Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Nadenken over slimme teeltsystemen
Voort, Marcel van der - \ 2017
cropping systems - mechanization - controlled traffic farming - strip cropping - arable farming - organic farming - robots
A comprehensive assessment of agriculture in lowlands of south Brazil: characterization and comparison of current and alternative concepts
Theisen, Giovani - \ 2017
University. Promotor(en): Niels Anten, co-promotor(en): Lammert Bastiaans. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463436380 - 234
cropping systems - farming systems - crop management - lowland areas - wetlands - pampas - brazil - intensification - sustainability - productivity - indicators - soil management - rice - flooded rice - oryza sativa - maize - zea mays - glycine max - cover crops - livestock - rotation - mixed farming - seedbed preparation - farm machinery - teeltsystemen - bedrijfssystemen - gewasteelt - laaglandgebieden - pampa's - brazilië - intensivering - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - productiviteit - indicatoren - bodembeheer - rijst - natte rijst - maïs - dekgewassen - vee - rotatie - gemengde landbouw - zaaibedbereiding - landbouwwerktuigen

Agriculture in the lowlands of south Brazil is of strategic importance at the national level, since it supplies around 80% of the rice consumed by the Brazilian population. In Rio Grande do Sul, the southernmost state in Brazil, three million hectares of lowlands are ready for grain-based agriculture. Of this area, about half is fallow, partly used for cattle grazing, and irrigated rice is the predominant crop, cultivated annually on 1.1 million ha. The remaining area is used for soybean and other crops. The predominant cropping system is a combination of irrigated rice and cattle. Over the last decades, rice yields have steadily increased, but this rise in yield level has to a large extent been obtained at the expense of a continuously higher use of external inputs. The recent introduction of soybean in rotation with rice has partially improved the system, but in most areas the situation is becoming incompatible with the modern demands for sustainability. This thesis presents a long-term study (2006-2015) of five cropping systems for lowlands. Next to monocrop rice and two rice-soybean rotations conducted in either conventional or minimum tillage, the experiment contained two novel systems based on large ridges, on which soybean and maize were combined with either cover crops or crop-livestock integration in winter. In these last systems, 8-m-wide ridges were built to avoid flooding, thus allowing for diversification of cash crops and the cultivation of cover crops or pastures in winter time, as well as the use of no-tillage. All systems were evaluated at process-level, including soil preparation, seeding, plant nutrition, pest management, irrigation, harvesting, transport and cattle management, as well as regarding their performance for the different dimensions of sustainability, particularly environment, land productivity, economics, energy-use and labour. Next to system assessment, two additional experiments were conducted for the evaluation of two specific technologies for soil management in these areas. Crop livestock integration on the ridge-based system offered the best balance between food production, environmental impact and economics. This system is well suited to be used in fields that are kept fallow, thereby enlarging the agricultural productivity of the lowlands. The additional experiments revealed that a knife-roller can successfully substitute plough-and-harrow for soil preparation after rice harvest, and that germination of weed seeds can be reduced if crop seeding is conducted at a lower speed or using a no-tillage seeder equipped with an improved cutting mechanism. Overall the results show that by using alternative cropping systems that allow for diversification and new methods of field management it is possible to simultaneously attain a larger agricultural production and improved sustainability in the lowlands.

De bodem onder ons bestaan: interview met prof.dr. Lijbert Brussaard over de biologie van de bodem
Brussaard, Lijbert - \ 2017
mycorrhizal fungi - cropping systems - organic farming - minerals - fertilizer application - green manures - organic matter - soil biology - mycorrhizas
Strokenteelt klaar voor de praktijk : aardappel drie tot tien dagen later branden
Apeldoorn, D.F. van; Rossing, W.A.H. ; Oomen, Gerard - \ 2017
Ekoland (2017)5. - ISSN 0926-9142 - p. 10 - 11.
strokenteelt - aardappelen - akkerbouw - phytophthora - zomertarwe - teeltsystemen - landbouw - biologische landbouw - teelt - strip cropping - potatoes - arable farming - spring wheat - cropping systems - agriculture - organic farming - cultivation
Na de eerste verkenningen met het telen in stroken zijn onderzoeken naar de effecten ervan verder uitgebreid. Inmiddels zijn er meerdere strokenproeven verdeeld over vier locaties – Droevendaal, ERF, De Graanrepubliek en NZ27 – en zijn de verwachte voordelen van dit teeltsysteem bevestigd. Afhankelijk van de inrichting van het bedrijf en aansluitende mechanisatie lijkt strokenteelt klaar voor de praktijk.
Land use as a driver of soil fertility and biodiversity across an agricultural landscape in the Central Peruvian Andes
Valença, Anne W. De; Vanek, Steven J. ; Meza, Katherin ; Ccanto, Raul ; Olivera, Edgar ; Scurrah, Maria ; Lantinga, Egbert A. ; Fonte, Steven J. - \ 2017
Ecological Applications 27 (2017)4. - ISSN 1051-0761 - p. 1138 - 1154.
Andean forest - cropping systems - land use intensification - pasture - soil biology - soil degradation - soil macrofauna - vegetation

Land use change and intensification in agricultural landscapes of the Andean highlands have resulted in widespread soil degradation and a loss in soil-based ecosystem services and biodiversity. This trend threatens the sustainability of farming communities in the Andes, with important implications for food security and biodiversity conservation throughout the region. Based on these challenges, we sought to understand the impact of current and future land use practices on soil fertility and biodiversity, so as to inform landscape planning and management decisions for sustainable agroecosystem management. We worked with local communities to identify and map dominant land uses in an agricultural landscape surrounding Quilcas, Peru. These land uses existed within two elevations zones (low-medium, 3200-3800 m, and high elevation, 3800-4300 m). They included three types of low-medium elevation forests (eucalyptus, alder, and mixed/native species), five pasture management types (permanent pasture, temporal pasture [in fallow stage], degraded pasture, high-altitude permanent pasture, and high-altitude temporal pasture [in fallow stage]) and six cropping systems (forage crops, maize/beans, and potato under four types of management). Soil fertility was evaluated in surface soils (0-20 cm) with soil physicochemical parameters (e.g., pH, soil organic matter, available nutrients, texture), while soil biological properties were assessed using the abundance and diversity of soil macrofauna and ground cover vegetation. Our results indicated clear impacts of land use on soil fertility and biological communities. Altitude demonstrated the strongest effect on soil physicochemical properties, but management systems within the low-mid elevation zone also showed important differences in soil biological communities. In general, the less-disturbed forest and pasture systems supported more diverse soil communities than the more intensively managed croplands. Degraded soils demonstrated the lowest overall soil fertility and abundance of soil macrofauna, but this may be reversible via the planting of alder forests. Our findings also indicated significant covariation between soil physicochemical parameters, soil macrofauna, and ground vegetation. This suggests that management for any one of these soil properties may yield unintended cascading effects throughout the soil subsystem. In summary, our findings suggest that shifts in land use across the landscape are likely to have important impacts on soil functioning and biodiversity.

Is there life after hype for Jatropha? Exploring growth and yield in Indonesia
Tjeuw, Juliana - \ 2017
University. Promotor(en): Ken Giller; Meine van Noordwijk, co-promotor(en): Maja Slingerland. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463431927 - 223
fuel crops - jatropha curcas - crop yield - new crops - feasibility studies - indonesia - cultural methods - cultivation - disincentives - biobased economy - cropping systems - intercropping - brandstofgewassen - gewasopbrengst - nieuwe cultuurgewassen - haalbaarheidsstudies - indonesië - cultuurmethoden - teelt - belemmeringen - teeltsystemen - tussenteelt

Jatropha curcas L. is a biofuel crop that has not lived up to expectations due to a combination of hype and disappointment and biophysical factors. This PhD thesis is based on the plant production component of the JARAK programme which aimed to bridge the gap between truth and fiction. This study reviewed the jatropha hype and disappointment and further investigated the hypothesis that jatropha growth and yield are limited by biophysical factors of plant characteristics, cropping systems, and management. My review of the hype and disappointment shows that despite the high expectations fuelled by market pull and technology push, and numerous actors, the commercial potential for jatropha is limited by policy and governance, economics, social, technology, logistical, and environmental. A study of the biophysical components confirms that no current varieties suited to different cropping systems and locations are available. Jatropha aboveground biomass is partitioned predominantly into a structure of stem, branches, and twigs. The below to aboveground biomass ratio was 0.5 and fruit which was found only on productive twigs accounted for the smallest portion of biomass measured. Seed yields were disappointingly small (109 kg ha-1) and were largest in monoculture, followed by intercropping and hedgerows in that order, although yields were influenced by age and management of pruning and fertiliser. Seed yield across the three cropping systems can be predicted using plant height and the number of productive twig/branch, although the number of inflorescence clusters per productive twig may be important. Intercropping between jatropha and maize (Zea mays L.) resulted in competition for resources both belowground and aboveground that reduced maize yields. Shoot pruning was effective in managing aboveground competition, while root pruning and root barriers effectively managed competition belowground. Leaf prunings provided a limited, but positive fertility effect on maize yield comparable to 21 kg N ha-1. Jatropha - maize intercropping has potential for long-term productivity provided management practices such as fertiliser, pruning, and planting density can be developed to minimise competition and enhance complementarity. Based on my review of the jatropha hype and disappointment and my biophysical research results, the planting of jatropha by smallholders, or as a plantation crop cannot be recommended. Once the issues I highlight have been resolved and market confidence restored, jatropha may finally become a commercial source of biodiesel able to provide improved socio-economic and environmental benefits.

'Discussie over gangbaar versus bio is gedateerd'
Schulte, Rogier - \ 2017
cropping systems - sustainability - organic farming - sustainable agriculture - agricultural production - certification
SPARK-UP; Seaweed Production And Refining of Kelp, Ulva and Palmaria : 2013-2016
Wald, J. ; Visser, W. de; Brandenburg, W.A. ; Jongschaap, R.E.E. ; Werf, A.K. van der; Deelman, Berth-Jan ; Helmendach-Nieuwenhuize, Carola - \ 2016
Plant Research International - 144 p.
seaweeds - biobased economy - seaweed culture - biomass production - biomass conversion - aquatic biomass - biorefinery - seaweed products - applications - applied research - cropping systems - marketing channels - zeewieren - zeewierenteelt - biomassa productie - biomassaconversie - aquatische biomassa - bioraffinage - zeewierproducten - toepassingen - toegepast onderzoek - teeltsystemen - marketingkanalen
In het SPARK-UP project, waarin de partners Arkema, PRI-WUR en North Seaweed samenwerkten aan de ontwikkeling van toepassing van zeewier in de biobased economy, is de afgelopen jaren veel werk verzet. In een bassin op het terrein van Arkema, heeft PRI een teeltsysteem opgezet en in gebruik genomen, om onder gecontroleerde omstandigheden zeewier te telen in Westerscheldewater dat in het bassin was ingenomen. Arkema heeft gewerkt aan de raffinage van wieren, met name gericht op de suikers. North Seaweed heeft zich geconcentreerd op het ontwikkelen van businesscases van geraffineerde eiwitten en alginaten uit zeewier en bij het gebruik van de hele wieren als plantversterkers.
Mais en bodem rapport 2015
Riemens, M.M. ; Huiting, H.F. ; Deru, J.G.C. ; Schooten, H.A. van; Weide, R.Y. van der - \ 2016
Wageningen Plant Research - 76 p.
zea mays - maïs - bodem - bodembeheer - teeltsystemen - maize - soil - soil management - cropping systems
Hoe kunnen veetelers met minder input meer resultaten halen bij snijmaïsteelt? Dat is de centrale vraag van het project “Duurzaam bodembeheer maïs” (BO-31.03-001-003). Veel melkveehouderijbedrijven telen snijmaïs, een gemakkelijk te telen ruwvoergewas met een goede productie van constante hoge kwaliteit. Als zetmeelbron met een ruime energie/eiwitverhouding past het goed in het runderdieet, naast gras en graskuil. De maïsteelt kan echter nadelige effecten hebben voor de bodem door gewasbeschermingsmiddelen en het uit- en afspoelen van nutriënten. Wageningen UR en het Louis Bolk Instituut onderzoeken in opdracht van het ministerie van EZ duurzame en praktisch haalbare verbeteringen en vernieuwingen. Teeltsystemen die zorgen voor een gezonde bodem worden daarbij gezien als sleutel tot duurzame teelt. Op drie locaties worden diverse teeltsystemen vergeleken in meerjarige proeven uitgevoerd op zand- en kleigrond. Daarbij wordt onder andere gekeken naar opbrengst, onkruiddruk, bodemstructuur, aanwezigheid van regenwormen, indringingsweerstand, waterinfiltratie, stikstofdynamiek en economische aspecten. Deze kennis wordt vervolgens doorgegeven aan de praktijk middels o.a. de beslisboom snijmaïs, een instrument om praktische kennis naar veetelers en erfbezoekers te brengen.
Noord-Europa biedt kansen voor ‘local for local’ tomatenteelt: rekening houden met lagere productie en hogere kosten
Velden, Nico van der - \ 2016
tomatoes - greenhouse horticulture - northern europe - greenhouse vegetables - cropping systems - farm management

Een groeiende groep consumenten geeft de voorkeur aan lokaal geteelde groenten en fruit en wil daar ook wat meer voor betalen. In samenwerking met telersverenigingen en met steun van de Topsector Tuinbouw & Uitgangsmateriaal voerde Wageningen Economic Research (voorheen: LEI Wageningen UR) een studie uit naar de lokale teelt en afzet van tomaten in Noord-Europa. De kansen liggen niet voor het oprapen, maar zijn er wel degelijk, stelt onderzoeker Nico van der Velden vast.

Biobased Economy: Algen, het groene goud
Barbosa, M.J. - \ 2016
Wageningen : Wageningen University & Research
algenteelt - algen - biomassa productie - teeltsystemen - cultuurmethoden - biobased economy - algae culture - algae - biomass production - cropping systems - cultural methods
De wereldbevolking groeit en daarmee ook de behoefte aan energie, chemicaliën, en producten zoals plastic, zeep, schoonmaakmiddelen, verf en lijm. Om daarin te kunnen voorzien, moeten we overstappen naar een economie, waarin we de grondstoffen voor deze producten uit duurzame, hernieuwbare bronnen halen. Een voorbeeld van een van de meest duurzame oplossingen zijn micro-algen. Maria Barbosa van Wageningen University & Research vertelt er alles over.
Kliekjes eten in de kas: een model voor telen zonder emissies
Blok, Chris - \ 2016
sustainable agriculture - greenhouse horticulture - emission reduction - cropping systems - plant development - plant nutrition
Onderzoek naar duurzaam geteelde vanille uit Nederlandse kassen - Inspelen op groeiende vraag
Noort, Filip van - \ 2016
horticulture - greenhouse horticulture - vanilla planifolia - cropping systems - spice plants - substrates - pollination - agricultural research
Meer maatwerk mogelijk in bemesting voor pot- en grondteelten
Kromwijk, Arca - \ 2016
greenhouse horticulture - manures - fertilizer application - cropping systems - growers - innovations - pot plants - new products
Filmpje: Paprika, schermen bij tropisch weer, geen binnenrot
Gelder, A. de - \ 2016
Kasalsenergiebron.nl
paprika's - gewasproductie - energiebesparing - energiegebruik - gewaskwaliteit - glastuinbouw - teeltsystemen - sweet peppers - crop production - energy saving - energy consumption - crop quality - greenhouse horticulture - cropping systems
Het weglaten van de minimumbuis en het gebruik van twee energieschermen elke nacht, ook tijdens de warmste dagen in augustus, waren de opvallendste aspecten tijdens het onderzoek ‘Paprika energiezuinig met een goede kwaliteit’. Aat Dijkshoorn (LTO Glaskracht Nederland), Jeroen Zwinkels (Delphy), Arie de Gelder (Wageningen University & Research) en telers Danny van der Spek (Paprikakwekerij Van der Spek) en Maikel van den Berg (Quality Peppers) vertellen in dit filmpje over deze opvallende resultaten van het onderzoek.
Algae production pilot open ponds Lelystad : Results 2013 - 2015
Dijk, W. van; Weide, R.Y. van der; Gennep, Coen van - \ 2016
Lelystad : ACRRES - Wageningen UR (PPO rapport 583) - 63 p.
algae culture - biomass production - aquatic biomass - yields - pilot projects - growout ponds - cropping systems - biobased economy - algenteelt - biomassa productie - aquatische biomassa - opbrengsten - proefprojecten - groeivijvers - teeltsystemen
In 2012 two open microalgae ponds (one indoor and one outdoor, both 250 m2) were built at the ACRRES pilot site in Lelystad. Both ponds are connected to an anaerobic digester and utilise excess heat and flue gas (CO2) from the Combined Heat and Power unit (CHP). In this report the results of the algae production monitoring and the additional experiments are given for the period 2013-2015.
Crop intensification options and trade-offs with the water balance in the Central Rift Valley of Ethiopia
Debas, Mezegebu - \ 2016
University. Promotor(en): Martin van Ittersum, co-promotor(en): Huib Hengsdijk; Katrien Descheemaeker. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462578616 - 178
cropping systems - intensification - water balance - crop production - land use - climatic change - crop yield - water use - irrigation - ethiopia - teeltsystemen - intensivering - waterbalans - gewasproductie - landgebruik - klimaatverandering - gewasopbrengst - watergebruik - irrigatie - ethiopië

The Central Rift Valley (CRV) of Ethiopia is a closed basin for which claims on land and water have strongly increased over the past decade resulting in over-exploitation of the resources. A clear symptom is the declining trend in the water level of the terminal Lake Abyata. The actual productivity of most cereals in the CRV is less than 2 t ha-1 associated with low input use and poor crop management. Consequently, there are two major development objectives in the CRV, i.e. producing sufficient food for the increasing population, while at the same time ensuring efficient use of limited water and land resources under variable and changing climate conditions. The low productive cereal systems and a declining resource base call for options to increase crop productivity and improve resource use efficiency in order to meet the growing demand for food.

In this thesis, the recent impacts were quantified of climate change, land use change and irrigation water abstraction on water availability of Lake Abyata of the CRV. The trends in lake levels, river discharges, basin rainfall, temperature and irrigation development (ca. 1975-2008) were analysed and the additional evapotranspiration loss resulting from temperature change and irrigated land were computed. We also analysed land use change (1990-2007) and the associated changes in runoff. Results showed that temperature has increased over 34 years (p<0.001) whereas annual rainfall has not changed significantly. Consequently, increased evapotranspiration consumed 62 and 145 Mm3 of additional water from lakes and land surface, respectively, during 1990-2007. Furthermore, an estimated 285 Mm3yr-1 of water was abstracted for irrigation in 2009 of which approximately 170 Mm3yr-1 is irrecoverable evapotranspiration loss. In addition, surface runoff has increased in the upper, and decreased in lower sub-basins of the CRV associated with extensive land use change (1990-2007).

We analysed a large number of data from farmers’ fields (>10,000) and experimental data across the CRV from 2004-2009 to quantify the gaps (Yg) between actual (farm) and experimental (water-limited potential - Yw) yields of maize and wheat in homogenous farming zones. We found that the average (2004-2009) yield gap of maize and wheat ranged between 4.2-9.2 t ha-1, and 2.5-4.7 t ha-1, respectively, across farming zones. The actual N and P application in farmers’ fields was low, as about 46% of maize and 27% of wheat fields did not receive fertilisers. We calibrated, validated and used the Agricultural Production System Simulator (APSIM) model to explore intensification options and their trade-offs with water losses through evapotranspiration. Variety selection and N fertilization were more important for yield gap closure than crop residue management and planting density, and the magnitude of their effect depended on soil type and climate. There was a trade-off between intensification and water use through evapotranspiration, as increasing yield comes at the cost of increased transpiration. However, this trade-off can be minimized by choosing location-specific N levels at which both water use efficiency (WUE) and gross margin are maximised. These application rates varied between 75 and 250 kg N ha-1 across locations and soils, and allowed producing 80% of Yw of maize and wheat. Climate change was projected to lower Yw of maize and wheat by ca. 15-25% and 2-30%, respectively, compared to current climate conditions.

An automated gridded simulation framework was developed to scale up the promising intensification options from field scale to basin scale. We then aggregated basin scale production and identified trade-offs between production and water use for different land use scenarios. This procedure allowed designing land use scenarios based on a spatially explicit optimization of WUE and gross margin per grid cell. Consequences of land use scenarios for food production and water use at basin level were evaluated. Results of the different land use scenarios demonstrated that crop intensification options for which WUE and gross margin are maximised can meet the projected food demand (year 2050) of the growing population in the CRV while at the same time saving large areas of the currently cultivated land. In the intensification scenarios total water loss through evapotranspiration from agricultural land is reduced compared with water loss from current cultivated land and low crop productivity levels.

It is concluded that the current land use together with climate change and water abstraction for irrigation negatively affected the basin level water balance in CRV over the past decade. Furthermore, the scope for further expansion of farmland to increase food production is very limited. The focus should, therefore, be towards intensification also because the existing yield gaps are huge and hence the scope for intensification is large. Model-based exploration of intensification options can be used to prioritize promising options, to close the yield gap and for quantifying trade-offs. Scaling up of promising options allows to assess whether the food demand of the growing population can be met while at the same time saving the less productive land and water per unit agricultural product.

Betaalbaarheid zuivering lozingswater glastuinbouw : addendum bij LEI-rapport 2015-001 naar aanleiding van aangescherpte zuiveringseisen
Buurma, J.S. ; Meer, R.W. van der; Os, E.A. van; Ruijven, J.P.M. van; Veen, H.B. van der - \ 2016
Wageningen : LEI Wageningen UR (LEI nota 2016-026) - 19 p.
glastuinbouw - waterzuivering - investering - hergebruik van water - teeltsystemen - kostenanalyse - agrarische bedrijfsvoering - nederland - greenhouse horticulture - water treatment - investment - water reuse - cropping systems - cost analysis - farm management - netherlands
Op verzoek van LTO Glaskracht Nederland hebben LEI Wageningen UR en Wageningen UR Glastuinbouw de benodigde extra investeringen voor de zuivering van afvalwater in de glastuinbouw en de betaalbaarheid van die investeringen verder onderzocht. Dit verzoek kwam voort uit onderhandelingen met het ministerie van I&M over het tempo van de invoering van zuiveringseisen. In eerder onderzoek, gepubliceerd in LEI-rapport 2015-001, werd uitgegaan van 80% zuivering in 2016. In de lopende onderhandelingen wordt aangestuurd op 95% zuivering in 2018. Hierbij is discussie over de vraag of dit gemiddeld 95% over het mandje van stoffen in standaardwater moet zijn, of dat het 95% per stof moet zijn. Bij toepassing van zuivering met H2O2+UV vergt de eis van 95% zuivering een grotere zuiveringscapaciteit en grotere investeringen. In dit addendum wordt aangegeven hoe verhoging van de zuiveringseisen doorwerkt in verhoging van de benodigde zuiveringscapaciteit en de bijbehorende investeringsbedragen. Tegelijkertijd wordt aangegeven hoe de extra investeringen doorwerken in het beslag op bedrijfssaldo, inkomen uit bedrijf en vrije investeringsruimte.
Geïntegreerde beheersing ziekten en plagen in robuuste teeltsystemen : 'Systeemsprongen' geven richting aan onderzoeksagenda
Salm, Caroline van der - \ 2016
horticulture - greenhouse horticulture - agricultural research - integrated control - plant protection - cropping systems - plant breeding - crop monitoring - marketing - workshops (programs)

De glastuinbouw wil nagenoeg emissie- en residuvrij produceren en minder afhankelijk worden van chemische gewasbescherming. Caroline van de Salm van Wageningen UR Glastuinbouw is projectleider van deze PPS.

Nieuwe voedingsschema’s phalaenopsis voor veranderde teeltwijze : recirculatie, productieverhoging, teeltverkorting
Kromwijk, Arca ; Blok, Chris - \ 2016
horticulture - greenhouse horticulture - pot plants - phalaenopsis - recirculating systems - cropping systems - nutrients - crop production - urea - sodium - zinc - crop growth stage - agricultural research

De teelt van phalaenopsis is in de afgelopen vijftien jaar zo sterk veranderd, dat de praktijk niet goed meer uit de voeten kon met de voedingsschema’s uit de jaren negentig. Onderzoekers van Wageningen UR Glastuinbouw hebben daarom nieuwe schema’s ontwikkeld, die inmiddels op grote schaal toepassing vinden. Het gaat om schema’s voor opkweek (vegetatief) en afkweek (generatief) in bedrijfssituaties met en zonder recirculatie.

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