Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Contracting communities: Conceptualizing Community Benefits Agreements to improve citizen involvement in urban development projects
Janssen-Jansen, Leonie ; Veen, Menno van der - \ 2017
Environment and Planning A 49 (2017)1. - ISSN 0308-518X - p. 205 - 225.
citizen involvement - Community Benefits Agreements - contracts - development agreements - urban planning
Contractual agreements are becoming increasingly important for city governments seeking to manage urban development. Contractual governance involves direct relations between the local state and different public and private actors and citizens. Although abundant literature exists on public–private partnerships related to urban development projects, agreements made between
citizens, interest organizations and market parties, such as Community Benefits Agreements remain under-explored and under-theorized. While it may seem that the state is absent from contemporary forms of contractual governance, such agreements remain highly intertwined with government policies. The central aim of this paper is to better conceptualize Community Benefits
Agreement practices in order to build understanding of how contractual governance caters for direct end-user involvement in urban development, and to yield insights into its potential as to render development processes more inclusive. Based on academic literature in planning and law, expert interviews and several case studies in New York City, this paper conceptualizes enduser
involvement in urban development projects and innovates within urban planning and governance theory through the use of two new concepts—project collectivity and the image of a fourth chair.
Wie stuurt de herder? : concurrentie of coöperatie? : natuur- en cultuurproductie met schaapskuddes
Schrijver, R.A.M. - \ 2016
Wageningen : Alterra, Wageningen-UR (Alterra-rapport 2708) - 47 p.
schapen - natuurbescherming - heidegebieden - financiën - contracten - begrazing - erfgoed - nederland - sheep - nature conservation - heathlands - finance - contracts - grazing - heritage areas - netherlands
Een verkennend onderzoek naar de positie en betekenis van traditioneel werkende herders in de Nederlandse samenleving. Aan de hand van interviews, een workshop en modelberekeningen is een beeld gevormd van de financiële positie van de herders in de sector, van de knelpunten en van de betekenis die de herders hebben voor natuur en cultuurhistorie. De analyse wijst uit dat de traditioneel werkende herders een maatschappelijke meerwaarde leveren die wordt ondergewaardeerd. Er worden diverse oplossingsrichtingen aangedragen en aanbevelingen gedaan voor een structurele herziening van het huidige systeem met korte termijn contracten.
Protecting Timber Supply on Public Land in Response to Catastrophic Natural Disturbance: A Principal-Agent Problem
Bogle, T. ; Kooten, G.C. van - \ 2015
Forest Science 61 (2015)1. - ISSN 0015-749X - p. 83 - 92.
british-columbia - silvicultural investment - policy responses - forest tenure - beetle attack - economics - salvage - management - contracts - behavior
Catastrophic natural disturbance creates a dilemma for the public forestland owner desiring to retain growing stock and salvaging some, if not all, of the damaged timber. If logging on public forestlands is conducted by private forest companies under various tenure arrangements, attainment of the government's objectives depends crucially on how companies respond to various incentives. This is a classic principal-agent (PA) problem. We investigate the PA problem in the case of catastrophic natural disturbance caused by the mountain pine beetle in British Columbia; we do so using a bilevel programming approach. The principal (government) uses harvest levels, contractual conditions, and stumpage fees to incentivize agents (forest companies) to harvest beetle-impacted pine while leaving sufficient living pine and nonpine species to ensure an adequate future timber supply. Results exploring volume-based tenures indicate that, as a response to catastrophic disturbance, the government should be circumspect in applying the three strategies unilaterally. Simply raising harvest levels to facilitate salvage is not adequate and will likely require a lowering of stumpage prices, which may lead to a reduction in government revenue. Our research also suggests that the government may wish to favor agents with established mills over those interested only in maximizing net returns from logging and selling logs on the open market.
Understandig trust : longitudinal studies on trust dynamics in governance interactions
Vries, J.R. de - \ 2014
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Noelle Aarts; Cees Leeuwis, co-promotor(en): Raoul Beunen; Anne Marike Lokhorst. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462571013 - 152
overtuigingen - governance - longitudinaal onderzoek - natuurbeleid - samenwerking - ruimtelijke ordening - overheid - groepen - contracten - organisatie - beliefs - longitudinal studies - nature conservation policy - cooperation - physical planning - public authorities - groups - contracts - organization
Trust is generally perceived as an important concept in governance processes where people cooperate, as it enables people to take risks and deal with uncertainties, and it facilitates cooperation. These characteristics are seen as important in new and alternative ways of implementing public policies. These governance approaches focus more and more on network governance and on organising more horizontal interactions. In these contexts, trust is seen as a means to control and manage relations. It is therefore surprising that empirical studies on trust are lacking. Consequently, little is known about how trust emerges and develops in governance processes. This thesis addresses this gap and focuses on the question: How does trust emerge and develop in governance interactions? In answering this question, I take a dynamic perspective on trust. Here, trust is seen as a positive expectation about an actor’s ways of doing. This perspective in particular takes into account the dynamics of governance interactions. In this thesis, I focus on the field of spatial planning, as one of the fields of governance. In planning processes, four aspects are important. First, planning processes consist of a series of interactions that are organised in a certain way and have specific characteristics. Second, in these interactions, various policy instruments are used to guide the process and work towards a collective objective. Third, these interactions take place between groups and their members. These groups have their own identity and related roles and rules that influence the planning process. Fourth, in these interactions, people express trust and distrust to support their ideas, collaboration, or preferred choice. In studying trust dynamics, I focus in the subsequent chapters on these four aspects and how they influence and are influenced by trust dynamics.
Investigating the performance of different estimation techniques for crop yield data analysis in crop insurance applications
Finger, R. - \ 2013
Agricultural Economics 44 (2013)2. - ISSN 0169-5150 - p. 217 - 230.
robust regression techniques - nonparametric-estimation - distributions - breakdown - risk - asymptotics - statistics - contracts - errors - tests
We investigate the performance of the ordinary least squares (OLS)-, M-, MM-, and the Theil–Sen (TS)-estimator for crop yield data analysis in crop insurance applications using Monte Carlo simulations. More specifically, the performance is assessed with respect to trend estimation, prediction of future yield levels, and the estimation of expected indemnity payments. In agreement with earlier findings, other estimators are found to be superior to OLS in simple regression problems if yield distributions are outlier contaminated and heteroscedastic. While this conclusion is also valid for subsequent applications such as yield prediction and the estimation of expected indemnity payments, the difference between the considered estimators becomes less distinct. For these applications, we find particularly the M-estimator to be a good compromise between high-breakdown (very robust) estimators and the very efficient OLS-estimator. Because no regression technique dominates all others in all applications and scenarios for error term distributions, our results underline that the choice of the estimation technique should be dependent on the purpose of the crop yield data analysis. However, alternative estimators such as M-, MM-, and TS-estimator can reduce (and bound) the risk of unreliable or inefficient crop yield data analysis in crop insurance applications.
Institutions in the Mexican coffee sector : changes and responses
Rodriguez Padron, B. - \ 2012
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Erwin Bulte; Ruerd Ruben, co-promotor(en): Kees Burger. - [S.l.] : s.n. - ISBN 9789461734181 - 201
instellingen - institutionele economie - mexico - koffie - landbouwsector - verandering - samenwerking - contracten - diversificatie - onzekerheid - markten - markthandelaars - institutions - institutional economics - coffee - agricultural sector - change - cooperation - contracts - diversification - uncertainty - markets - market traders

Keywords: Cooperation, contract arrangements, traders´ performance, market uncertainty, diversification, coffee, Mexico.

The main aim of this thesis is to investigate the institutional environment prevailing in the Mexican coffee sector and its effect on the producers, traders and households. Specific topics we examine are the contract arrangements and trade performance, the factors influencing the growers´ willingness to join a cooperative, the effects of cooperation on price variability, the influence of cooperation on the growers’ welfare, and coffee producers’ response to the falling coffee price through their engagement in diversification activities. To accomplish the main objectives we have used primary and secondary data. We applied ordinarily least squares, logistic, probit and multivariate probit regressions in the analysis. The main findings indicate that farmers were better off under the quota system than they are under the free market. Results also indicate that being a roaster and selling cherry coffee negatively affects traders’ use of contracts, whereas being vertically integrated has a positive effect on contracting. On the other hand, selling cherry coffee, participating in a competitive environment and having contracts positively influence intermediaries’ performance. Other results show that some individual, family and farm factors, as well as variability of the coffee price at the municipal level favour cooperative affiliation; whereas housing conditions, the proportion of farmers in the municipality and the level of producers selling to intermediaries at the municipal level negatively affect prospects for cooperative membership. We discovered overall positive effects of cooperative participation on household welfare through an increase in the price and total coffee income; results also indicate that households responded to the low coffee price periods with an increase in diversification.

Private food law : governing food chains through contracts law, self-regulation, private standards, audits and certification schemes
Meulen, B.M.J. van der - \ 2011
Wageningen : Wageningen Academic Publishers (European Institute for Food law series 1871-3483) - ISBN 9789086867301 - 435
voedsel - recht - privaatrecht - voedselketens - contracten - regulatie - kwaliteitsnormen - boekhoudcontrole - certificering - governance - voedingsmiddelenwetgeving - food - law - private law - food chains - contracts - regulation - quality standards - auditing - certification - food legislation
Since the turn of the Millennium, world-wide initiatives from the private sector have turned the regulatory environment for food businesses upside down. For the first time in legal literature this book analyses private law initiatives relating to the food chain, often referred to as private (voluntary) standards or schemes. Private standards are used to remedy flaws in legislation, in order to reach higher levels of consumer protection than the ones chosen by the EU legislature and to manage risks and liability beyond the traditional limits of food businesses. We see that litigation is no longer solely framed by legislative requirements, but ever more by private standards such as GlobalGAP, BRC, IFS, SQF and ISO. These private standards incorporate public law requirements thus embedding them in contractual relations and exporting them beyond the jurisdiction of public legislators. Other standards focus on corporate social responsibility or sustainability. This book also addresses how private religious standards such as Kosher and Halal play a role in defining specific markets of growing importance. It is noted that organic standards have found an interesting symbioses with public law. Another development on this topic is that food businesses are inspected more often by private auditors than by public inspectors. Effects in terms of receiving or being denied certification far outweigh public law sanctions. In short private law has changed an entire legal infrastructure for the food sector. It emerges as competing with the public law regulatory infrastructure.
De directeur van de frietfabriek
Goud, Jan-Kees - \ 2010
potatoes - business economics - markets - contracts - sales promotion - plant diseases - business management
CO2 en warmte uit afval (interview met o.a. Frank Kempkes)
Jagers op Akkerhuis, F. ; Kempkes, F.L.K. - \ 2010
Vakblad voor de Bloemisterij 65 (2010)1. - ISSN 0042-2223 - p. 36 - 37.
tuinbouwbedrijven - kassen - kooldioxide - energie - warmte - afval - contracten - reiniging - technieken - rookgassen - warmtekrachtkoppeling - biobased economy - market gardens - greenhouses - carbon dioxide - energy - heat - wastes - contracts - clearing - techniques - flue gases - cogeneration
'Waste to CO2' is een proces waarbij afval wordt omgezet in energie en zuiver CO2. Theodoor Knook introduceert het proces in de tuinbouw. Hij heeft daarvoor een contractvorm ontwikkeld waarbij telers voor tien jaar worden voorzien van energie en CO2. TNO en TU Delft leverden de kennis voor de gebruikte technieken.
Incentive mechanisms for liver lesion control in finishing pigs in the Netherlands
Wagenberg, C.P.A. van; Backus, G.B.C. ; Kuiper, W.E. ; Vorst, J.G.A.J. van der; Urlings, H.A.P. - \ 2010
Preventive Veterinary Medicine 93 (2010)1. - ISSN 0167-5877 - p. 19 - 24.
contracts - farmers
Liver lesion prevalence in slaughtered finishing pigs in the Netherlands remained relatively high from the mid-1990s until 2004, although sufficient measures existed to control the main cause, an infection with the roundworm Ascaris suum. In July 2004 a new incentive mechanism was installed to induce finishing pig producers to increase control of A. suum infections. This paper compares the effectiveness of two Dutch incentive mechanisms: a collective insurance – in place prior to July 2004 – and a reduction in producer payment for each delivered pig with a liver lesion – in place from July 2004. Liver inspection data of pigs slaughtered in 2003–2006 by a major Dutch slaughter company were analysed with an out-of-sample dynamic forecast test and non-parametric bootstrapping. Results showed that after introduction of the price reduction, mean liver lesion prevalence decreased from 9 to 5%. A reduced liver lesion prevalence ranging from 0 to 46 percentage points was observed on 67% of 1069 farms that delivered both during the insurance and the price reduction. The number of farms with a liver lesion prevalence of 5.0% or less increased from 52 to 68%. The price reduction for each pig with a liver lesion was a more effective incentive mechanism to induce finishing pig producers to control A. suum infections than the collective insurance
Workbook Institutional Economics and Economic Organisation Theory; an integrated approach
Slangen, L.H.G. ; Heringa, P.W. - \ 2009
Wageningen : Wageningen Academic Publishers - ISBN 9789086861200 - 176
instellingen - economische theorie - sociaal-economische organisatie - contracten - eigendomsrechten - eigendom - institutionele economie - economische organisatietheorie - institutions - economic theory - socioeconomic organization - contracts - property rights - ownership - institutional economics - economic organization theory
Econometric analyses of microfinance credit group formation, contractual risks and welfare impacts in Northern Ethiopia
Berhane Tesfay, G. - \ 2009
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Arie Oskam, co-promotor(en): Koos Gardebroek; Tassew Woldehanna. - [S.l. : S.n. - ISBN 9789085854258 - 146
krediet - landbouwhuishoudens - financiële instellingen - econometrie - risico - dynamische modellen - groepen - contracten - armoede - plattelandsbevolking - ethiopië - microfinanciering - panelgegevens - credit - agricultural households - financial institutions - econometrics - risk - dynamic models - groups - contracts - poverty - rural population - ethiopia - microfinance - panel data

Key words
Microfinance, joint liability, contractual risk, group formation, risk-matching, impact evaluation, Panel data econometrics, dynamic panel probit, trend models, fixed-effects, composite counterfactuals, propensity score matching, farm households, Ethiopia.

Lack of access to credit is a key obstacle for economic development in poor countries. The underlying problem is related to information asymmetry combined with the poor’s lack of collateral to pledge. New mechanisms in microfinance offer ways to deal with this problem without resorting to collateral requirements. The objective of this thesis is to examine the mechanisms of providing credit through microfinance and assess the long-run borrowing effects on household welfare in Ethiopia. The Ethiopian environment provides a suitable setting to examine these issues. To meet this objective, two unique data sets - a five-wave panel data on 400 and a cross-sectional data on 201 households - from northern Ethiopia are used.
Borrowing decision is first conceptualized using a dynamic stochastic theoretical framework. Two types of risks involved in joint liability lending are incorporated, i.e., risk of partner failure and risk of losing future access to credit. Empirical analysis using recent dynamic panel data probit techniques show that these contractual risks indeed impede participation in borrowing. The impediment is higher for the poorer, and for new than repeat participants. Second, group formation is analyzed within the framework of alternative microeconomic theories of joint liability where the commonly held hypothesis that groups formed are homogeneous in risk profiles is tested. Empirical results reject this hypothesis indicating that the formation of heterogeneous risk profiles is an inherent feature in group formation and repayment. In fact, there is evidence that borrowers take advantage of established informal credit and saving, and other social networks, which also suggests that group formation outcomes vary depending on underlying socioeconomic contexts.
Third, the impact of long-term borrowing on household welfare is assessed from the dimension of intensity and timing of participation in borrowing. Panel data covering relatively long period enabled to account for duration and timing concerns in program evaluation. Recent parametric and semi-parametric panel data techniques are innovatively employed to mitigate participation selection biases. Results from both approaches indicate that borrowing has increased household welfare significantly: the earlier and more frequent the participation the higher the impact partly due to lasting effects of credit. This also suggests that impact studies that are based on a single-shot observation of outcomes and that do not account for the timing and duration of participation may underestimate microfinance credit impacts.



Assessment report contract research Wageningen Animal Sciences Group
Folstar, P. ; Dekkers, J. ; Hartog, L.A. den; Neindre, P. le; Oldham, J. ; Peters, A. ; Thorns, C. ; Meulepas, W.J.A.M. - \ 2008
Wageningen : Wageningen UR - 79
landbouwkundig onderzoek - diergeneeskunde - zoölogie - dierhouderij - contracten - onderzoek - toegepast onderzoek - nederland - wetenschap - agricultural research - veterinary science - zoology - animal husbandry - contracts - research - applied research - netherlands - science
Collectieve versus individuele contracten voor natuurbeheer
Jongeneel, R.A. ; Polman, N.B.P. ; Slangen, L.H.G. ; Guldenmond, A. ; Hees, E. ; Well, E. van - \ 2008
In: Natuur en landschap in het landelijk gebied: kennis voor beleid / Brouwer, F.M., Dirkx, G.H.P., - p. 44 - 47.
landbouw - contracten - natuurbescherming - samenwerking - agrarisch natuurbeheer - agriculture - contracts - nature conservation - cooperation - agri-environment schemes
In dit onderzoek staat de vraag centraal of collectieve contracten in vergelijking met individuele contracten efficiënter zijn en/of een grotere ecologische effectiviteit hebben. Daarbij is bijzondere aandacht gegeven aan de rol die agrarische natuurverenigingen kunnen spelen
Contract Farming in Developing Countries: An overview
Bijman, J. - \ 2008
Wageningen : Wageningen University, Department of Business Administration (Working Paper / Wageningen University, Department of Business Administration ) - 28
contractlandbouw - landbouwkundig onderzoek - economische impact - plattelandsontwikkeling - contracten - arbeidscontracten - contracteconomie - contract farming - agricultural research - economic impact - rural development - contracts - labour contracts - contract economics
This paper presents a review of the literature on contract farming (CF), focusing on recent empirical research on the economic impact of CF. The paper starts with an explanation of the phenomenon of CF, providing definitions, typologies, models and objectives. Using a Transaction Costs Economics framework, the paper explains for which products and market CF seems most suitable. The empirical literature on CF is assessed by answering three questions: Why do smallholders engage in CF? Are smallholders included in or excluded from CF arrangements? What impact does CF have on smallholder income and rural development? Finally, the paper identifies the conditions under which smallholders are most likely to benefit from CF schemes.
Economische en ecologische effectiviteit van gebiedscontracten
Slangen, L.H.G. ; Jongeneel, R.A. ; Polman, N.B.P. ; Guldemond, J.A. ; Hees, E.M. ; Well, E.A.P. van - \ 2008
Wageningen : Wettelijke Onderzoekstaken Natuur & Milieu (WOt-rapport 84) - 82
contracten - collectieve overeenkomsten - milieueffect - nederland - agrarisch natuurbeheer - contracts - collective agreements - environmental impact - netherlands - agri-environment schemes
Dit onderzoek verkent zowel analytisch als kwantitatief de verschillen in de ecologische effectiviteit en de doelmatigheid (economische efficiency) tussen individuele en collectieve gebiedscontracten. De eigenschappen van individuele en collectieve contracten blijken onderling nauwelijks te verschillen. Voor een collectief contract, met een agrarische natuurvereniging (ANV) als intermediair, kunnen in vergelijking tot individuele contracten activiteiten zoals het afsluiten van een contract, screening en monitoring relatief efficiënt worden uitgevoerd. Bij een collectief contract zijn bovendien de private transactiekosten voor de deelnemers relatief laag. Dit komt door schaaleffecten en de samenbundeling van expertise in de ANV’s. Ook de ecologische effectiviteit is bij een ANV relatief goed gewaarborgd omdat men reputatie wil opbouwen en handhaven. In dat kader past men maatregelen toe zoals locatiespecifieke pakketsturing (bijvoorbeeld mozaïekbeheer), inventarisatie en monitoring, resultaatbeloning, stimuleren van zwaardere pakketten en flexibiliteit. Voor botanische pakketten is de toename van de effectiviteit door collectieve contracten overigens minder groot dan voor weidevogelbeheer. Trefwoorden: collectieve contracten, ecologie, agrarische natuurverenigingen
Institutional design of agri-environmental contracts in the European Union: the role of trust and social capital.
Polman, N.B.P. ; Slangen, L.H.G. - \ 2008
NJAS Wageningen Journal of Life Sciences 55 (2008)4. - ISSN 1573-5214 - p. 413 - 430.
landbouwbeleid - besluitvorming - contracten - motivatie - agrarisch natuurbeheer - agricultural policy - decision making - contracts - motivation - agri-environment schemes - farmer participation - scheme - information - governance - policy - rules
Assessing potential uptake of agri-environmental schemes based on farm and farmer characteristics only results in an incomplete analysis because it neglects the effects of motivational issues of the institutional design of contracts, as set up by the government, and of social capital. In this paper we describe contract choice using a trivariate probit model and taking into account farm and farmer characteristics and motivational issues. Motivational issues in this study include the perception of institutional design, the use of extension services, trust in the government, and preferences for stable policies. Results show that besides farm and farmer characteristics these factors are important for the likelihood of enrolling in agri-environmental contracts. They do not influence every contract type in the same way and further decisions to conclude different contract types are connected. If farmers perceive the design of an agri-environmental scheme as weak or favour a stable policy they are less likely to conclude contracts for biodiversity protection. Farmers who do not trust the government are less likely to conclude contracts for less intensive practices. Involvement in general networks increases the probability of contracting for wildlife and landscape management and less intensive practices whereas this factor is not important for biodiversity protection. The results suggest that taking into account motivational issues and differentiating towards different contract types can increase effectiveness and efficiency of agri-environmental schemes.
Land lease contracts: properties and the value of bundles of property rights
Slangen, L.H.G. ; Polman, N.B.P. - \ 2008
NJAS Wageningen Journal of Life Sciences 55 (2008)4. - ISSN 1573-5214 - p. 397 - 412.
contracten - pachtovereenkomsten - huurovereenkomsten - eigendomsrechten - regulatie - huurders - pachtrecht - liberalisatie - contracts - farm leases - leases - property rights - regulation - tenants - tenants' rights - liberalization
Contracts are mechanisms for carrying out transactions. Leasing land is a voluntary transaction in which property rights - such as user and income rights - are transferred from landowners to tenants. The bundle of property rights transferred within a lease transaction varies with the type of contractual arrangement. Analysis shows that for the landowner the value of the bundle of property rights to land is determined by the type of lease contract. Landowners prefer lease contracts with as little regulation as possible. Lease regulation can be characterized as a `handbook¿ for concluding lease contracts. However, reducing regulation requires a shift in co-ordination mechanisms from that of the handbook to that of the `invisible hand¿ (prices) and `handshake¿ (e.g., mutual adjustment). Making use of the handshake and price as co-ordination mechanisms implies that the importance of trust and reputation will increase for both tenant and landowner. In 2007, the Dutch government introduced two new types of formal lease that rely less on handbook co-ordination. Whether a more liberalized lease system will lead to a change in the area leased not only depends on landowners but also on tenants, because contracts are two-sided mechanisms.
Sustainable land use under different institutional settings
Oskam, A.J. ; Feng, S. - \ 2008
NJAS Wageningen Journal of Life Sciences 55 (2008)4. - ISSN 1573-5214 - p. 295 - 306.
duurzaamheid (sustainability) - landgebruik - grondeigendom - eigendomsrechten - duurzaam bodemgebruik - multifunctionele landbouw - sustainability - land use - land ownership - property rights - sustainable land use - multifunctional agriculture - contracts - markets
This paper serves three purposes. First, it gives a short introduction to the concept of sustainability in relation to land use. Since the Brundtland report it has become clear that sustainability is a dynamic concept that changes when conditions in society change. Moreover, it is easier to assess what is `unsustainable¿ than what is `sustainable¿. But that will not suppress the demand for sustainable developments. Second, it elucidates a classification of different concepts developed within New Institutional Economics and applies these concepts to a number of typical problem areas in relation to landownership and land use. Institutions change slowly and that holds most for informal rules, which are classified by Williamson as `social embeddedness¿. Land ownership and land use often function partly under informal rules. But formal rules and institutional arrangements are also crucial: together with the informal rules they go here under the name `institutional setting¿. Because the landowner - or the present user of land - is often not the best user from the perspective of the society, the relationship between `owner¿ and `user¿ has raised a lot of attention. Efficient exchange at the land rental market, but also contracts that are adjusted to the characteristics of owners and renters or to the specifics of multifunctional land use contribute to sustainable land use. Third, this paper provides the connection between the different papers of this special issue and shows where they fit into the basic theoretical framework. Most attention goes to ownership (including property rights), the land rental market and contract choice. Different functions of land use, however, are also covered with a clear link to informal rules.
Incentive systems for food quality control with repeated deliveries: Salmonella control in pork production
King, R.P. ; Backus, G.B.C. ; Gaag, M.A. van der - \ 2007
European Review of Agricultural Economics 34 (2007)1. - ISSN 0165-1587 - p. 81 - 104.
moral hazard - safety - chain - netherlands - slaughter - contracts - selection - industry - market - pigs
This paper presents a dynamic principal-agent analysis of incentive systems for Salmonella control. The European Union will require Salmonella testing from 2008. On the basis of the producer's performance history in controlling Salmonella, the incentive systems analysed determine quality premiums to the producer, testing frequencies for hogs delivered, as well as charges to the producer for testing and penalties. Using cost estimates and technical parameters, we evaluate two dynamic incentive systems. We also assess the impact of ownership structure on performance. The more efficient incentive system economises on testing costs by reducing the probability of testing in response to a favourable production history and is preferred under all ownership structures.
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