Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Europe: the paradox of landscape change : A case-study based contribution to the understanding of landscape transitions
Sluis, Theo van der - \ 2017
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Bas Arts, co-promotor(en): Bas Pedroli. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463438094 - 227
europe - case studies - landscape - change - landscape conservation - land use dynamics - cultural landscape - regions - urbanization - rural areas - policy - ecosystem services - agri-environment schemes - europa - gevalsanalyse - landschap - verandering - landschapsbescherming - dynamiek van het ruimtegebruik - cultuurlandschap - regio's - urbanisatie - platteland - beleid - ecosysteemdiensten - agrarisch natuurbeheer

This thesis explores the processes of change in European rural landscapes. Landscapes have evolved over millennia as a result of human influence on the physical environment. Europe has a wide variety of landscapes that can alter within a relatively short distance, and which often form part of the national cultural identity of a European country. Central to this thesis, however, are insights into the processes of landscape change.

In this context, the overall objective of this thesis is: To assess the dynamics of landscape change and increase the scientific understanding of the underlying processes and policies that have shaped the rural landscapes of Europe after establishment of the EU.

The focus is on the period following the establishment of the European Economic Community in 1965, which is hypothesised as the main driver of landscape change. European policies have an important direct impact on national and regional policies. The way that European policy transposition took place, existing governance structures and policy cultures also defined how ‘European policy’ influenced countries and regions. The object of this study is in particular the changing rural landscape, including the role of European agricultural policies, such as the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) and conservation policies (for example Natura2000) in these changes.

The thesis uses an integrated approach to assess the various processes of landscape change: land use transitions, urbanisation of the countryside, land use intensification, extensification or abandonment. These processes are linked to drivers of landscape changes, the role of policies, and how these affect the landscape processes.

Research questions

The research objective requires unravelling the correlations between land-related policies and landscape change in the EU, the drivers of landscape change and in particular how policies affect the European landscape. To operationalise this objective, the following research questions are addressed:

What are the major landscape change processes occurring in different regions of Europe?

What are the drivers of landscape change in different regions of Europe, and what is the role of EU-policies in particular?

How do landscape changes affect the provision of landscape services?

How does the implementation of conservation policies affect processes of landscape change?

Which effective strategies and future pathways can be followed to conserve valuable cultural landscapes?

The thesis consists of an introductory chapter, five chapters each addressing one of the research questions, and a concluding synthesis: putting the findings together and indicating their potential significance for research and policy. The first chapter introduces the theoretical framework, which focusses on the benefits (goods and services) that landscapes provide, satisfying human demands directly or indirectly. The framework recognises the institutions, the policies (indirect drivers), as well as natural and anthropogenic drivers of landscape change. The five central chapters have each been submitted to international peer reviewed scientific journals, three of which have been accepted, and one has been revised and resubmitted.

Research question Q1, ‘What are major landscape changes occurring in different regions of Europe?’ is addressed by interviewing 437 farmers in six selected study areas in Denmark, the Netherlands, Austria, Greece and Romania (Chapter 2). The aim of this survey was to acquire a better understanding of farmer’s decision making, the environmental conditions and the landscape change processes taking place. The focus is on intensification and extensification processes in the case-study areas and regional similarities and differences. A statistical analysis of land use intensity was carried out on the basis of the interviews.

Research question Q2, ‘What are the drivers of landscape change in different regions of Europe, and what particularly are the role of EU-policies?’, discusses the factors and drivers of change in a meta-study of six countries (Chapter 3). This study is based on stakeholder’s interpretations of change processes, using Fuzzy Cognitive Mapping. Groups of landscape experts participated in five workshops to jointly construct a cognitive map of landscape change processes over the past 25 years. The study examines in particular the storylines of the processes of landscape change. Two cases of Mediterranean and Boreal landscapes, are detailed.

Question Q3, ‘How do landscape changes affect the provision of landscape services?’ is addressed in Chapter 4, and discusses five European case studies with regard to changes in landscape services. The analysis is based on observed landscape changes by comparing maps for periods of up to 25 years. The changes were interpreted in terms of the consequences for landscape services, and related to European policies of landscape change.

Question Q4: ‘How does the implementation of conservation policies affect processes of landscape change?’ is discussed in Chapter 5 through focus on landscape governance. The transposition of European policy is assessed using the case of the Habitats Directive in four countries: Denmark, Greece, The Netherlands and Romania. It is assessed how legislation is locally translated and how this ‘fits’ the national governance system.

The last Question, Q5: ‘Which effective strategies and future pathways can be followed to conserve valuable cultural landscapes?’ is addressed in Chapter 6 on Mediterranean landscape change. Two ‘iconic’ Greek and Italian cultural olive yard landscapes were compared. Both landscapes have a centuries-old farming system. Long-term data sets on landscape change (exceeding 100 years) were combined with map data, interviews and literature, to discuss the characteristics of cultural landscape management, opportunities and potential risks for the future of these cultural landscapes.

The final chapter, Chapter 7, reflects on the results and presents the conclusions of the previous chapters, and on the scientific and societal significance of the thesis as a whole. It is concluded that the landscape in Europe is permanently changing as a result of complex interacting drivers. Policy has been one of the important drivers, but the landscape changes that have taken place are the outcome of various economic drivers and policies. The paradox is that the intentions of different European and regional spatial policies have been ambitious with regard to rural development, environmental quality, conservation of natural habitats and cultural heritage. In the end however, the complex interactions among direct and indirect drivers led to unintentional changes negatively affecting landscape value, resulting in land degradation, loss of cultural values and biodiversity. In other words, dominant drivers of landscape change (global economy, European policies) resulted in an outcome of landscapes that are preferred by the majority of the agricultural and forest sector, but otherwise no specific stakeholders were targeted, an outcome which was not envisaged by the policies.

Without efficient allocation of land resources and failing to regulate sustainable use, the landscape services are declining One approach to meet the diverse demands for landscape services is to focus on the provision of multiple benefits, using a multifunctional land use approach. The assumption thereby is that a multifunctional landscape has all aspects of a sustainable, liveable and biodiverse landscape.

The case studies landscapes in this thesis are characterised by different approaches that differ in multifunctionality: the marginal areas in southern Europe are less embedded in the global economy, and demonstrate high multifunctionality. Denmark and The Netherlands show typical ‘lowland agriculture’, that are weakly multifunctional. The Eastern European landscape cases in Romania and Estonia have higher multifunctionality, but the opportunities for change towards multifunctionality are less than in Western Europe. The opportunities are mostly dictated by environmental conditions, in particular the marginality of land, and the economy. Farming in these regions may have been profitable in the past, but abandonment is looming if no measures are taken to counteract economic driving forces.

The cultural landscapes such as in Lesvos and Portofino are particularly highly multifunctional. These old social systems are in decline: landscapes have deteriorated and changed since they have not been well maintained. The discontinuance of traditional management has occurred due to ageing populations, a lack of labour, skills and high costs. If iconic cultural landscapes are to be preserved for the future, deterioration must be halted. Traditional knowledge, skills and techniques are key for maintaining valuable cultural landscapes, such as in Italy and Greece, but also cultural landscapes in Western Europe like England or France, or traditional landscapes in Hungary or Poland. Solutions must be found to preserve the knowledge and traditions of landscape management, but also funds and labour are required to maintain these landscapes.

European landscapes have been permanently changing as a result of complex interacting drivers. Policy is one of the important drivers, but the landscape changes that take place are not the outcome of ‘a’ policy which steers the landscape development, but as the outcome of globalisation, economic drivers and policies; mostly the CAP, Rural Development Plan (RDP) and national forest policies which affect to a large measure the landscapes. There is no European policy for landscapes: landscape is not a prerogative of the EU.

Therefore, a tailor-made approach is essential for European policies implemented in each member state, taking into account the structure and functioning of existing national institutions, without losing sight of the overall aims of the policy. This requires input from the recipient countries in designing regulations, adapting them to existent institutions and modifying historical and current practices.

Holmes’ framework for changing modes of occupancy (use of rural space) has been used, whereby landscape transitions are considered the result of a changing balance between societal consumption, conservation and production. Landscapes where (agricultural or forestry) production is less dominant, may allow for more multifunctional policies that counterbalance the dominant position of production. Most countries do not have policies that fill the ‘gap’ of multifunctional landscape management. Gaps exist for landscapes not subject to Natura 2000, high nature value farming areas, outside urban zones, locations not affected by the Water Framework Directive or national forest policies, or those insufficiently covered at present by effective planning for multifunctional land use.

Existing (sectoral) schemes need to be re-examined with respect to multifunctionality. Potential multifunctional impacts should be considered in policymaking, e.g. payment schemes in the CAP or in Natura 2000, and about appropriate target areas for measures. Making more funds from CAP and RDP available for multifunctional land use could lead to more land sharing.

Landscapes, particularly iconic cultural landscapes, can benefit from mechanisms that allow the costs incurred by lower agricultural production to be covered. Payments for regulating and cultural services could be integrated in funding programs, e.g. through better targeting of Agri-Environment Schemes (AES) at smaller farmers in these valuable landscapes. Funding schemes should ensure that small, multifunctional farmers particularly in need support benefit. Better use must also be made of the added value potential of multifunctional effects. Increased multifunctionality would benefit the attractiveness of the countryside for residence, recreation and tourism.

Countries implement policies differently, but key success factors for multifunctional landscapes are the existence of locally- appropriate institutions that implement multifunctional policies. Building of new institutions can be time consuming and requires staff development.

Policy instruments on their own may be insufficient to harmonise the different aims of multifunctionality. Despite the AES, biodiversity and landscape quality is declining. The domination of some functions requires interventions and choices about trade-offs to be made (Arts et al. 2017). Given the dominant power of globalisation and European markets, payment for landscape services alone is ineffective, requiring additional incentives for the valorisation of these services, and to stimulate multifunctionality. Regional integrative approaches could be supported, with positive examples provided in the cases of alternative funding schemes, and how obstructions for such experiments can be tackled.

Finally, stakeholder involvement in landscape governance appears promising as a way to better meet the socio-ecological context within a landscape, provided that stakeholders address different scale levels. This requires a dynamic process to mobilise stakeholders, and flexibility of the government towards negotiations and conflict management at the landscape level. In particular, these last issues can be decisive for successful landscape governance. Different landscape governance arrangements are currently being tested in Europe which demonstrate new avenues. Notwithstanding some successful stakeholder involvement in landscape management, there are also challenges: in all such processes, there is a risk that collaboration results in power inequalities that affect the outcome, or may give certain groups more benefits than others, which may make the process unsustainable. It remains, therefore, important that the concept of multifunctional landscapes is integrated in existing legislation and regulations, and further integrated into land-related policies.

Dis-locating innovation : amphibious geographies of creative reuse and alternative value production
Barba Lata, Iulian I.V. - \ 2017
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Claudio Minca, co-promotor(en): Martijn Duineveld. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463430135 - 131
landscape - cultural landscape - innovations - creativity - imagination - urban sites - urban development - waste land - rural areas - topology - landschap - cultuurlandschap - innovaties - creativiteit - verbeelding - stedelijke terreinen - stadsontwikkeling - woeste grond - platteland - topologie

This dissertation dwells on an experimental approach to the emergence of alternative innovations, interrogated through their spatiotemporal and material conditions. Proceeding from the more recent spate of contributions that grant recognition to innovation processes as a common feature of any practice, this research seeks to expand the understanding of innovation beyond canonical interpretations of the subject matter. This opens up a bewildering matrix of potentialities to tackle the emergence of alternatives, often to be recovered from the very dynamics of mainstream innovations that branch out beyond their original purpose. Moreover, the contingent character of mainstream and alternative innovations connotes processes of varying dynamics and rhythmic qualities, which appear to escape the sole grip of linear or cyclical interpretations. Instructed by this preliminary set of assumptions, this investigation belongs to an amphibious domain of enquiry, one that takes shape at the interface between presumably grounded and more fluid readings of innovation processes. Aligned to the amphibious conceptual imaginary, there is also the thematic repertoire and empirical ambit of case studies explored within the dissertation. As such, the evoked conceptual liminality dictated the particular focus on amphibious practices, as the referents of material and affective dispositions, as well as of narratives of belonging scored across land-water interfaces.

The main case studies presented in chapters IV and V were the result of an exploratory phase, with its point of departure in a pilot study conducted on the emergence of floating urbanization solutions in the Netherlands. The surveyed modalities of inhabiting land-water interfaces led me to wonder on the existence of alternative conditions of possibility to what otherwise appeared and were also tagged as very innovative attempts to reimagine urban dwelling. This struck me as a thorny task: where do you start in qualifying something as innovative or not? It took another survey of historical practices and some lengthy reflection sessions to realize that beyond the shifts and turns it has supposedly informed, innovation is much more performative than I initially thought. Thus, I started conducting ethnographic fieldwork by focusing on a pretty unusual case – floating churches, in Volgograd, Russia, more rural than urban, and definitely not the kind of instance you would run across in the mainstream innovation literature. The second case selection followed more or less the same oddly-informed pattern, this time – an on-land harbour, the brainchild of an experimental self-sufficient community recently established in Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Speaking from the field of Cultural Geography such an endeavour appears to be an opportune exercise, particularly for better understanding the underlying conditions of the current innovation ethos and the ways it (potentially) shapes future trajectories. The investigation draws on three main research questions, which address the meanings (1), workings (2) and expectations (3) connected to various innovation imaginaries, as follows:

In what ways do different amphibious practices acknowledge the spatiotemporal and material conditions of innovation?

How do those conditions enable the emergence of alternative innovations?

To what extent are emergent alternatives influencing incumbent political repertoires as part of the current innovation ethos?

To answer these research questions, the dissertation brings into dialogue multiple disciplinary filiations and, as a secondary and more subtle objective, it reflects upon a new set of spatial (and temporal) imaginaries that would add up to the emergent spatial grammars currently animating geographical thought. Within the broader ambit of unpacking the workings of innovation processes, the theoretical and empirical exploration weaves contributions to the burgeoning strands of work on topological thinking, geographies of religion and secularism, archival practices and knowledge mobilities, urban progressive movements, and particularly, to the ongoing debates on new materialism. Consequently, the methodological sway of this study covers a spectrum ranging from grand theory to ethnographic accounts of micro-societal shifts.

The dissertation is structured into seven chapters and its red thread could be envisioned as describing a loop between chapters II and VI, accordingly entitled The Magic Mirror I and The Magic Mirror II. The second chapter provides a critical overview of grand innovation narratives and their diverse filiations across Western thought, to outline the conceptual imaginary that drives this investigation. The thematic focus of The Magic Mirror I concerns the normative distinction between innovation and imitation, which arguably deters an ampler understanding of innovation processes. Chapter III, The surface and the abyss, expands on this preliminary vision by resorting to an extensive genealogical exercise. Through a critical deployment of the surface/depth metaphor, it explores the catalytic potential of topological thinking to establish points of articulation between apparently opposed notions and canons of thought. Starting from a genealogy of mathematical developments and philosophical mediations toward the end point of geography, it addresses the interplay between the formal (axiomatic) and conceptual (problematic) dimensions of topology in suggesting some potentially alternative ways of re-imagining the role of topological thinking for spatial theory and human geography, and connecting these to the empirical exploration presented in chapter IV.

Chapter IV explores the concept of creative reuse as an alternative modality to interrogate the materiality of things and their documentary sway beyond the immediate affordances dictated by circumstances of disposal or dissolution. Drawing on an ethnographic study of the Volga and Don riverscapes, it evokes the case of the floating churches built to support the revival of faith practices in the Volgograd oblast after the collapse of the Soviet Union. In attending to their impact in warping various temporal and geographical proximities, it suggests that their workings rely on topologies of fixed points and shifting spatialities, animated by forms of religious ritual and related creative manifestations. Through recourse to questions of materiality, mobility and affect it argues that creative reuse interventions provide productive ways of exposing and altering the residual surplus on which both things and processes of place-making rest upon.

Chapter V examines the role of creative reuse as an alternative imaginary specifically concerned with the residual surplus that results along dominant processes of accumulation and value production. In moving beyond circumstances of disposal or dissolution, it argues that creative reuse interventions provide inventive ways to exploit the productive latencies scored across incumbent sociotechnical arrangements. Building upon an ethnographic study of De Ceuvel’s on-land harbour, an experimental self-sufficient community recently established in Amsterdam, it shows how things that were otherwise redundant/disposed/forgotten can stimulate new material and affective dispositions that call into question established practices around sustainable, creative and inclusive city-making. Based on the findings, it goes on to suggest that creative reuse interventions enable new conditions of possibility for the enactment of alternative urban futures.

Chapter VI, The Magic Mirror II, closes the loop by connecting the findings to the introductory discussion from The Magic Mirror I, and elaborating further upon a more generous imaginary to tackle the workings of innovations, as well as the emergence of related alternatives. Thus, from the genealogical interrogation of topology to the unconventional interventions discussed in the empirical sections, creative reuse emerges as the vehicle of surprising returns. These enable a more generous reading that transcends the immediate affordances of mere imitation or circumstances of disposal – one that pivots on the key role of variation through mimesis or the potent afterlives of things and affects in animating alternative forms of innovation. The reference to alternatives should be understood both in relation to the dominant narrative of creative destruction, as well as to how various imaginaries – whether digested as secular, religious or otherwise – become entangled and mirror each other in intriguing ways. Consequently, even when proceeding from the fairly basic distinction that things envisioned as fixed end up afloat and travelling around, as much as things expected to float and travel around become stranded, the idea of surprising returns opens a broad spectrum of meanings and potentialities. As such, the resulting instances expose realities that are much more turbulent than commonly asserted.

Chapter VII answers the main research questions and also grants recognition to creative reuse imaginaries as the inescapable complement to dominant processes of accumulation and value production. As such, the material and affective dispositions cultivated through the emergence of alternatives, within and between various practices, signal the dislocation work occasioned by processes of variation through mimesis. These emergent imaginaries rely on a logic of aspiration and differentiation, which allows them to interfere with, and shape each other, or even morph into new narratives of belonging and creative action. And this is usually achieved through a rather twisted symbiosis, one of peculiar association. The latter pertains to the loose/labile character of creative reuse imaginaries explored in the empirical chapters, which enables them to contract and expand under various readings. Somewhat paradoxically, their dynamics seems to mirror that of mainstream innovations through the performative re-enactment of conditions for success. However, they excel through the disposition for multiple entanglements that often defy the normative distinctions between formal and informal domains. This gives rise to broad fields of resonance in recasting all sorts of anamorphic reflections across the resulting amphibious domains of contingency. In other words, the more imaginaries they interfere with or even subsume, the higher chances become for innovative spin-offs. For a more synthetic overview of the findings, the last section of the chapter packs a final reflection in the form of some tentative corollaries inspired by this exploratory journey.

Meer bloemen, meer bijen in agrarische landschappen?
Bukovinszki, T. ; Biesmeijer, J.C. ; Wäckers, F.L. ; Prins, H.H.T. ; Kleijn, D. - \ 2016
Landschap : tijdschrift voor landschapsecologie en milieukunde 33 (2016)1. - ISSN 0169-6300 - p. 37 - 40.
cultuurlandschap - functionele biodiversiteit - wilde bijenvolken - apidae - bombus - bloemen - bijenstanden - bestuiving - veldproeven - cultural landscape - functional biodiversity - wild honey bee colonies - flowers - apiaries - pollination - field tests
In moderne cultuurlandschappen wordt het voor wilde bijen steeds moeilijker om de benodigde hulpbronnen, zoals bloemen en nestgelegenheid te bemachtigen. Wij willen nagaan of de aanleg van meerjarige bloemenvelden de achteruitgang van wilde bijen in deze landschappen kan tegengaan. De resultaten laten zien dat het verhogen van het aanbod van bloemen kan leiden tot een soortenrijkere gemeenschap van wilde bestuivers, niet alleen in de bloemenvelden zelf maar ook in het omliggende landschap.
Historisch-ecologische samenhang tussen cultuurhistorie en vegetatie in het Nationale Park De Hoge Veluwe
Spek, Th. ; Bijlsma, R.J. ; Bokdam, J. ; Dam, Douwe van; Visser, Niko - \ 2014
De Levende Natuur 115 (2014)6. - ISSN 0024-1520 - p. 240 - 245.
ecosysteembeheer - historische ecologie - nationale parken - cultuurlandschap - veluwe - ecosystem management - historical ecology - national parks - cultural landscape
Hoewel het landschap in het Nationale Park De Hoge Veluwe op het eerste gezicht grotendeels natuurlijk lijkt, blijkt bij nadere beschouwing dat de mens in vrijwel alle tijden van de geschiedenis grote invloed op de natuur van dit gebied heeft uitgeoefend. Juist de eeuwenlange wisselwerking tussen natuur en mens maakt De Hoge Veluwe tot een interessante staalkaart van historisch-ecologische landschappen. Kennis van de cultuurhistorische gelaagdheid en van het historisch ontstaan en beheer van lokale ecosystemen biedt belangrijke handvatten voor toekomstig beheer.
Divers beleefbaar cultuurlandschap. Resultaten en ervaringen van GLB-pilot Winterswijk 2011-2013
Korevaar, H. ; Geerts, R.H.E.M. ; Stronks, J. ; Schoemaker, A. - \ 2014
Stichting WCL-Winterswijk
cultuurlandschap - projecten - evaluatie - vergroening - landbouwbeleid - gemeenschappelijk landbouwbeleid - achterhoek - cultural landscape - projects - evaluation - greening - agricultural policy - cap
In Winterswijk is afgelopen jaren een pilot-project uitgevoerd waarin de mogelijkheden onderzocht werden om de vergroening van het Europees Gemeenschappelijk Landbouwbeleid (GLB) te realiseren via boerencollectieven. De Europese Unie verwacht van de landbouw dat deze in de komende periode (2014-2020) de Europese burgers meer biedt dan alleen voedsel en grondstoffen. Namelijk dat ze ook werkt aan realisatie en behoud van maatschappelijke doelen zoals landschap, biodiversiteit en milieu. De Stichting Waardevol Cultuurlandschap Winterswijk werd herfst 2010 door het Ministerie van EL&I geselecteerd als één van de vier gebieden waarin de vergroening van het nieuwe GLB (2014-2020) in collectief verband is vormgegeven. In deze brochure worden een aantal uitkomsten gepresenteerd die kenmerkend zijn voor de Winterswijkse aanpak. Voor een meer uitgebreide rapportage over de ervaringen uit de GLB-pilot in Winterswijk zie Sturingskracht van een collectief.
Impact groei melkveehouderij op weidegang en landschap
Gies, E. ; Agricola, H.J. ; Rooij, L.L. de - \ 2014
Wageningen : Alterra, Wageningen-UR (Alterra-rapport 2602) - 28
melkveehouderij - veestapelstructuur - landschapsbeleving - cultuurlandschap - melkproductie - begrazing - dairy farming - herd structure - landscape experience - cultural landscape - milk production - grazing
De melkveehouderij in Nederland ontwikkelt zich door verdere schaalvergroting en langzaam de melkveestapel te vergroten. De verwachting is dat dit in Nederland leidt tot circa 10-20% hogere melkproductie, tot grotere en intensievere bedrijven, hogere melkproductie per koe en minder weidegang. Met minder koeien in de wei en meer grote stallen staat de kwaliteit van het Nederlandse cultuurlandschap onder druk. In deze studie worden de ontwikkelingen met betrekking tot de schaalvergroting in de melkveehouderij geschetst en geprognotiseerd voor 2020. Ook worden de effecten op landschap en weidegang in beeld gebracht.
Het wilde en ongeplande landschap van zelforganisaties
During, R. - \ 2014
TOPOS
cultuurlandschap - regionale planning - methodologie - cultural landscape - regional planning - methodology
Als planners en ontwerpers zijn we geneigd om landschappen te begrijpen in de samenhang van de samenstellende onderdelen. Het zien en doorgronden van structuur en samenhang is ons met de paplepel ingegeven. Als we ons nu gaan interesseren voor het culturele landschap, dan kan zich het verschijnsel voordoen dat irrationele processen ten grondslag hebben gelegen aan de vormen die we waarnemen.
Geoparken in Nederland : een quickscan van beleidsmatige mogelijkheden en beperkingen
Paulissen, M.P.C.P. ; Nieuwenhuizen, W. ; Kistenkas, F.H. - \ 2014
Wageningen : Alterra, Wageningen-UR (Alterra-rapport 2537) - 35
geomorfologie - cultuurlandschap - landschapsbeheer - monumenten - inventarisaties - hondsrug - geomorphology - cultural landscape - landscape management - monuments - inventories
Geoparken zijn gebieden waar (internationaal) bijzondere aardkundige waarden voorkomen. Deze waarden worden ingezet voor de versterking van de regionale economie en identiteit. Alterra heeft voor de overheid een quickscan uitgevoerd naar de mogelijke kansen en risico’s van de aanwijzing van Geoparken in Nederland. Aan de hand van het voorbeeld op de Hondsrug. De belangrijkste conclusies zijn (1) dat Geoparken als resultaat van bottom-up processen in de regio passen bij het adagium ‘natuur die midden in de samenleving staat’ en (2) dat het aan het Rijk is om nader te bepalen of zij het proces van kandidaatstelling en aanwijzing van Geoparken aan regionale actoren over laat, of zelf ook een actieve rol speelt.
‘Storied landscapes’ : narrating changing Dutch cultural landscapes
Bulkens, M.G. - \ 2014
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Claudio Minca; A.N. van der Zande, co-promotor(en): Hamzah Bin Muzaini. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789461739339 - 187
cultuurlandschap - discoursanalyse - ruimtelijke ordening - participatie - landschapsbeleving - landschapsplanning - nederland - cultural landscape - discourse analysis - physical planning - participation - landscape experience - landscape planning - netherlands
Experimenteren met erfgoed
Janssen, Joks - \ 2014
area development - landscape - cultural landscape - cultural heritage - historic buildings
Erfgoedzorg bevindt zich in het oog van de orkaan. Er is veel gedaan aan het ‘oppoetsen van de collectie’, maar de wereld er omheen is inmiddels compleet veranderd. De hoogste tijd dat de erfgoedzorg zich opnieuw gaat verhouden tot de maatschappij en de ruimtelijke ordening. Niet langer de stenen, maar het verhaal staat centraal. En het zijn steeds vaker lokale inititatiefnemers die bepalen wat het volgende hoofdstuk van een gebouw of gebied wordt. Hoogleraren Eric Luiten en Joks Janssen over een open vizier-benadering van het erfgoed. ‘In een tijd dat de bouwwoede tot stilstand is gekomen is het goed om vanuit een meer ontspannen houding te kijken naar de voorraad.’
Trilateral Wadden Sea World Heritage Foundation, Exploring added value, strategy and organisation
During, R. ; Coninx, I. ; Simeonova, V. - \ 2014
Wageningen : Alterra, Wageningen-UR (Alterra-rapport 2505) - 71
waddenzee - cultuurlandschap - natuurbescherming - governance - nederland - duitsland - denemarken - wadden sea - cultural landscape - nature conservation - netherlands - germany - denmark
Once the Danish part of the Wadden Sea has been accepted for the UNESCO World Heritage List (expected in 2014), the whole of the Wadden Sea will then be enlisted and this offers new opportunities and obligations for integrative and integral management to safeguard its Outstanding Universal Value. Actually a new transnational foundation is discussed that can promote and support the conservation of the Wadden Sea World Heritage Property and promoting its brand. This research explores the potential added values of such a foundation, by referencing it against the actual institutional landscape of Wadden Sea governance. Six added value components have been designated. Using World Heritage as an asset for sustainable socio-economic development. Achieving consistency in branding and deploying the rights of the UNESCO and Wadden Sea World Heritage logo’s. Involving private investors from the tourist industry, and the local and regional industry. Adequate involvement of NGO’s that play an important role in the development of collaborative structures that address the needs and obligations of the management of the world heritage site. Acquiring and redistributing funds to ensure that the Wadden Sea becomes an integral entity. The foundation could use European provisions and could apply for European projects to enhance the level of trans national cooperation. These added value component have been put together in a strategic framework that focuses on financial independency, high governance performance and participative democracy regarding the world heritage site.
Traditional ecological knowledge in Europe: status quo and insights for the environmental policy agenda
Hernández-Morcillo, M. ; Hoberg, J. ; Oteros Rozas, E. ; Plieninger, T. ; Gómez-Baggethun, E. ; Reyes-García, V. - \ 2014
Environment: Science and Policy for Sustainable Development 56 (2014)1. - ISSN 0013-9157 - p. 3 - 17.
ecosystem management - cultural landscape - forest management - conservation - biodiversity - dynamics - science - sweden - spain - pastoralists
Natuur en biodiversiteit in Nederland
Spijker, Joop - \ 2013
nature management - biodiversity - cultural landscape - agriculture - urban areas - environmental impact
Open akkers en boomteelt rond Oirschot, behoud door ontwikkeling
Schaap, B.F. ; Beunen, R. ; Aalvanger, A. ; Dolders, T. - \ 2013
Wageningen : Wetenschapswinkel (Rapport / Wetenschapswinkel Wageningen UR 296) - ISBN 9789461731838 - 44
boomteelt - landgebruik - bouwland - cultuurlandschap - landgebruiksplanning - noord-brabant - arboriculture - land use - arable land - cultural landscape - land use planning
Stichting Behoud Erfgoed Oirschot (SBEO) heeft zich ten doel gesteld om de open en bolle akkercomplexen rond Oirschot te beschermingen in het licht van huidig en toekomstig landgebruik. De rol van de boomteelt is voor SBEO een belangrijk onderdeel van dit vraagstuk omdat deze sector rond Oirschot veel aanwezig is en mogelijk cultuurhistorische waarden kan aantasten door verandering van de openheid en mogelijke afvoer van grond na de oogst van de bomen. De cultuurhistorische waardenkaart en de erfgoedkaart laten zien dat de open akkercomplexen een hoge cultuurhistorische en archeologische waarde hebben. Gedurende het onderzoeksproces is gebleken dat deze resultaten in een breder perspectief geplaatst moeten worden. Het landschap rondom Oirschot moet als een levend landschap worden gezien.
Verzilveren Helders erfgoed: verbinden loont, maar gaat niet vanzelf
Polman, N.B.P. ; Dijkshoorn-Dekker, M.W.C. ; Borgstein, M.H. - \ 2013
LEI Wageningen UR
cultureel erfgoed - natuur - economische analyse - regionale ontwikkeling - economische modellen - regionale economie - cultuurlandschap - kop van noord-holland - cultural heritage - nature - economic analysis - regional development - economic models - regional economics - cultural landscape
Den Helder heeft een rijkdom aan cultureel erfgoed en een bijzondere en gevarieerde natuur. Het landschap kent een grote dynamiek, en de sporen daarvan zijn nog goed herkenbaar. Dat landschap is in de 19e eeuw vastgelegd door de aanleg van de zeedijk, de drooglegging van het Koegras en dergelijke. Ook de menselijke bewoningsgeschiedenis is rijk aan historische gebeurtenissen en zichtbaar in de structuur van stad en dorp. In de laatste twintig jaar is veel geïnvesteerd in de conservering, ontwikkeling en openstelling van dit erfgoed. De onderzoeksvraag is: hoe kan natuur en cultureel erfgoed in Den Helder dienen als motor voor nieuwe economische activiteiten? Welke mogelijkheden zijn er? Welke verdienmodellen zijn perspectiefvol op basis van kansen en mogelijkheden voor gemeente, ondernemers en andere belanghebbenden?
Functionele Agrobiodiversiteit (FAB)
Alebeek, Frans van - \ 2013
biodiversity - functional biodiversity - agro-biodiversity - field margins - ecosystem services - cultural landscape - outdoor cropping - arable farming - pest control - biological control - arboriculture - plant protection
Eerste Erfgoedlezing
Janssen, Joks - \ 2013
cultural heritage - physical planning - cultural landscape - social participation - landscape architecture
Zeldzame rassen in het cultuurlandschap
Oldenbroek, J.K. - \ 2013
Zeldzaam huisdier 38 (2013)2. - ISSN 0929-905X - p. 20 - 21.
zeldzame rassen - rundveerassen - schapenrassen - geitenrassen - paardenrassen - begrazing - cultuurlandschap - landschapsbeheer - rare breeds - cattle breeds - sheep breeds - goat breeds - horse breeds - grazing - cultural landscape - landscape management
In 2012 nam Harm Piek afscheid als bestuurslid van de SZH. Harm werkt nu als vrijwilliger bij zijn vroegere werkgever Natuurmonumenten. Hij heeft veel kennis over de inrichting en het onderhoud van oude cultuurlandschappen met grazers. Harm Piek verdedigt sterk het standpunt dat dieren van zeldzame rassen moeten worden ingezet in de streek waar ze historisch gezien thuishoren. Genoeg redenen voor een interview met Harm Piek.
HISTLAND : historisch-landschappelijk informatiesysteem
Dirkx, G.H.P. ; Nieuwenhuizen, W. - \ 2013
Wageningen : Wettelijke Onderzoekstaken Natuur & Milieu (WOt-werkdocument 331) - 36
historische geografie - cultuurlandschap - ruimtelijke databases - landschapsanalyse - kwaliteitsnormen - geografische informatiesystemen - historical geography - cultural landscape - spatial databases - landscape analysis - quality standards - geographical information systems
Status A is de door Wageningen UR, Wettelijke Onderzoekstaken Natuur en Milieu (WOT N&M) ontwikkelde norm voor de kwaliteit van de modellen en bestanden die ingezet worden voor haar Wettelijke Onderzoekstaken. Om te kunnen beoordelen wat moet gebeuren om het GIS-bestand HISTAND aan kwaliteitsstatus A te laten voldoen, is beschreven hoe het bestand scoort op de vragen van de checklist kwaliteitsstatus A. Daarbij is geconcludeerd dat het zinvol is om te investeren in kwaliteitsstatus A voor het onderdeel landschapstypologie, maar dat dit voor het onderdeel mate van verandering niet zinvol is.
Waar is Europa's natuurgeld het meeste waard?
Woestenburg, M. ; Sluis, T. van der; Pedroli, G.B.M. - \ 2012
Landwerk 13 (2012)6. - ISSN 1567-1844 - p. 22 - 25.
cultuurlandschap - regionale ontwikkeling - portugal - italië - cultural landscape - regional development - italy
In Nederland worden miljoenen eurp's gestoken in het herstel van oude en ecologisch interessante cultuurlandschappen voor een aantrekkelijk vestigingsklimaat. In Italië en Portugal zijn veel van zulke cultuurlandschappen nog intact, maar ontbreekt het juist aan geld voor het beheer. Vanuit Europees perspectief roept dat de vraag op waar investeringen voor Natura 2000 het meest lonen
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