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Protein, casein and micellar salts in milk: Current content and historical perspectives
Bijl, E. ; Valenberg, H.J.F. van; Huppertz, T. ; Hooijdonk, A.C.M. van - \ 2013
Journal of Dairy Science 96 (2013). - ISSN 0022-0302 - p. 5455 - 5464.
equilibrium thermodynamic model - sterilized concentrated milk - dutch holstein-friesians - calcium-phosphate - inorganic constituents - genetic-parameters - heat-stability - bovine-milk - cows milk - bulk milk
The protein and fat content of Dutch bulk milk has been monitored since the 1950s and has increased considerably, by 11 and 20%, respectively, whereas milk yield has more than doubled. The change in protein and fat content of milk is advantageous for the dairy industry, as these are the 2 most economically valuable constituents of milk. Increases in protein and fat content of milk have allowed increases in the yield of various products such as cheese and butter. However, for cheese and other applications where casein micelles play a crucial role in structure and stability, it is not only casein content, but also the properties of the casein micelles that determine processability. Of particular importance herein is the salt partition in milk, but it is unknown whether increased protein content has affected the milk salts and their distribution between casein micelles and milk serum. It was, therefore, the objective of this research to determine the salt composition and protein content for individual cow milk and bulk milk over a period of 1 yr and to compare these data to results obtained during the 1930s, 1950s, and 1960s in the last century. Calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, and phosphorus content were determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry and inorganic phosphate, citrate, chloride, and sulfate content by anion-exchange chromatography in bulk milk and milk ultracentrifugate. In addition, ionic calcium and ionic magnesium concentration were determined by the Donnan membrane technique. We concluded that historical increase in milk yield and protein content in milk have resulted in correlated changes in casein content and the micellar salt fraction of milk. In addition, the essential nutrients, calcium, magnesium, and phosphorus in milk have increased the past 75 yr; therefore, the nutritional value of milk has improved. Key words: milk protein , casein , calcium phosphate , magnesium
Probiotics lactobacillus reuteri DSM 17938 and lactobacillus casei CRL 431 modestly increase growth, but non iron and zinc status, among Indonesian children aged 1-6 years
Agustina, R. ; Bovee-Oudenhoven, I.M.J. ; Lukito, W. ; Fahmida, U. ; Rest, O. van de; Zimmermann, M.B. ; Firmansyah, A. ; Wulanti, R. ; Albers, R. ; Heuvel, E.G.H.M. van den; Kok, F.J. - \ 2013
The Journal of Nutrition 143 (2013)7. - ISSN 0022-3166 - p. 1184 - 1193.
c-reactive protein - calcium supplementation - nonheme-iron - deficiency anemia - controlled-trial - dietary calcium - acute diarrhea - double-blind - cows milk - heme-iron
Probiotics and milk calcium may increase resistance to intestinal infection, but their effect on growth and iron and zinc status of Indonesian children is uncertain. We investigated the hypotheses that cow milk with added probiotics would improve growth and iron and zinc status of Indonesian children, whereas milk calcium alone would improve growth but reduce iron and zinc status. A 6-mo randomized trial was conducted in low-socioeconomic urban communities of Jakarta. Healthy children (n = 494) were randomly assigned to receive low-lactose milk with a low calcium content of similar to 50 mg/d (LC; n = 124), a regular calcium content of similar to 440 mg/d (RC group; n = 126), regular calcium with 5 x 10(8) CFU/d Lactobacillus casei CRL 431 (casei; n = 120), or regular calcium with 5 x 10(8) CFU/d Lactobacillus reuteri DSM 17938 (reuteri; n = 124). Growth, anemia, and iron and zinc status were assessed before and after the intervention. Compared with the RC group, the reuteri group had significantly greater weight gain [0.22 (95% CI: 0.02, 0.42) kg], weight-for-age Z-score (WAZ) changes [0.09 (95% CI: 0.01, 0.17)], and monthly weight [0.03(95% CI: 0.002, 0.05) kg/mo] and height [0.03(95% Cl: 0.01, 0.05) cm/mo] velocities. Casei significantly increased monthly weight velocity [0.03 (95% CI: 0.001, 0.05) kg/mo], but not height. However, the changes in underweight, stunting, anemia prevalence, and iron and zinc status were similar between groups. In conclusion, L. reuteri DSM 17938 modestly improved growth by increasing weight gain, WAZ changes, and weight and height velocity, whereas L. casei CRL 431 modestly improved weight velocity. Independent from probiotics supplementation, regular milk calcium did not affect growth or iron and zinc status.
Subunit and whole molecule specificity of the anti-bovine casein immune response in recent onset psychosis and schizophrenia
Severance, E.G. ; Dickerson, F.B. ; Halling, M. ; Krivogorsky, B. ; Haile, L. ; Yang, S. ; Stallings, C.R. ; Origoni, A.E. ; Bossis, I. ; Xiao, J. ; Dupont, D. ; Haasnoot, W. ; Yolken, R.H. - \ 2010
Schizophrenia Research 118 (2010)1-3. - ISSN 0920-9964 - p. 240 - 247.
cows milk - occupational-status - antibodies - food - association - hypothesis - proteins - humans - blood
Previous studies show increased antibody levels to bovine casein in some individuals with schizophrenia. The immunogenicity of specific domains of bovine casein varies among people with milk sensitivities and thus could vary among different neuropsychiatric disorders. Using ELISAs and immunoblotting, we characterized IgG class antibody specificity to whole bovine casein and to the as, ß, and ¿ subunits in individuals with recent onset psychosis (n = 95), long-term schizophrenia (n = 103), and non-psychiatric controls (n = 65). In both patient groups, we found elevated IgG to casein proteins, particularly to whole casein and the as subunit (p = 0.0001). Odds ratios of casein seroprevalence for recent onset psychosis (age-, gender-, race-, smoking-adjusted) were significant for whole casein (8.13, p = 0.0001), and the as (7.89, p = 0.0001), ß (5.23, p = 0.001) and ¿ (5.70, p = 0.0001) subunits. Odds ratios for long-term schizophrenia were significant for whole casein (7.85, p = 0.0001), and the as (4.78, p = 0.003) and ¿ (4.92, p = 0.004) subunits. Within the recent onset group, odds ratios were particularly significant for a subgroup of people with psychotic disorders that included major depressive disorders (8.22–16.48, p = 0.0001). In a different recent onset subgroup (schizophrenia-spectrum disorders), PANSS scores for negative symptoms were correlated with casein antibody levels for the as and ¿ subunits (p = 0.001–0.01). Immunoblotting patterns also exhibited group specificity, with ¿ predominant in recent onset and as in schizophrenia (Fisher's Exact Test, p = 0.001). The elevated IgG and unique patterns of antibody specificity to bovine casein among diagnostic groups provide a rationale for clinical trials to evaluate efficacies of dietary modifications in individuals with neuropsychiatric diseases.
Immune activation by casein dietary antigens in bipolar disorder
Severance, E.G. ; Dupont, D. ; Dickerson, F.B. ; Stallings, C.R. ; Origoni, A.E. ; Krivogorsky, B. ; Yang, S. ; Haasnoot, W. ; Yolken, R.H. - \ 2010
Bipolar Disorders 12 (2010). - ISSN 1398-5647 - p. 834 - 842.
bovine beta-casein - common variants - cows milk - schizophrenia - hypothesis - antibodies - food - autoimmunity - polymorphism - resistance
Objectives: Inflammation and other immune processes are increasingly linked to psychiatric diseases. Antigenic triggers specific to bipolar disorder are not yet defined. We tested whether antibodies to bovine milk caseins were associated with bipolar disorder, and whether patients recognized different epitopes of the casein protein than control individuals. Methods: Anti-bovine casein immunoglobulin G (IgG) levels were measured with solid-phase immunoassays in 75 individuals with bipolar disorder and 65 controls. Epitope recognition was evaluated in immunoassays by cross neutralization with anti-bovine casein polyclonal antibodies of defined reactivity. Group-specific reactivity and associations with symptom severity scores were detected with age-, gender-, and race-controlled regression models. Results: Individuals with bipolar disorder had significantly elevated anti-casein IgG (t-test, p = 0.001) compared to controls. Casein IgG seropositivity conferred odds ratios of 3.97 for bipolar disorder [n = 75, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.31–12.08, p = 0.015], 5.26 for the bipolar I subtype (n = 56, 95% CI: 1.66–16.64, p = 0.005), and 3.98 for bipolar disorder with psychosis (n = 54, 95% CI: 1.32–12.00, p = 0.014). Lithium and/or antipsychotic medication did not significantly affect anti-casein IgG levels. Casein IgG measures correlated with severity of manic (R2 = 0.15, 95% CI: 0.05–0.24, p = 0.02) but not depressive symptoms. Unlike controls, sera from individuals with bipolar disorder did not inhibit binding of casein-reactive animal sera (t-test/¿2, p = 0.0001). Conclusions: Anti-casein IgG associations with bipolar I diagnoses, psychotic symptom history, and mania severity scores suggest that casein-related immune activation may relate to the psychosis and mania components of this mood disorder. Case-control differences in epitope recognition implicate disease-related alterations in how the casein molecule is digested and/or how resulting casein-derived structures are rendered immunogenic.
Whole genome scan to detect quantitative trait loci for bovine milk protein composition
Schopen, G.C.B. ; Koks, P.D. ; Arendonk, J.A.M. van; Bovenhuis, H. ; Visker, M.H.P.W. - \ 2009
Animal Genetics 40 (2009)4. - ISSN 0268-9146 - p. 524 - 537.
cheese-making properties - beta-lactoglobulin gene - dairy-cattle - cows milk - osteopontin gene - variants - casein - polymorphism - parameters - map
The objective of this study was to perform a whole genome scan to detect quantitative trait loci (QTL) for milk protein composition in 849 Holstein–Friesian cows originating from seven sires. One morning milk sample was analysed for the major milk proteins using capillary zone electrophoresis. A genetic map was constructed with 1341 single nucleotide polymorphisms, covering 2829 centimorgans (cM) and 95% of the cattle genome. The chromosomal regions most significantly related to milk protein composition (Pgenome <0.05) were found on Bos taurus autosomes (BTA) 6, 11 and 14. The QTL on BTA6 was found at about 80 cM, and affected aS1-casein, aS2-casein, ß-casein and ¿-casein. The QTL on BTA11 was found at 124 cM, and affected ß-lactoglobulin, and the QTL on BTA14 was found at 0 cM, and affected protein percentage. The proportion of phenotypic variance explained by the QTL was 3.6% for ß-casein and 7.9% for ¿-casein on BTA6, 28.3% for ß-lactoglobulin on BTA11, and 8.6% for protein percentage on BTA14. The QTL affecting aS2-casein on BTA6 and 17 showed a significant interaction. We investigated the extent to which the detected QTL affecting milk protein composition could be explained by known polymorphisms in ß-casein, ¿-casein, ß-lactoglobulin and DGAT1 genes. Correction for these polymorphisms decreased the proportion of phenotypic variance explained by the QTL previously found on BTA6, 11 and 14. Thus, several significant QTL affecting milk protein composition were found, of which some QTL could partially be explained by polymorphisms in milk protein genes.
Perspectives for on-site monitoring of progesterone
Posthuma-Trumpie, G.A. ; Amerongen, A. van; Korf, J. ; Berkel, W.J.H. van - \ 2009
Trends in Biotechnology 27 (2009)11. - ISSN 0167-7799 - p. 652 - 660.
performance liquid-chromatography - lateral flow immunoassay - milk progesterone - bovine-milk - enzyme-immunoassay - dairy-cattle - mass-spectrometry - human-serum - cows milk - pregnancy diagnosis
The steroid hormone progesterone is the primary biomarker of the reproductive status of female mammals. Current techniques of monitoring progesterone are based predominantly on (enzyme) immunoassays, but these are too expensive to be affordable in daily screening programmes because of their associated labour costs and the need for laboratory facilities and/or equipment. Here, we discuss existing methods as well as new perspectives for (automated) application at point of care/need, e.g. the milking parlour. These make it apparent that a low-cost, fully automated progesterone assay system to monitor the reproductive status is far from being realised at present. Timely ovulation prediction techniques for artificial insemination and reproductive cycling are thus urgently needed, and promising perspectives will be highlighted
Bioavailability of folic acid from fortified pasteurised and UHT-treated milk in humans
Jong, R.J. ; Verwei, M. ; West, C.E. ; Vliet, T. van; Siebelink, E. ; Berg, H. van den; Castenmiller, J.J.M. - \ 2005
European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 59 (2005)8. - ISSN 0954-3007 - p. 906 - 913.
folate-binding-protein - plasma homocysteine concentrations - neural-tube defects - methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase - food fortification - vascular-disease - common mutation - dietary-folate - risk factor - cows milk
Objective The aim of this study was to investigate whether milk fortified with folic acid enhances the folate status of humans and whether the presence of folate-binding proteins (FBP) in pasteurised milk affects the bioavailability of folic acid from fortified milk. In untreated and pasteurised milk, folate occurs bound to FBP, while FBP is (partly) denatured in ultra-high-temperature (UHT)-treated milk. The effect of FBP on folate bioavailability is still unclear. Design, subjects and setting Healthy, free-living subjects (n=69) aged 18-49 y participated in a 4-week double-blind, placebo-controlled dietary intervention study. Intervention In addition to a fully controlled diet, the subjects consumed each day 500 ml of pasteurised or UHT milk, either fortified or not with 200 g folic acid. Results Consumption of fortified milk increased folate concentrations in serum and in red blood cells (RBC) by 6.6-7.0 nmol/l (P
Glycoforms of B-Lactoglobulin with improved thermostability and preserved structural packing.
Broersen, K. ; Voragen, A.G.J. ; Hamer, R.J. ; Jongh, H.H.J. de - \ 2004
Biotechnology and Bioengineering 86 (2004)1. - ISSN 0006-3592 - p. 78 - 87.
ionization mass-spectrometry - sugar-casein systems - maillard reaction - functional-properties - alpha-lactalbumin - n-glycosylation - amino-acids - cows milk - protein - stability
In this article we show how various degrees of glycosylation can be used to control the thermal stability of proteins. The primary amines of -lactoglobulin were glycosylated with glucose or fructose within a range of non-denaturing reaction parameters. The modified fractions were characterized and analyzed for structural stability and hydrophobic exposure. The modification procedure gave rise to the production of glycoproteins with a well-defined Gaussian distribution, where glucose appeared more reactive than fructose. The integrity of the secondary, tertiary, and quaternary structures remained unaffected by the modification procedure. However, upon heating the stability of the modified fractions increased up to 6 K. Here we demonstrate the effects on the thermodynamic properties of proteins by glycosylation; this work serves as a first step in understanding and controlling the process underlying aggregation of glycosylated proteins
The Binding of Folic acid and 5-methyltetrahydrofolate to Folate-Binding Proteins during Gastric Passage Differs in a dynamic in vitro gastrointestinal model
Verwei, M. ; Arkbåge, K. ; Mocking, H. ; Havenaar, R. ; Groten, J. - \ 2004
The Journal of Nutrition 134 (2004)1. - ISSN 0022-3166 - p. 31 - 37.
neural-tube defects - red-cell folate - bovine-milk - cows milk - plasma homocysteine - vascular-disease - dairy-products - dietary-folate - bioavailability - prevention
Despite its low natural folate concentration, milk is responsible for 10-15% of the daily folate intake in countries with a high dairy consumption. Milk products can be considered as a potential matrix for folate fortification, e.g., with synthetic folic acid, to enhance the daily intake of folate. In untreated milk, the natural folate, 5-methyltetrahydrofolate (5-CH3-H(4)folate), is bound to folate-binding proteins (FBP). In this study, the extent of binding to FBP for folic acid and 5-CH3-H(4)folate was investigated in a dynamic in vitro model simulating human gastric passage. Protein binding of folic acid and 5-CH3-H(4)folate was characterized using gel-exclusion chromatography. Before gastric passage, folic acid and 5-CH3-H(4)folate were bound mainly to FBP (76-79%), whereas 7% was free. Folic acid remained bound to FBP to a similar extent after gastric passage. For 5-CH3-H(4)folate, the FBP-bound fraction gradually decreased from 79 to 5% and the free fraction increased from 7 to 93%. Although folic acid enters the proximal part of the intestine bound to FBP, 5-CH3-H(4)folate appears to be present mainly as free folate in the duodenal lumen. The stability of FBP was similar in both folate/FBP mixtures, i.e., 70% of the initial FBP content was retained after gastric passage. This study indicated that FBP are partly stable during gastric passage but have different binding characteristics for folic acid and 5-CH3-H(4)folate in the duodenal lumen. This could result in different bioavailability from folic acid- and 5-CH3-H(4)folate-fortified milk products.
|Bioaccessibility of Folic Acid and (6S)-5-Methyltetrahydrofolate Decreases after the Addiction of Folate-Binding Protein to Yogurt as Studied in a Dynamic In Vitro Gastrointestinal Model
Arkbåge, K. ; Verwei, M. ; Havenaar, R. ; Witthöft, C. - \ 2003
The Journal of Nutrition 133 (2003). - ISSN 0022-3166 - p. 3678 - 3683.
neural-tube defects - small-intestine - cows milk - bovine-milk - 5-methyltetrahydrofolate - bioavailability - absorption - homocysteine - transport - diets
Milk products are only moderate sources of folate. Nevertheless, they are of interest due to their content of folate-binding proteins (FBP), which in some studies have been reported to increase folate bioavailability. The effect of FBP on folate bioavailability has been widely discussed. The aim of this study was to investigate the bioaccessibility of folic acid and (6S)-5- methyltetrahydrofolate (5-CH3-H(4)folate) from fortified yogurt using a dynamic in vitro gastrointestinal model (TIM). In addition, the effect of FBP on folate bioaccessibility and the stability of FBP added to yogurt during gastrointestinal passage were investigated. Folate bioaccessibility was 82% from yogurt fortified with folic acid and 5-CH3-H(4)folate. The addition of FBP to yogurt decreased (P <0.05) folate bioaccessibility. The lowering effect of FBP was more pronounced in yogurt fortified with folic acid (34% folate bioaccessibility) than from yogurt fortified with 5-CH3-H(4)folate (57% folate bioaccessibility). After gastrointestinal passage, 17% of the FBP in yogurt fortified with 5-CH3-H(4)folate and 34% of the FBP in yogurt fortified with folic acid were recovered. No difference in folate bioaccessibility was found between folate-fortified yogurt and folate-fortified pasteurized milk (P = 0.10), whereas the lowering effect of FBP was (P <0.05) greater in yogurt compared with pasteurized milk. In conclusion, based on the high bioaccessibility of folic acid and 5-CH3-H(4)folate, yogurt without active FBP can be considered to be an appropriate food matrix for folate fortification.
|Folic acid and 5-methyltetrahydrofolate in fortified milk are bioaccessible as determined in a dynamic in vitro gastrointestinal model
Verwei, M. ; Arkbåge, K. ; Havenaar, R. ; Berg, H. van den; Witthöft, C. ; Schaafsma, G. - \ 2003
The Journal of Nutrition 133 (2003). - ISSN 0022-3166 - p. 2377 - 2383.
folate-binding-protein - neural-tube defects - red-cell folate - cows milk - plasma homocysteine - small-intestine - dietary-folate - bovine-milk - bioavailability - prevention
Dairy products are a potential matrix for folate fortification to enhance folate consumption in the Western world. Milk folate-binding proteins (FBP) are especially interesting because they seem to be involved in folate bioavailability. In this study, folate bioaccessibility was investigated using a dynamic computer-controlled gastrointestinal model [TNO gastrointestinal model (TIM)]. We used both ultrahigh temperature (UHT)-processed milk and pasteurized milk, differing in endogenous FBP concentrations and fortified with folic acid or 5-methyltetrahydrofolate (5-CH3-H(4)folate). To study FBP stability during gastrointestinal passage and the effect of additional FBP on folate bioaccessibility, FBP-fortified UHT and pasteurized milk products were also tested. Folate bioaccessibility and FBP stability were measured by taking samples along the compartments of the gastrointestinal model and measuring their folate and FBP concentrations. Folate bioaccessibility from folic acid-fortified milk products without additional FBP was 58-61%. This was lower (P <0.05) than that of the 5-CH3-H(4)folate-fortified milk products (71%). Addition of FBP reduced (P <0.05) folate bioaccessibility from folic acid-fortified milk (44-51%) but not from 5-CH3-H(4)folate-fortified milk products (72%). The residual FBP levels in the folic acid- and 5-CH3-H(4)folate-fortified milk products after gastrointestinal passage were 13-16% and 0-1%, respectively, of the starting amounts subjected to TIM. In conclusion, milk seems to be a suitable carrier for folate, because both folic acid and 5-CH3-H(4)folate are easily released from the matrix and available for absorption. However, our results suggest that folic acid remains partly bound to FBP during passage through the small intestine, which reduces the bioaccessibility of folic acid from milk in this model.