Jan Renes. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462573369 - 153
communicatie - communicatietheorie - volksgezondheid - alcoholisme - vertier - onderwijs - drinken - gedrag - psychologie - adolescenten - educatieve televisie - communication - communication theory - public health - alcoholism - entertainment - education - drinking - behaviour - psychology - adolescents - educational television

Summary

I was totally there!: Understanding engagement in entertainment-education narratives

By Lonneke van Leeuwen

Introduction
Narratives have the power to influence their recipients’ health behaviors. With the entertainment-education (E-E) strategy, health organizations turn this narrative power to good account by employing narratives in their health promoting campaigns. E-E programs, mostly in the form of televised narratives, have been shown to effectively encourage a variety of health-related behaviors. Because of these positive results, the E-E strategy is considered a promising communication strategy to encourage healthy behaviors. One quality of E-E narratives that has been shown to be crucial for narrative impact is the ability of E-E narratives to engage target recipients. Engaged recipients may experience four dimensions of narrative engagement (NE): narrative understanding, attentional focus, emotional engagement, and narrative presence. Although evidence is growing that NE plays a role in E-E narratives’ impact (hereafter: E-E impact), little is known about how NE leads to E-E impact and about how NE emerges in recipients of narratives.

Objective
The objective of this dissertation is to provide a better understanding of NE in E-E narratives, by investigating how NE is associated with E-E narratives’ impact, and by investigating the processes that contribute to experiencing NE.

Context
The studies described in this dissertation are conducted within the context of NE in E-E narratives aiming to discourage alcohol (binge) drinking among adolescents and young adults. In 2008, the televised E-E drama series Roes (High in English) was broadcast on national television. Roes consists of 11 case stories (25 minutes each) portraying negative experiences and outcomes of adolescent protagonist(s) drinking alcohol and/or using other drugs.

Research questions
Three research questions are addressed in this dissertation:
RQ1: Does Roes discourage alcohol (binge) drinking in E-E narrative recipients?
RQ2a: Are NE dimensions associated with E-E impact on alcohol (binge) drinking?
And, if so:
RQ2b: Do negative and positive thoughts about alcohol (binge) drinking mediate associations between NE dimensions and E-E impact on alcohol (binge) drinking?
RQ3: Which psychological processes experienced during narrative reception contribute to experiencing NE dimensions?

Main findings
This dissertation has shown that Roes discouraged alcohol (binge) drinking. Viewing multiple episodes of Roes positively predicted a decrease in alcoholic drinks consumed per occasion, an increase in the intention to decrease alcohol use, and an increase in perceived normative pressure. One year after exposure, the impact on the intention to decrease alcohol use was still present. One of the Roes episodes, Verliefd (In love in English), was further examined. After the participants had viewed this episode, their beliefs relating to the negative outcomes of alcohol binge drinking (BD) were more contra-BD as compared to their beliefs prior to viewing the episode. Attitudes towards BD and willingness to engage in BD also became more contra-BD.

Then, the roles of the NE dimensions attentional focus, narrative understanding, emotional engagement, and narrative presence in E-E impact were investigated. It was shown that the NE dimensions attentional focus, emotional engagement, and narrative presence were positively associated with E-E impact. Attentional focus was associated both with stronger beliefs about the severity of the negative outcomes of BD and with a lowered intention to engage in BD. Emotional engagement and narrative presence were associated with stronger beliefs that BD leads to negative outcomes (negative outcome beliefs), and with stronger beliefs about being vulnerable to these negative outcomes (vulnerability beliefs). Surprisingly, the NE dimension narrative understanding was associated with increased willingness to engage in BD.

No evidence was found that negative thoughts about BD mediated associations between NE dimensions and E-E impact. Relations between NE dimensions, positive thoughts about BD, and E-E impact could not be investigated: only one participant reported a positive thought about BD in response to Verliefd. Based on these findings we conclude that attentional focus, emotional engagement, and narrative presence are important for E-E impact, and that thoughts about BD do not play a role therein.

Because NE dimensions were found to be associated with E-E impact, it was investigated which psychological processes contribute to NE dimensions. Negative thoughts about the perceptual persuasiveness of Verliefd negatively associated with emotional engagement and narrative presence. Furthermore, it was shown that enjoyment of Verliefd was a strong contributor to NE, mainly through contributing to attentional focus. Another strong contributor to NE was narrative realism, mainly through contributing to narrative understanding. Finally, personal relevance, character involvement, and perceived severity contributed mainly through emotional engagement.

This dissertation shows that E-E narratives can be an effective health communication strategy to discourage alcohol (binge) drinking in young people. Furthermore, this dissertation provides health communication researchers and media psychologists with insights into the role of NE in E-E impact, and offers E-E developers practical recommendations about how to create engaging and impactful E-E narratives.

The perceived impact of the National Health Service on personalised nutrition service delivery among the UK public
Fallaize, R. ; Macready, A.L. ; Butler, L.T. ; Ellis, J.A. ; Berezowska, A. ; Fischer, A.R.H. ; Walsh, M.C. ; Gallagher, C. ; Stewart-Knox, B.J. ; Kuznesof, S. ; Frewer, L.J. ; Gibney, M.J. ; Lovegrove, J.A. - \ 2015
British Journal of Nutrition 113 (2015)8. - ISSN 0007-1145 - p. 1271 - 1279.
nutrigenomics - communication - disease - information - consumer - medicine - intervention - acceptance - knowledge - attitudes
Personalised nutrition (PN) has the potential to reduce disease risk and optimise health and performance. Although previous research has shown good acceptance of the concept of PN in the UK, preferences regarding the delivery of a PN service (e.g. online v. face-to-face) are not fully understood. It is anticipated that the presence of a free at point of delivery healthcare system, the National Health Service (NHS), in the UK may have an impact on end-user preferences for deliverances. To determine this, supplementary analysis of qualitative data obtained from focus group discussions on PN service delivery, collected as part of the Food4Me project in the UK and Ireland, was undertaken. Irish data provided comparative analysis of a healthcare system that is not provided free of charge at the point of delivery to the entire population. Analyses were conducted using the ‘framework approach’ described by Rabiee (Focus-group interview and data analysis. Proc Nutr Soc 63, 655-660). There was a preference for services to be led by the government and delivered face-to-face, which was perceived to increase trust and transparency, and add value. Both countries associated paying for nutritional advice with increased commitment and motivation to follow guidelines. Contrary to Ireland, however, and despite the perceived benefit of paying, UK discussants still expected PN services to be delivered free of charge by the NHS. Consideration of this unique challenge of free healthcare that is embedded in the NHS culture will be crucial when introducing PN to the UK.
Taking profit from the growing use of mobile phone in Benin: A Contingent Valuation approach for market and quality information access
Arinloye, D.D.A.A. ; Linnemann, A.R. ; Hagelaar, J.L.F. ; Coulibaly, O. ; Omta, S.W.F. - \ 2015
Information Technology for Development 21 (2015)1. - ISSN 0268-1102 - p. 44 - 66.
asymmetric information - econometric-analysis - developing-countries - technology adoption - farmers - determinants - africa - firms - communication - smallholders
An information systems-adapted Contingent Valuation survey was used to assess smallholder farmers' perceptions and the premium they are willing to pay (WTP) to get mobile phone-based information on market prices and product quality to overcome the recurrent information asymmetry issues in the chain. The investigations, consisting of an exploratory case study in Ghana followed by a survey with 285 observations in Benin, demonstrated that market information asymmetry indeed leads to lower prices for farmers. In Ghana, market price alerts through mobile phone messaging allowed decreasing transaction costs for farmers from US $2 to US $150 per transaction. In Benin, most farmers who are using mobile phones are WTP a premium of up to US$2.5 per month to get market price and quality information. Econometric models showed that decisive factors for the premium to be paid include farm location, market channel, profit margin, contact with agricultural extension services and technical support from buyers. The study suggests a multi-stakeholders' platform for an efficient and sustainable mobile phone-based market information system in agri-food chains.
Volatile-mediated interactions between phylogenetically different soil bacteria
Garbeva, P. ; Hordijk, C. ; Gerards, S. ; Boer, W. de - \ 2014
Frontiers in Microbiology 5 (2014). - ISSN 1664-302X
organic-compounds - pseudomonas-fluorescens - rhizosphere - microorganisms - communication - metabolites - regulators - collimonas - signals - systems
There is increasing evidence that organic volatiles play an important role in interactions between micro-organisms in the porous soil matrix. Here we report that volatile compounds emitted by different soil bacteria can affect the growth, antibiotic production and gene expression of the soil bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens Pf0-1. We applied a novel cultivation approach that mimics the natural nutritional heterogeneity in soil in which P fluorescens grown on nutrient-limited agar was exposed to volatiles produced by 4 phylogenetically different bacterial isolates (Collimonas pratensis, Serratia plymuthica, Paenibacillus sp., and Pedobacter sp.) growing in sand containing artificial root exudates. Contrary to our expectation, the produced volatiles stimulated rather than inhibited the growth of P fluorescens. A genome-wide, microarray-based analysis revealed that volatiles of all four bacterial strains affected gene expression of P fluorescens, but with a different pattern of gene expression for each strain. Based on the annotation of the differently expressed genes, bacterial volatiles appear to induce a chemotactic motility response in P fluorescens, but also an oxidative stress response. A more detailed study revealed that volatiles produced by C. pratensis triggered, antimicrobial secondary metabolite production in P fluorescens. Our results indicate that bacterial volatiles can have an important role in communication, trophic - and antagonistic interactions within the soil bacterial community.
A systematic review of local vulnerability to climate change: In search of transparency, coherence and comparability
Delaney, A. ; Chesterman, S. ; Crane, T.A. ; Tamas, P.A. ; Ericksen, P.J. - \ 2014
Copenhagen, Denmark : CGIAR (CCAFS working paper 97)
klimaatverandering - literatuuroverzichten - communicatie - transparantie - opinies - public relations - openbare mening - attitudes - sociaal onderzoek - climatic change - literature reviews - communication - transparency - opinions - public opinion - social research
Because vulnerability is a conceptual construct rather than a directly observable phenomenon, most vulnerability assessments measure a set of “vulnerability indicators”. In order to identify the core approaches and range of variation in the field, we conducted a systematic literature review on local vulnerability to climate change. The systematic review entailed an identification of frameworks, concepts, and operationalizations and a transparency assessment of their reporting. Three fully defined relevant frameworks of vulnerability were identified: IPCC, Patterns of Smallholder Vulnerability and Vulnerability as Expected Poverty. Comparative analysis found substantial heterogeneity in frameworks, concepts and operationalizations, making it impossible to identify patterns of climate vulnerability indicators and determinants that have robust empirical support. If research measuring farmers’ vulnerability to climate change is to have any comparability, it needs greater conceptual coherence and empirical validity. We recommend a systematic program of testing and validating vulnerability measures before institutionalizing them in programmatic contexts
Strategische communicatie. Principes en toepassingen
Aarts, N. ; Steuten, C.D.M. ; Woerkum, C.M.J. van - \ 2014
Assen : Van Gorcum (3e geheel herziene druk ) - ISBN 9789023253013 - 320
communicatietheorie - communicatie - informatieverspreiding - communicatievaardigheden - verandering - innovaties - gedragsveranderingen - beleid - planning - conflict - probleemoplossing - besluitvorming - organisaties - kennis - bedrijfsvoering - communication theory - communication - diffusion of information - communication skills - change - innovations - behavioural changes - policy - problem solving - decision making - organizations - knowledge - management
De hele dag door worden we bestookt met informatie en suggesties, bedoeld om ons ergens toe aan te zetten of juist van af te brengen, in het belang van onszelf of van de wereld om ons heen. Ook bij het bedenken van oplossingen voor de meest uiteenlopende problemen roepen we al gauw om meer of betere communicatie. Kortom, strategische communicatie is aan de orde van de dag. Dit boek gaat over principes en toepassingen van strategische communicatie. Het betreft een derde, sterk gewijzigde druk waaraan nieuwe, actuele thema's zijn toegevoegd zoals onbewuste beïnvloeding, social media en de rol van communicatie bij innovatieprocessen. Het uitgangspunt van het boek is dat een goed begrip van de wijze waarop mensen met elkaar communiceren en een gedegen inzicht in de mechanismen die daarbij een rol spelen, noodzakelijk zijn voor een effectieve toepassing van communicatie, ook in professionele settings. De schrijvers richten zich op studenten die communicatie studeren aan de universiteit of het HBO. Tegelijkertijd is het boek van nut voor communicatiespecialisten bij overheden, bedrijven en maatschappelijke organisaties, die verantwoordelijk zijn voor een optimale positionering in een voortdurende veranderende omgeving. Ook voor beleidsmakers, artsen en andere professionals, voor wie strategische communicatie een belangrijk aspect vormt van het dagelijkse werk is dit boek van grote waarde. Een belangrijk deel van hun functioneren hangt af van hun inzicht in de principes van communicatie en de vaardigheid daarmee om te gaan.
Dialoog bevorderen tussen samenleving en wetenschap
Molder, H.F.M. te - \ 2014
Wageningen : Wageningen UR
communicatie - wetenschap - kennis - overtuigingen - communication - science - knowledge - beliefs
Mensen kunnen ergens van overtuigd zijn zonder dat daar wetenschappelijk bewijs voor is. Hoogleraar Hedwig te Molder zegt daarover tegen wetenschappers: Luister naar de ideeën van deze mensen, neem ze serieus en ga de dialoog aan.
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