Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

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Gas diffusion electrodes improve hydrogen gas mass transfer for a hydrogen oxidizing bioanode
Rodenas, Pau ; Zhu, Fangqi ; Heijne, Annemiek ter; Sleutels, Tom ; Saakes, Michel ; Buisman, Cees - \ 2017
Journal of Chemical Technology and Biotechnology 92 (2017)12. - ISSN 0268-2575 - p. 2963 - 2968.
BES - copper - gas diffusion electrode, MET
Background: Bioelectrochemical systems (BESs) are capable of recovery of metals at a cathode through oxidation of organic substrate at an anode. Recently, also hydrogen gas was used as an electron donor for recovery of copper in BESs. Oxidation of hydrogen gas produced a current density of 0.8 A m-2 and combined with Cu2+ reduction at the cathode, produced 0.25 W m-2. The main factor limiting current production was the mass transfer of hydrogen to the biofilm due to the low solubility of hydrogen in the anolyte. Here, the mass transfer of hydrogen gas to the bioanode was improved by use of a gas diffusion electrode (GDE). Results: With the GDE, hydrogen was oxidized to produce a current density of 2.9 A m-2 at an anode potential of –0.2 V. Addition of bicarbonate to the influent led to production of acetate, in addition to current. At a bicarbonate concentration of 50 mmol L-1, current density increased to 10.7 A m-2 at an anode potential of –0.2 V. This increase in current density could be due to oxidation of formed acetate in addition to oxidation of hydrogen, or enhanced growth of hydrogen oxidizing bacteria due to the availability of acetate as carbon source. The effect of mass transfer was further assessed through enhanced mixing and in combination with the addition of bicarbonate (50 mmol L-1) current density increased further to 17.1 A m-2. Conclusion: Hydrogen gas may offer opportunities as electron donor for bioanodes, with acetate as potential intermediate, at locations where excess hydrogen and no organics are available.
Prototype of a scaled-up microbial fuel cell for copper recovery
Rodenas Motos, Pau ; Molina, Gonzalo ; Heijne, Annemiek ter; Sleutels, Tom ; Saakes, M. ; Buisman, Cees - \ 2017
Journal of Chemical Technology and Biotechnology 92 (2017)11. - ISSN 0268-2575 - p. 2817 - 2824.
BES - copper - MET - MFC

Background: Bioelectrochemical systems (BESs) enable recovery of electrical energy through oxidation of a wide range of substrates at an anode and simultaneous recovery of metals at a cathode. Scale-up of BESs from the laboratory to pilot scale is a challenging step in the development of the process, and there are only a few successful experiences to build on. This paper presents a prototype BES for the recovery of copper. Results: The cell design presented here had removable electrodes, similar to those in electroplating baths. The anode and cathode in this design could be replaced independently. The prototype bioelectrochemical cell consisted of an 835 cm2 bioanode fed with acetate, and a 700 cm2 cathode fed with copper. A current density of 1.2 A/−2 was achieved with 48 mW m−2 of power production. The contribution of each component (anode, electrolytes, cathode and membrane) was evaluated through the analysis of the internal resistance distribution. This revealed that major losses occurred at the anode, and that the design with removable electrodes results in higher internal resistance compared with other systems. To further assess the practical applicability of BES for copper recovery, an economic evaluation was performed. Conclusion: Analysis shows that the internal resistance of several lab-scale BESs is already sufficiently low to make the system economic, while the internal resistance for scaled-up systems still needs to be improved considerably to become economically applicable.

Rumen by-pass copper = Koper voorbij de Pens
Goselink, R.M.A. - \ 2015
Wageningen : Wageningen UR Livestock Research (Livestock Research rapport 905) - 22
herkauwers - koper - verteringsabsorptie - pens - pensfermentatie - spijsvertering - voedingsfysiologie - diervoeding - ruminants - copper - digestive absorption - rumen - rumen fermentation - digestion - nutrition physiology - animal nutrition
De absorptie van koper (Cu) bij herkauwers is relatief laag vanwege de interacties tussen Cu en andere bestanddelen van het rantsoen, waardoor onoplosbare complexen gevormd worden die niet worden geabsorbeerd in de dunne darm. Dit kan mogelijk verbeterd worden door pensbestendige Cu bronnen aan te bieden, waardoor de Cu uitscheiding via de mest naar het milieu verminderd kan worden. Het doel van dit project was het evalueren van het effect van pensbestendige Cu bronnen op de Cu absorptie bij herkauwers. Dit is onderzocht met behulp van een in vitro model waarbij verschillende Cu bronnen zijn geïncubeerd om de fermentatie- en verteringsprocessen in het maagdarmkanaal te simuleren. Daarna is een proef uitgevoerd met 18 vleeskalveren waarbij twee pensbestendige Cu bronnen zijn vergeleken met kopersulfaat als controle. Het verschil in Cu absorptie tussen pensbestendige Cu bronnen en kopersulfaat was echter onvoldoende om in deze beperkte proefopzet aangetoond te kunnen worden.
Biologische bestrijding van de glimslak (zonitoides arboreus) in potorchidee : Effect van koper-ionen op de glimslakken
Staaij, M. van der; Visser, W. de - \ 2015
Bleiswijk : Wageningen UR Glastuinbouw (Rapport GTB 1367) - 42
gewasbescherming - zonitoides arboreus - slakkenbestrijding - siergewassen - orchideeën als sierplanten - koper - biologische bestrijding - huisjesslakken - glastuinbouw - plant protection - mollusc control - ornamental crops - ornamental orchids - copper - biological control - snails - greenhouse horticulture
Growers of orchids know how noxious this small species of snail (Zonitiodes arboreus) is. The snail is only approximately 0,5 cm in diameter. They spent most of their lives in growing media like bark and coco. They eat from the roots. This causes damage of the orchids. In the trails the snails were exposed to copper-ions, five dosages by means of direct contact, treated food and the treatment of Oncidium-plants, infected with the snails, with copper-ions during three months. The results showed that there was no visible effect on the snails. They behaved normally and were all alive. Weekly applications of copper-ions caused accumulation of copper in the leaves, the roots and the growing medium. Specially in the roots the levels were high. The different dosage caused no damage to the orchids. Only the growers saw some (very little) reduction in growth of the roots in comparison with the roots of the untreated plants.
Copper in diets for weaned pigs : influence of level and duration of copper supplementation
Bikker, P. ; Baal, J. van; Binnendijk, G.P. ; Diepen, J.T.M. van; Troquet, L.M.P. ; Jongbloed, A.W. - \ 2015
Wageningen : Wageningen UR Livestock Research (Livestock Research report 830) - 38
varkens - biggen - spenen - koper - diervoedering - minerale supplementen - groei - dunne darm - voedertoevoegingen - biggenvoeding - pigs - piglets - weaning - copper - animal feeding - mineral supplements - growth - small intestine - feed additives - piglet feeding
This study was conducted to determine the influence of level (15-160 mg/kg voer)and period (2-8 weeks) of supply of a Cu-supplement on growth performance and expression of Cu absorption-related genes in different segments of the small intestine of weaned pigs.
Biotechnologies for critical raw material recovery from primary and secondary sources: R&D priorities and future perspectives
Hennebel, T. ; Boon, N. ; Maes, S. ; Lenz, M. - \ 2015
New Biotechnology 32 (2015)1. - ISSN 1871-6784 - p. 121 - 127.
acid-mine drainage - heavy-metals - waste-water - selective precipitation - bacterial surfaces - nanoparticles - selenium - removal - copper - biosorption
Europe is confronted with an increasing supply risk of critical raw materials. These can be defined as materials of which the risks of supply shortage and their impacts on the economy are higher compared to most of other raw materials. Within the framework of the EU Innovation Partnership on raw materials Initiative, a list of 14 critical materials was defined, including some bulk metals, industrial minerals, the platinum group metals and rare earth elements. To tackle the supply risk challenge, innovation is required with respect to sustainable primary mining, substitution of critical metals, and urban mining. In these three categories, biometallurgy can play a crucial role. Indeed, microbe–metal interactions have been successfully applied on full scale to win materials from primary sources, but are not sufficiently explored for metal recovery or recycling. On the one hand, this article gives an overview of the microbial strategies that are currently applied on full scale for biomining; on the other hand it identifies technologies, currently developed in the laboratory, which have a perspective for large scale metal recovery and the needs and challenges on which bio-metallurgical research should focus to achieve this ambitious goal.
Unique characteristics of Pb in soil contaminated by red lead anti-corrosion paint
Brokbartold, M. ; Temminghoff, E.J.M. ; Weng, L. ; Marschner, B. - \ 2013
Soil and Sediment Contamination 22 (2013)8. - ISSN 1532-0383 - p. 839 - 855.
donnan membrane technique - chemical speciation - southern thailand - trace-metals - solubility - cd - exposure - cadmium - nigeria - copper
Red lead (Pb3O4) has been extensively used in the past in anti-corrosion paints for the protection of steel constructions such as electricity pylons or bridges. Until recently, little has been known about the behavior of these Pb compounds in soils. Therefore, three pylon soils and six red lead anti-corrosion paints were characterized in terms of solubility, Pb mineral composition, extractability, sorption and desorption, and the chemical speciation of Pb in soil extracts. The pylon soils were characterized by moderate total Pb concentrations (˜700 mg kg-1), while NH4NO3 extractable Pb was exceptionally high (up to 15% of total Pb). In soil extracts, the free Pb2+ fraction ranged from 33 to 81% of total soluble Pb. The equilibrium concentration of Pb derived from Pb3O4 in ultra-pure water reached 68.5 mg L-1. This high solubility explains the observed high extractability in soils and contradicts earlier reports of much lower water solubilities of the compound.
Koper- en zinknormen voor varkens
Bikker, P. ; Jongbloed, A.W. - \ 2013
Lelystad : Wageningen UR Livestock Research (Rapport / Wageningen UR Livestock Research 746) - 31
varkens - zeugen - varkensvoeding - zeugenvoeding - koper - zink - voedingsbehoeften - richtlijnen (guidelines) - varkenshouderij - pigs - sows - pig feeding - sow feeding - copper - zinc - feed requirements - guidelines - pig farming
This report addresses copper and zinc requirements of growing pigs and reproductive sows and boars on the basis of scientific literature and provides a recommendation for copper and zinc standards in the diets.
EURRECA—Estimating Zinc Requirements for Deriving Dietary Reference Values
Lowe, N.M.M. ; Dykes, F.C. ; Skinner, A.L. ; Patel, S. ; Warthon-Medina, M. ; Decsi, T. ; Fekete, K. ; Souverein, O.W. ; Dullemeijer, C. ; Cavelaars, A.J.E.M. ; Serra-Majem, L. ; Nissensohn, M. ; Bel, S. ; Moreno, L.A. ; Hermoso, M. ; Vollhardt, C. ; Berti, C. ; Cetin, I. ; Gurinovic, M. ; Novakovic, R.N. ; Harvey, L.J. ; Collings, R. ; Hall-Moran, V. - \ 2013
Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition 53 (2013)10. - ISSN 1040-8398 - p. 1110 - 1123.
current micronutrient recommendations - coronary-artery-disease - lung-cancer - serum zinc - genetic-polymorphism - stable-isotope - old patients - absorption - phytate - copper
Zinc was selected as a priority micronutrient for EURRECA, because there is significant heterogeneity in the Dietary Reference Values (DRVs) across Europe. In addition, the prevalence of inadequate zinc intakes was thought to be high among all population groups worldwide, and the public health concern is considerable. In accordance with the EURRECA consortium principles and protocols, a series of literature reviews were undertaken in order to develop best practice guidelines for assessing dietary zinc intake and zinc status. These were incorporated into subsequent literature search strategies and protocols for studies investigating the relationships between zinc intake, status and health, as well as studies relating to the factorial approach (including bioavailability) for setting dietary recommendations. EMBASE (Ovid), Cochrane Library CENTRAL, and MEDLINE (Ovid) databases were searched for studies published up to February 2010 and collated into a series of Endnote databases that are available for the use of future DRV panels. Meta-analyses of data extracted from these publications were performed where possible in order to address specific questions relating to factors affecting dietary recommendations. This review has highlighted the need for more high quality studies to address gaps in current knowledge, in particular the continued search for a reliable biomarker of zinc status and the influence of genetic polymorphisms on individual dietary requirements. In addition, there is a need to further develop models of the effect of dietary inhibitors of zinc absorption and their impact on population dietary zinc requirements.
Adviesbasis voor de bemesting van akkerbouwgewassen : sporenelementen
Haan, J.J. de; Geel, W.C.A. van - \ 2013 2013 (2013)20 maart.
akkerbouw - gewassen - mest - sporenelementen - borium - mangaan - koper - ijzer - zink - molybdeen - toepassing - dosering - bemesting - arable farming - crops - manures - trace elements - boron - manganese - copper - iron - zinc - molybdenum - application - dosage - fertilizer application
In dit artikel worden adviezen gegeven voor de bemesting van akkerbouwgewassen met de sporenelementen; borium, mangaan, koper, ijzer, zink en molybdeen.
Verkenning mogelijke schaarste aan micronutriënten in het voedselsysteem
Chardon, W.J. ; Oenema, O. - \ 2013
Wageningen : Alterra, Wageningen-UR (Alterra-rapport 2413) - 43
bodemchemie - bemesting - mineralen - sporenelementen - kringlopen - borium - kobalt - koper - molybdeen - selenium - zink - schaarste - akkerbouw - tuinbouw - soil chemistry - fertilizer application - minerals - trace elements - cycling - boron - cobalt - copper - molybdenum - zinc - scarcity - arable farming - horticulture
Onder een micro-nutriënt wordt verstaan: een element dat essentieel is voor de groei en het functioneren van de plant, een dier of de mens, maar waarvan de benodigde hoeveelheid relatief klein is. In dit rapport zijn zes elementen geselecteerd omdat zij aantoonbaar essentieel zijn voor meerdere soorten gewassen of voor de veehouderij, en omdat de mate van vóórkomen in de aardkorst relatief gering is, waardoor (toekomstige) mondiale schaarste denkbaar is. Deze elementen zijn resp. borium, kobalt, koper, molybdeen, seleen en zink (B, Co, Cu, Mo, Se, en Zn). Alleen voor B en Se dragen de akker- en tuinbouw en de veehouderij significant bij aan het huidige mondiale gebruik: Se in de veehouderij 11% van totaal, en B in akker- en tuinbouw 12% van totaal verbruik. Prijsfluctuaties van Se en B zijn groot en wijzen op schaarste; binnen de industrie vindt recycling van deze elementen nauwelijks plaats. Binnen het voedselsysteem vindt recycling plaats van micronutriënten via hergebruik van dierlijke mest, gewasresten, compost en zuiveringsslib. Voor alle industrieel gebruikte micronutriënten zijn er alternatieven, behalve voor Co. In bodems vindt niet-duurzame ophoping plaats van Cu en Zn via mest, vooral in gebieden met een hoge veedichtheid.
Modelling diffusive Cd and Zn contaminant emissions from soils to surface waters
Bonten, L.T.C. ; Kroes, J.G. ; Groenendijk, P. ; Grift, B. van der - \ 2012
Journal of Contaminant Hydrology 138-139 (2012). - ISSN 0169-7722 - p. 113 - 122.
hydraulic conductivity - automatic calibration - groundwater - catchment - flow - cadmium - netherlands - zinc - quality - copper
Modeling contaminant transport of diffusive contaminants is generally difficult, as most contaminants are located in the top soil where soil properties will vary strongly with depth and often a strong gradient in contaminant concentrations exists. When groundwater periodically penetrates the contaminated layers, stationary models (like most 3D models) cannot adequately describe contaminant transport. Therefore we have combined a hydrological instationary model using a 1D distributed column approach with a simple geochemical model to describe contaminant transport in the soil. Special to this model is that it includes lateral drainage from the soil column to different types of surface waters, which makes it possible to calculate surface water emissions especially for fluctuating groundwater tables. To test this model approach, we used it to quantify surface water emissions from soils in a catchment in the Kempen area which has been diffusively contaminated with Cd and Zn by zinc smelters. We ran the model for the period 1880–2000, starting with an uncontaminated soil in 1880. The model could describe both water discharge, surface water concentrations and current soil contents of Cd and Zn well. Further the model calculations showed that a stationary approach would underestimate leaching to surface waters considerably.
Effect of preventive supplementation with zinc and other micronutrients on non-malarial morbidity in Tanzanian pre-school children: a randomized trial
Veenemans, J. ; Schouten, L.R.A. ; Ottenhof, M. ; Mank, T. ; Uges, D.R.A. ; Mbugi, E.V. ; Demir, A.Y. ; Kraaijenhagen, R.J. ; Savelkoul, H.F.J. ; Verhoef, J.C.M. - \ 2012
PLoS One 7 (2012)8. - ISSN 1932-6203
iron supplementation - prepubertal children - caco-2 - growth - interventions - permeability - vitamins - alters - copper - cells
Background The efficacy of preventive zinc supplementation against diarrhea and respiratory illness may depend on simultaneous supplementation with other micronutrients. We aimed to assess the effect of supplementation with zinc and multiple micronutrients on diarrhea and other causes of non-malarial morbidity. Methods and Findings Rural Tanzanian children (n = 612) aged 6–60 months and with height-for-age z-score <–1.5 SD were randomized to daily supplementation with zinc (10 mg) alone, multi-nutrients without zinc, multi-nutrients with zinc, or placebo. Children were followed for an average of 45 weeks. During follow-up, we recorded morbidity episodes. We found no evidence that concurrent supplementation with multi-nutrients influenced the magnitude of the effect of zinc on rates of diarrhea, respiratory illness, fever without localizing signs, or other illness (guardian-reported illness with symptoms involving skin, ears, eyes and abscesses, but excluding trauma or burns). Zinc supplementation reduced the hazard rate of diarrhea by 24% (4%–40%). By contrast, multi-nutrients seemed to increase this rate (HR; 95% CI: 1.19; 0.94–1.50), particularly in children with asymptomatic Giardia infection at baseline (2.03; 1.24–3.32). Zinc also protected against episodes of fever without localizing signs (0.75; 0.57–0.96), but we found no evidence that it reduced the overall number of clinic visits. Conclusions We found no evidence that the efficacy of zinc supplements in reducing diarrhea rates is enhanced by concurrent supplementation with other micronutrients. By reducing rates of fever without localizing signs, supplementation with zinc may reduce inappropriate drug use with anti-malarial medications and antibiotics.
The dynamics of digital dermatitis in populations of dairy cattle: Model-based estimates of transition rates and implications for control
Dopfer, D. ; Holzhauer, M. ; Boven, M. van - \ 2012
The Veterinary Journal 193 (2012)3. - ISSN 1090-0233 - p. 648 - 653.
interdigital papillomatosis - foot lesions - risk-factors - herd-level - cows - strategies - copper
Five groups of dairy cows affected by digital dermatitis were subjected to five different footbath strategies and evaluated at regular 3-weekly intervals. A standard protocol was used to record five different stages of disease from early (M1), acute ulcerative (M2), healing (M3) and chronic lesions (M4) in addition to the negative stage of disease (M0). The effect of the footbathing was evaluated using mathematical modelling for the transmission dynamics of infections and summarized using the reproduction ratio R(0). Sensitivity analysis for a range of parameters in the mathematical model showed that the speed of detecting acute lesions and the efficiency with which those lesions were treated were the key parameters which determined whether lesions became more severe or whether they healed.
Opsporing van te hoge koper- en zinkgehalten in varkensvoer via fecesonderzoek
Jongbloed, A.W. ; Jong, J. de; Vereijken, P.F.G. ; Voort, M. van der - \ 2012
Wageningen : RIKILT (Rapport / RIKILT 2011.018) - 57
varkenshouderij - varkensvoeding - voersamenstelling - koper - zink - fecessamenstelling - fecesonderzoek - kwantiteitscontrole - mengvoer - pig farming - pig feeding - feed formulation - copper - zinc - faeces composition - faecal examination - quantity controls - compound feeds
De nieuwe Voedsel en Waren Autoriteit (nVWA) van het Ministerie van Economische Zaken, Landbouw en Innovatie (EL&I) wil controleren of de voorgeschreven maximale hoeveelheden aan koper en zink in de voeding bij varkens niet worden overschreden. De vraag is hoe het beste gecontroleerd kan worden of de maximaal toegelaten concentaties aan Cu en Zn in de rantsoenen voor varkens zijn overschreden. In de stal kunnen namelijk naast de hoeveelheden Cu en Zn in het mengvoer ook nog spoorelementen via het drinkwater worden gegeven en ook kunnen deze spoorelementen vrijelijk over het mengvoer verstrekt worden. In dit verslag wordt beschreven of de gehaltes aan Cu en Zn in de feces van varkens een goede weergave kunnen geven van de hoeveelheden Zu en Zn, die via het voer en het drinkwater zijn toegediend en wat de nauwkeurigheid van deze schattingen is.
The preparation of biological reference materials for QUASIMEME
Kotterman, M.J.J. - \ 2011
IJmuiden : IMARES (Report / IMARES Wageningen UR C002/11) - 37
visserij - mossels - ecotoxicologie - koper - zink - fisheries - mussels - ecotoxicology - copper - zinc
Biological materials, consisting of three different batches of mussels; from Den Helder harbour (POPs, TBT), Irish mussels (metals) and Wadden Sea mussels, fortified with highly contaminated mussels from Belgium (POPs), and of one batch of turbot liver (metals) have been prepared for use in QUASIMEME interlaboratory studies for metal and organic contaminant analyses. The homogeneity of the prepared material was tested for metals or POPs, depending on the intended use of the material, and indicative concentrations for selected contaminants were reported.
Effects of soil oven-drying on concentrations and speciation of trace metals and dissolved organic matter in soil solution extracts of sandy soils
Koopmans, G.F. ; Groenenberg, J.E. - \ 2011
Geoderma 161 (2011)3-4. - ISSN 0016-7061 - p. 147 - 158.
m calcium-chloride - phosphorus solubility - ion activity - agricultural soils - heavy-metals - forest soils - water - binding - carbon - copper
Weak salt extracts can be used to assess the availability of trace metals for leaching and uptake by soil organisms and plants in soil. Before extraction, the International Organization for Standardization recommends to dry soils in an oven at a temperature of 40 °C. Effects of soil oven-drying on different fractions of dissolved organic matter (DOM) and the effect thereof on total concentrations and speciation of trace metals in weak salt extracts have, however, not been quantified yet. In this study, free metal concentrations and DOM speciation were determined in 2 mM Ca(NO3)2 extracts obtained from twelve field-contaminated soils in their field-moist state and after drying at 40 °C. Free metal concentrations were measured with the Donnan Membrane Technique. DOM was fractioned into humic acid (HA), fulvic acid (FA), and hydrophilic (Hy) compounds. Soil oven-drying led to significant increases in the concentrations of total DOM and total dissolved Cu and Ni. For the measurement of total dissolved Cu and Ni concentrations, it is, therefore, better to use field-moist soils. The release of Hy compounds was mainly responsible for the increase in DOM, which accounted for 64 to 77% of the increase in total dissolved organic carbon. Soil oven-drying left the free Cd2+, Cr3+, Cu2+, Ni2+, and Zn2+ concentrations unchanged. Both field-moist and oven-dried soils can, therefore, be used for the measurement of free metal concentrations. Free Cd2+, Cu2+, Ni2+, and Zn2+ concentrations were predicted very well for both field-moist and oven-dried soils using ORCHESTRA, which includes the NICA-Donnan model. However, poor predictions were obtained for Cr3+, for which better NICA parameters need to be derived. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Zinc and copper in dairy cattle feeding
Goselink, R.M.A. ; Jongbloed, A.W. - \ 2011
Lelystad : Wageningen UR Livestock Research (Report / Wageningen UR Livestock Research 519) - 18
melkveehouderij - melkkoeien - melkveevoeding - mineralen - zink - koper - dierlijke meststoffen - voersamenstelling - diergezondheid - vruchtbaarheid - dairy farming - dairy cows - dairy cattle nutrition - minerals - zinc - copper - animal manures - feed formulation - animal health - fertility
This literature study shows that dietary supplementation of copper and zinc to dairy cattle above current recommendations does not show convincing health benefits.
Ecologische risico's van koper en zink in het oppervlaktewater
Bonten, L.T.C. ; Vink, J. ; Verschoor, A. - \ 2011
H2O : tijdschrift voor watervoorziening en afvalwaterbehandeling 44 (2011)10. - ISSN 0166-8439 - p. 27 - 29.
oppervlaktewaterkwaliteit - koper - zink - monitoring - kwaliteitsnormen - kaderrichtlijn water - aquatische ecologie - surface water quality - copper - zinc - quality standards - water framework directive - aquatic ecology
Het merendeel van de Nederlandse (rijks)wateren voldoet niet aan de door de Kaderrichtlijn Water vereiste chemische en ecologische toestand. In veel oppervlaktewateren in Nederland zijn de concentraties van de metalen koper en zink hoger dan de wettelijke normen. Tot dusver is het echter niet duidelijk in hoeverre deze normoverschrijdingen tot risico's leiden. Ecologische risico's van zink en koper in het oppervlaktewater kunnen nu worden geschat door recente ontwikkelingen op het gebied van Biotic Ligand-modellen (BLM). Deze kunnen de effecten van koper en zink op een groot aantal organismen inschatten en houden daarbij niet alleen rekening met de metaalconcentraties maar ook met andere factoren die de biologische beschikbaarheid bepalen, zoals pH en DOC. Uit BLM-berekeningen aan een groot aantal oppervlaktewatermonsters blijkt dat voor zink bij overschrijding van de huidige oppervlaktewaternorm inderdaad ecologische risico's worden verwacht. Voor koper worden bij de meeste normoverschrijdingen echter geen ecologische risico's berekend.
Trend analysis of copper and zinc in animal feed
Adamse, P. ; Egmond, H.J. van; Polanen, A. van; Bikker, P. ; Jong, J. de - \ 2011
Wageningen : Rikilt - Institute of Food Safety (Report / RIKILT 2011.012)
veevoeder - voersamenstelling - sporenelementen - koper - zink - chemische analyse - classificatie - fodder - feed formulation - trace elements - copper - zinc - chemical analysis - classification
The EC has introduced maximum inclusion levels of copper and zinc salts in animal diets from 1970 onwards and reduced these levels in recent years. In this report historical values are used to give insight into trends in levels of copper and zinc in compound feeds for animals in the Netherlands. The results of these analyses will enable the nVWA (Dutch Food and Consumer Product Safety Authority) to develop a more risk-directed sampling strategy in the National Feed Monitoring program. Over 2000 feed samples are analysed for this report. The data for this analysis are from the period between 2001 and 2009. The copper and zinc data-set contains mostly feeds for piglets, (older) pigs, sheep and to a lesser extent bovine and other species.
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