Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

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Functional foods and cardiometabolic diseases : International Task Force for Prevention of Cardiometabolic Diseases
Assman, G. ; Buono, P. ; Valle, E. Della; Farinaro, E. ; Ferns, G. ; Krogh, V. ; Kromhout, D. - \ 2014
Nutrition, Metabolism & Cardiovascular Diseases 24 (2014)12. - ISSN 0939-4753 - p. 1272 - 1300.
coronary-heart-disease - n-3 fatty-acids - randomized controlled-trial - density-lipoprotein cholesterol - dietary fiber intake - cardiovascular risk-factors - stanol ester consumption - vitamin-e - plant sterols - fish consumption
Mounting evidence supports the hypothesis that functional foods containing physiologically-active components may be healthful. Longitudinal cohort studies have shown that some food classes and dietary patterns are beneficial in primary prevention, and this has led to the identification of putative functional foods. This field, however, is at its very beginning, and additional research is necessary to substantiate the potential health benefit of foods for which the diet–health relationships are not yet scientifically validated. It appears essential, however, that before health claims are made for particular foods, in vivo randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials of clinical end-points are necessary to establish clinical efficacy. Since there is need for research work aimed at devising personalized diet based on genetic make-up, it seems more than reasonable the latter be modeled, at present, on the Mediterranean diet, given the large body of evidence of its healthful effects. The Mediterranean diet is a nutritional model whose origins go back to the traditional diet adopted in European countries bordering the Mediterranean sea, namely central and southern Italy, Greece and Spain; these populations have a lower incidence of cardiovascular diseases than the North American ones, whose diet is characterized by high intake of animal fat. The meeting in Naples and this document both aim to focus on the changes in time in these two different models of dietary habits and their fall out on public health.
Biomarker patterns of inflammatory and metabolic pathways are associated with risk of colorectal cancer: results from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)
Aleksandrova, K. ; Jenab, M. ; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H.B. ; Fedirko, V. ; Kaaks, R. ; Lukanova, A. ; Duijnhoven, F.J.B. van - \ 2014
European Journal of Epidemiology 29 (2014)4. - ISSN 0393-2990 - p. 261 - 275.
soluble leptin receptor - density-lipoprotein cholesterol - c-reactive protein - insulin-resistance - oxidative stress - hdl-cholesterol - multiple imputation - plasma adiponectin - binding-proteins - adipose-tissue
A number of biomarkers of inflammatory and metabolic pathways are individually related to higher risk of colorectal cancer (CRC); however, the association between biomarker patterns and CRC incidence has not been previously evaluated. Our study investigates the association of biomarker patterns with CRC in a prospective nested case-control study within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). During median follow-up time of 7.0 (3.7-9.4) years, 1,260 incident CRC cases occurred and were matched to 1,260 controls using risk-set sampling. Pre-diagnostic measurements of C-peptide, glycated hemoglobin, triglycerides (TG), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), C-reactive protein (CRP), reactive oxygen metabolites (ROM), insulin-like growth factor 1, adiponectin, leptin and soluble leptin receptor (sOB-R) were used to derive biomarker patterns from principal component analysis (PCA). The relation with CRC incidence was assessed using conditional logistic regression models. We identified four biomarker patterns 'HDL-C/Adiponectin fractions', 'ROM/CRP', 'TG/C-peptide' and 'leptin/sOB-R' to explain 60 % of the overall biomarker variance. In multivariable-adjusted logistic regression, the 'HDL-C/Adiponectin fractions', 'ROM/CRP' and 'leptin/sOB-R' patterns were associated with CRC risk [for the highest quartile vs the lowest, incidence rate ratio (IRR) = 0.69, 95 % CI 0.51-0.93, P-trend = 0.01; IRR = 1.70, 95 % CI 1.30-2.23, P-trend = 0.002; and IRR = 0.79, 95 % CI 0.58-1.07; P-trend = 0.05, respectively]. In contrast, the 'TG/C-peptide' pattern was not associated with CRC risk (IRR = 0.75, 95 % CI 0.56-1.00, P-trend = 0.24). After cases within the first 2 follow-up years were excluded, the 'ROM/CRP' pattern was no longer associated with CRC risk, suggesting potential influence of preclinical disease on these associations. By application of PCA, the study identified 'HDL-C/Adiponectin fractions', 'ROM/CRP' and 'leptin/sOB-R' as biomarker patterns representing potentially important pathways for CRC development.
Bioavailability of lutein from a lutein-enriched egg-yolk beverage and its dried re-suspended versions
Bunger, M. ; Quataert, M.C.J. ; Kamps, L.M. ; Versloot, P. ; Hulshof, P.J.M. ; Togtema, K.A. ; Amerongen, A. van; Mensink, M.R. - \ 2014
International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition 65 (2014)7. - ISSN 0963-7486 - p. 903 - 909.
density-lipoprotein cholesterol - macular pigment density - age-related maculopathy - zeaxanthin concentrations - serum concentrations - dietary-cholesterol - optical-density - clinical-trial - beta-carotene - eye disease
Drying a fresh lutein-enriched egg-yolk beverage would extend its shelf life, however, functional properties should not be affected. It was investigated whether consumption of a dried beverage containing lutein-enriched egg-yolk significantly increases serum lutein. One-hundred healthy young subjects participated in this 6-weeks randomized controlled study. Subjects consumed either a “plain” control beverage (n¿=¿26), a fresh lutein-enriched egg-yolk beverage (n¿=¿25), a dried version of this beverage (n¿=¿25), or a beverage composed of the dried individual components of the drink (n¿=¿24). The fresh and both dried versions of the lutein-enriched egg-yolk beverage were able to increase serum lutein levels after 6 weeks of consumption (lutein change: -38¿±¿47¿nmol/L, +304¿±¿113¿nmol/L, +148¿±¿79¿nmol/L and +178¿±¿83¿nmol/L for control, fresh, dried and combined dried group respectively; p¿
Adiposity, mediating biomarkers and risk of colon cancer in the european prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition study
Aleksandrova, K. ; Drogan, D. ; Boeing, H. ; Jenab, M. ; Bueno de Mesquita, H.B. ; Duijnhoven, F.J.B. van - \ 2014
International Journal of Cancer 134 (2014)3. - ISSN 0020-7136 - p. 612 - 621.
density-lipoprotein cholesterol - colorectal-cancer - rectal-cancer - missing data - c-peptide - hdl - adiponectin - obesity - models - leptin
Adiposity is a risk factor for colon cancer, but underlying mechanisms are not well understood. We evaluated the extent to which 11 biomarkers with inflammatory and metabolic actions mediate the association of adiposity measures, waist circumference (WC) and body mass index (BMI), with colon cancer in men and women. We analyzed data from a prospective nested case–control study among 662 incident colon cancer cases matched within risk sets to 662 controls. Relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using conditional logistic regression. The percent effect change and corresponding CIs were estimated after adjusting for biomarkers shown to be associated with colon cancer risk. After multivariable adjustment, WC was associated with colon cancer risk in men (top vs. bottom tertile RR 1.68, 95% CI 1.06–2.65; ptrend¿=¿0.02) and in women (RR 1.67, 95% CI 1.09–2.56; ptrend¿=¿0.03). BMI was associated with risk only in men. The association of WC with colon cancer was accounted mostly for by three biomarkers, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, non-high-molecular-weight adiponectin and soluble leptin receptor, which in combination explained 46% (95% CI 37–57%) of the association in men and 50% (95% CI 40–65%) of the association in women. Similar results were observed for the associations with BMI in men. These data suggest that alterations in levels of these metabolic biomarkers may represent a primary mechanism of action in the relation of adiposity with colon cancer. Further studies are warranted to determine whether altering their concentrations may reduce colon cancer risk
Plasma-Serum Cholesterol Differences in Children and Use of Measurements from Different Specimens
Berentzen, N.E. ; Wijga, A.H. ; Rossem, L. van; Jongste, J.C. de; Boshuizen, H.C. ; Smit, H.A. - \ 2013
Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism 63 (2013)4. - ISSN 0250-6807 - p. 305 - 310.
density-lipoprotein cholesterol - lipid-levels - risk - hypercholesterolemia - apolipoproteins - standardization - triglycerides
Background: We aimed to assess absolute plasma-serum differences and differences in ranking of total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLC), and TC/HDLC ratio in children. Methods: We analysed data of 412 children participating in a Dutch birth cohort. TC, HDLC, and TC/HDLC ratio were determined in plasma at age 8 and 12 years and in serum at age 12 years. Results: Compared to serum, plasma TC at age 12 years was 0.07 mmol/l lower (95% CI -0.08 to -0.06), plasma HDLC was 0.06 mmol/l higher (95% CI 0.05-0.07), and plasma TC/HDLC ratio was 0.19 lower (95% CI -0.20 to -0.17) (p <0.0001). Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) for ranking of TC, HDLC, and TC/HDLC ratio at age 12 years were 0.970, 0.745, and 0.979, respectively. ICCs for ranking of 8- to 12-year change of TC, HDLC, and TC/HDLC ratio were 0.971, 0.957, and 0.955, respectively. Conclusions: Cholesterol was systematically different in plasma and serum, and use of plasma would result in a more favourable lipid profile of children (lower TC, higher HDLC, and lower TC/HDLC ratio). Nevertheless, consistency in ranking of children according to plasma or serum cholesterol concentrations was very high. Age-related change in cholesterol can be validly assessed by ranking the difference between serum concentrations at one age and plasma concentrations at another age. (C) 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel
Is beer consumption related to measures of abdominal and general obesity? A systematic review and meta-analysis
Bendsen, N.T. ; Christensen, R. ; Bartels, E.M. ; Kok, F.J. ; Sierksma, A. ; Raben, A. ; Astrup, A. - \ 2013
Nutrition Reviews 71 (2013)2. - ISSN 0029-6643 - p. 67 - 87.
to-hip ratio - body-mass index - density-lipoprotein cholesterol - moderate alcohol-consumption - randomized controlled-trial - middle-aged men - blood-pressure - weight-gain - waist circumference - risk-factor
A systematic review was conducted to assess the evidence linking beer consumption to abdominal and general obesity. Following a systematic search strategy, 35 eligible observational studies and 12 experimental studies were identified. Regarding abdominal obesity, most observational data pointed towards a positive association or no association between beer intake and waist circumference or waist-to-hip ratio in men, whereas results for women were inconsistent. Data from a subset of studies indicated that beer intake¿>¿500¿mL/day may be positively associated with abdominal obesity. Regarding general obesity, most observational studies pointed towards an inverse association or no association between beer intake and body weight in women and a positive association or no association in men. Data from six experimental studies in men, in which alcoholic beer was compared with low-alcoholic beer, suggested that consumption of alcoholic beer (for 21–126 days) results in weight gain (0.73¿kg; P¿
The effect of plant sterols on serum triglyceride concentrations is dependent on baseline concentrations: a pooled analysis of 12 randomised controlled trials
Demonty, I. ; Ras, R.T. ; Knaap, H.C.M. van der; Meijer, L. ; Zock, P.L. ; Geleijnse, J.M. ; Trautwein, E.A. - \ 2013
European Journal of Nutrition 52 (2013)1. - ISSN 1436-6207 - p. 153 - 160.
ldl-cholesterol concentrations - mildly hypercholesterolemic subjects - density-lipoprotein cholesterol - enriched spread - cardiovascular-disease - phytosterol intake - clinical-trials - plasma-lipids - fat spreads - diet
Purpose - Plant sterols (PS) are well known for their low-density lipoprotein cholesterol-lowering effect. Until recently, they were believed to have little or no impact on blood triglycerides (TG). However, studies taken individually were possibly lacking statistical power to detect modest TG decreases. This study was performed to quantify the TG-lowering effect of PS by pooling individual subject data from 12 randomised controlled trials that investigated the effects of PS on blood lipids. Methods - The main outcome variable was the control-adjusted PS effect on relative (%) and absolute (mmol/L) changes in TG. The relative and absolute changes in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) were also assessed. Differences in changes of serum lipid concentrations between PS and control treatments were estimated by an ANCOVA using a random effect model which included PS intake (active or control), study and predefined subject characteristics. Results - The twelve randomised controlled trials included in total 935 hypercholesterolaemic subjects not preselected based on their baseline TG concentrations. In most studies, the PS dose ranged between 1.6 and 2.5 g/day. PS intake significantly lowered serum TG by 6.0% (95% CI: -10.7, -1.2) or 0.12 mmol/L (95% CI: -0.20, -0.04). No significant interaction was observed between PS intake and baseline TG concentrations on relative changes, but, on absolute changes, interaction was significant with larger TG decreases observed with higher TG concentrations at baseline. No effects were observed on HDL-C concentrations. Conclusions - These results show that PS exert a modest TG-lowering effect which is dependent on baseline concentrations.
Blood lipid levels and prostate cancer risk; a cohort study
Kok, D.E.G. ; Roermund, J.G.H. van; Aben, K.K.H. ; Heijer, M. den; Swinkels, D.W. ; Kampman, E. ; Kiemeney, L.A.L.M. - \ 2011
Prostate Cancer and Prostatic Diseases 14 (2011)4. - ISSN 1365-7852 - p. 340 - 345.
density-lipoprotein cholesterol - serum-cholesterol - prevention trial - national-health - lowering drugs - statin use - plasma - cells - rafts - men
It has been hypothesized that blood lipid levels might be associated with prostate cancer risk. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the association between serum total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, triglycerides and prostate cancer risk in a cohort study among 2842 Dutch men. By the end of follow-up, 64 incident cases of prostate cancer were identified. Serum total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and triglycerides were evaluated as potential risk factors for prostate cancer using multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression models. These analyses were restricted to men who never used cholesterol-lowering drugs (2118 men, 43 cases). Higher total and higher LDL cholesterol were significantly associated with an increased risk of prostate cancer (hazards ratios (HR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) per mmol l(-1) were 1.39 (95% CI 1.03-1.88) and 1.42 (95% CI 1.00-2.02), respectively). Similar results were observed for aggressive prostate cancer, whereas for non-aggressive prostate cancer a significant association with HDL cholesterol was found (HR 4.28, 95% CI 1.17-15.67). The results of this study suggest that blood lipid levels may influence risk of prostate cancer. However, the exact roles of different cholesterol fractions on prostate cancer aggressiveness should be further evaluated. Prostate Cancer and Prostatic Diseases (2011) 14, 340-345; doi:10.1038/pcan.2011.30; published online 5 July 2011
Plasma proprotein convertase subtilisin kexin type 9 is not altered in subjects with impaired glucose metabolism and type 2 diabetes mellitus, but its relationship with non-HDL cholesterol and apolipoprotein B may be modified by type 2 diabetes mellitus: the CODAM study
Brouwers, M.C.G.J. ; Troutt, J.S. ; Greevenbroek, M.M.J. van; Ferreira, I. ; Feskens, E.J.M. ; Kallen, C.J.H. van der; Schaper, N.C. ; Schalkwijk, C.G. ; Konrad, R.J. ; C.D.A., Stehouwer - \ 2011
Atherosclerosis 217 (2011)1. - ISSN 0021-9150 - p. 263 - 267.
density-lipoprotein cholesterol - ldl cholesterol - pcsk9 - insulin - atorvastatin - fenofibrate - disease
OBJECTIVE: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is associated with elevated plasma apolipoprotein B and triglycerides levels, reduced HDL cholesterol and the presence of small-dense LDL particles. The present study was conducted to investigate the role of plasma proprotein convertase subtilisin kexin type 9 (PCSK9) levels, a regulator of LDL-receptor expression, in the occurrence of diabetic dyslipidemia. METHODS: Plasma PCSK9 was measured in a cohort of subjects with normal glucose metabolism (NGM; n=288), impaired glucose metabolism (IGM; n=121) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM; n=139) to study whether its relation with plasma apolipoprotein B, triglycerides, total cholesterol, non-HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and HDL cholesterol differed by levels of glucose metabolism status. RESULTS: Plasma PCSK9 levels were not different between the three groups (82, 82 and 80 ng/mL in NGM, IGM and T2DM, respectively). PCSK9 was positively associated with total cholesterol, non-HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, apolipoprotein B and triglycerides levels in all subgroups. The regression slopes for the associations with non-HDL cholesterol were steeper among individuals with T2DM than with NGM (ß = 0.016 versus ß=0.009, p-interaction=0.05). Similar results were obtained for the relation with apolipoprotein B (ß = 0.004 versus ß = 0.002, p-interaction=0.09). CONCLUSIONS: Although glucose metabolism status per se is not associated with plasma PCSK9 levels, the presence of T2DM may modify the relation between plasma PCSK9 and non-HDL cholesterol and apolipoprotein B. These observations should be regarded as hypothesis generating for further studies aimed at elucidating the role of PCSK9 in the pathogenesis and treatment of diabetic dyslipidemia.
Glycemic index differences of high-fat diets modulate primarily lipid metabolism in murine adipose tissue
Schothorst, E.M. van; Bunschoten, J.E. ; Verlinde, E. ; Schrauwen, P. ; Keijer, J. - \ 2011
Physiological genomics 43 (2011)15. - ISSN 1094-8341 - p. 942 - 949.
density-lipoprotein cholesterol - insulin sensitivity - gene-expression - body-weight - cardiovascular-disease - starch promotes - c57bl/6j mice - adipocytes - glucose - obesity
A low vs. high glycemic index of a high-fat (HF) diet (LGI and HGI, respectively) significantly retarded adverse health effects in adult male C57BL/6J mice, as shown recently (Van Schothorst EM, Bunschoten A, Schrauwen P, Mensink RP, Keijer J. FASEB J 23: 1092–1101, 2009). The LGI diet enhanced whole body insulin sensitivity and repressed HF diet-induced body and white adipose tissue (WAT) weight gain, resulting in significantly reduced serum leptin and resistin levels and increased adiponectin levels. We questioned how WAT is modulated and characterized the molecular mechanisms underlying the glycemic index-mediated effects using whole genome microarrays. This showed that the LGI diet mainly exerts its beneficial effects via substrate metabolism, especially fatty acid metabolism. In addition, cell adhesion and cytoskeleton remodeling showed reduced expression, in line with lower WAT mass. An important transcription factor showing enhanced expression is PPAR-¿. Furthermore, serum levels of triglycerides, total cholesterol, and HDL- and LDL-cholesterol were all significantly reduced by LGI diet, and simultaneously muscle insulin sensitivity was significantly increased as analyzed by protein kinase B/Akt phosphorylation. Cumulatively, even though these mice were fed an HF diet, the LGI diet induced significantly favorable changes in metabolism in WAT. These effects suggest a partial overlap with pharmacological approaches by thiazolidinediones to treat insulin resistance and statins for hypercholesterolemia. It is therefore tempting to speculate that such a dietary approach might beneficially support pharmacological treatment of insulin resistance or hypercholesterolemia in humans.
Exploring genetic determinants of plasma total cholesterol levels and their predictive value in a longitudinal study
Lu, Y. ; Feskens, E.J.M. ; Boer, J.M.A. ; Imholz, S. ; Verschuren, W.M.M. ; Wijmenga, C. ; Vaarhorst, A. ; Slagboom, E. ; Müller, M.R. ; Dollé, M.E.T. - \ 2010
Atherosclerosis 213 (2010)1. - ISSN 0021-9150 - p. 200 - 205.
density-lipoprotein cholesterol - heart-disease risk - cardiovascular-disease - apolipoprotein-e - lipid-levels - association - women - variants - reclassification - polymorphisms
BACKGROUND: Plasma total cholesterol (TC) levels are highly genetically determined. Although ample evidence of genetic determination of separate lipoprotein cholesterol levels has been reported, using TC level directly as a phenotype in a relatively large broad-gene based association study has not been reported to date. METHODS AND RESULTS: We genotyped 361 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) across 243 genes based on pathways potentially relevant to cholesterol metabolism in 3575 subjects that were examined thrice over 11 years. Twenty-three SNPs were associated with TC levels after adjustment for multiple testing. We used 12 of them (rs7412 and rs429358 in APOE, rs646776 in CELSR2, rs1367117 in APOB, rs6756629 in ABCG5, rs662799 in APOA5, rs688 in LDLR, rs10889353 in DOCK7, rs2304130 in NCAN, rs3846662 in HMGCR, rs2275543 in ABCA1, rs7275 in SMARCA4) that were confirmed in previous candidate association or genome-wide-association studies to define a gene risk score (GRS). Average TC levels increased from 5.23 ± 0.82 mmol/L for those with 11 or less cholesterol raising alleles to 6.03 ± 1.11 mmol/L for those with 18 or more (P for trend
Dietary n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid intake interacts with FADS1 genetic variation to affect total and HDL-cholesterol concentrations in the Doetinchem Cohort Study
Lu, Y. ; Feskens, E.J.M. ; Dollé, M.E.T. ; Imholz, S. ; Verschuren, W.M.M. ; Müller, M.R. ; Boer, J.M.A. - \ 2010
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 92 (2010)1. - ISSN 0002-9165 - p. 258 - 265.
proliferator-activated receptors - density-lipoprotein cholesterol - alpha-linolenic acid - education-program recommendations - genome-wide association - heart-disease risk - middle-aged men - fish oils - apolipoprotein b-100 - microrna targets
Background: The d-5 and d-6 desaturases, encoded by the FADS1 and FADS2 genes, are rate-limiting enzymes in polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) biosynthesis. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in the FADS gene cluster region have been associated with both PUFA concentrations in plasma or erythrocyte membrane phospholipids and cholesterol concentrations in recent genome-wide association studies. Objective: We examined whether genetic variations in the FADS gene cluster region interact with dietary intakes of n-3 (omega-3) and n-6 (omega-6) PUFAs to affect plasma total, HDL-, and non-HDL-cholesterol concentrations. Design: Dietary intakes of n-3 and n-6 PUFAs, plasma concentrations of total and HDL cholesterol, and rs174546, rs482548, and rs174570 in the FADS gene cluster region were measured in 3575 subjects in the second survey of the Doetinchem Cohort Study. Results: Significant associations between rs174546 genotypes and total and non-HDL-cholesterol concentrations were observed in the group with a high intake of n-3 PUFAs (=0.51% of total energy; P = 0.006 and 0.047, respectively) but not in the low-intake group (P for interaction = 0.32 and 0.51, respectively). The C allele was associated with high total and non-HDL-cholesterol concentrations. Furthermore, the C allele was significantly associated with high HDL-cholesterol concentrations in the group with a high intake of n-6 PUFAs (=5.26% of total energy, P = 0.004) but not in the group with a low intake (P for interaction = 0.02). Conclusion: Genetic variation in the FADS1 gene potentially interacts with dietary PUFA intakes to affect plasma cholesterol concentrations, which should be investigated further in other studies
Which are the greatest recent discoveries and the greatest future challenges in nutrition?
Katan, M.B. ; Boekschoten, M.V. ; Connor, W.E. ; Mensink, R.P. ; Seidell, J. ; Vessby, B. ; Willett, W. - \ 2009
European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 63 (2009). - ISSN 0954-3007 - p. 2 - 10.
density-lipoprotein cholesterol - coronary-heart-disease - neural-tube defects - n-3 fatty-acids - dependent diabetes-mellitus - impaired glucose-tolerance - fetal origins hypothesis - serum-cholesterol - blood-pressure - beta-carotene
Background: Nutrition science aims to create new knowledge, but scientists rarely sit back to reflect on what nutrition research has achieved in recent decades. Methods: We report the outcome of a 1-day symposium at which the audience was asked to vote on the greatest discoveries in nutrition since 1976 and on the greatest challenges for the coming 30 years. Most of the 128 participants were Dutch scientists working in nutrition or related biomedical and public health fields. Candidate discoveries and challenges were nominated by five invited speakers and by members of the audience. Ballot forms were then prepared on which participants selected one discovery and one challenge. Results: A total of 15 discoveries and 14 challenges were nominated. The audience elected Folic acid prevents birth defects as the greatest discovery in nutrition science since 1976. Controlling obesity and insulin resistance through activity and diet was elected as the greatest challenge for the coming 30 years. This selection was probably biased by the interests and knowledge of the speakers and the audience. For the present review, we therefore added 12 discoveries from the period 1976 to 2006 that we judged worthy of consideration, but that had not been nominated at the meeting. Conclusions: The meeting did not represent an objective selection process, but it did demonstrate that the past 30 years have yielded major new discoveries in nutrition and health.
Dairy Products as Essential Contributors of (Micro-) Nutrients in Reference Food Patterns: An Outline for Elderly People
Staveren, W.A. van; Steijns, J.M. ; Groot, C.P.G.M. de - \ 2008
Journal of the American College of Nutrition 27 (2008)6. - ISSN 0731-5724 - p. 747S - 754S.
density-lipoprotein cholesterol - vitamin-d - dietary-protein - cognitive function - randomized-trials - body-composition - ischemic-stroke - older persons - heart-disease - hip fracture
he nutrient richness of dairy products is widely recognized, but mainly low fat or skimmed versions are generally advocated given the proportion of saturated fatty acids in milk fat. The question arises how to appraise this nutrient richness relative to the contribution of the saturated fraction of dairy fat. We reviewed available data - collected from elderly people - on nutrient contributions by dairy products in The Netherlands, on the relevance of nutrients specifically supplied by dairy products and shown to be associated with ageing-related functional losses, and from prospective studies in selected elderly populations in Europe on the impact of dietary and lifestyle factors on morbidity and mortality. In the current daily food pattern of older adults in The Netherlands dairy products provide significant to substantial amounts of protein and a number of minerals and vitamins relevant for healthy ageing. Especially in the frail elderly it will be difficult to replace dairy products by other foods. Dietary advice should focus on an adequate supply of energy, protein and micronutrients rather than on avoiding saturated fats. For the younger healthy 65 + we estimated that including lower fat dairy products rather their whole fat equivalents, may help to improve the dietary pattern. However, prospective analyses on morbidity and mortality do not suggest that moderate dietary intake of dairy products is associated with increased cardiovascular disease risk in this age group. In dietary risk-benefit analyses the ultimate perspective should be the nutritional status, the risk profile of the target group and the place of the foods in the dietary pattern. Such analyses need more sophisticated methods than currently available and applied in this paper. In Europe initiatives have been taken to develop such methods.
Alcohol consumption and blood lipids in elderly coronary patients
Jong, H.J.I. de; Goede, J. de; Oude Griep, L.M. ; Geleijnse, J.M. - \ 2008
Metabolism : Clinical and Experimental 57 (2008)9. - ISSN 0026-0495 - p. 1286 - 1292.
density-lipoprotein cholesterol - myocardial-infarction - heart-disease - french paradox - risk - mortality - women - wine - beer - diet
Alcohol may have a beneficial effect on coronary heart disease (CHD) that could be mediated by elevation of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLC). Data on alcohol consumption and blood lipids in coronary patients are scarce. We studied whether total ethanol intake and consumption of specific types of beverages are associated with blood lipids in older subjects with CHD. Blood lipids were measured in 1052 myocardial infarction patients aged 60 to 80 years (78% male). Intake of alcoholic beverages, total ethanol, and macronutrients was assessed by food frequency questionnaire. Seventy percent of the subjects used lipid-lowering medication. Total cholesterol was on average 5.14 mmol/L, and HDLC was on average 1.28 mmol/L. Among men, total ethanol intake was positively associated with HDLC (difference of 0.094 mmol/L for ¿15 g/d vs 0 g/d, P = .024), whereas the association with HDLC among women was not significant (difference of 0.060 mmol/L for ¿5 g/d vs 0 g/d, P = .560) after adjustment for dietary, lifestyle, and CHD risk factors. Liquor consumption was weakly positively associated with HDLC in men (P = .045). Beer consumption in men and wine consumption in women were also positively associated with HDLC, but were not significant in the fully adjusted model. In conclusion, moderate alcohol consumption may elevate HDLC in treated post¿myocardial infarction patients. This may be due to ethanol and not to other beneficial substances in alcoholic beverages. Based on this finding, further research needs to be done to examine the effects of the residual substances from different types of alcoholic beverages on HDLC
Glycemic index and glycemic load in relation to food and nutrient intake and metabolic risk factors in a Dutch population 1-3
Du, H. ; A, D.L. van der; Bakel, M.M.E. van; Kallen, C.J.H. van der; Blaak, E.E. ; Greevenbroek, M.M.J. van; Jansen, E.H.J.M. ; Nijpels, Giel ; Stehouwer, C.D.A. ; Dekker, J.M. ; Feskens, E.J.M. - \ 2008
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 87 (2008)3. - ISSN 0002-9165 - p. 655 - 661.
density-lipoprotein cholesterol - coronary-heart-disease - dietary fiber intake - c-reactive protein - middle-aged women - frequency questionnaire - cardiovascular-disease - glucose-intolerance - carbohydrate intake - endometrial cancer
Background: Previous studies on the glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) reported inconsistent findings on their association with metabolic risk factors. This may partly have been due to differences in underlying dietary patterns. Objective: We aimed to examine the association of GI and GL with food and nutrient intake and with metabolic risk factors including blood glucose, insulin, lipids, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (CRP). Design: The study entailed cross-sectional analyses of data from 2 joint observational studies, the CoDAM Study and the Hoorn Study. Results: In total, 974 subjects aged 42-87 y were included in the study. The mean (+/- SD) GI was 57 +/- 4 and the mean GLwas 130 +/- 39. Dairy products, potatoes and other tubers, cereal products, and fruit were the main predictive food groups for GI. GL was closely correlated with intake of total carbohydrates (r(s) = 0.97), which explained > 95% of the variation in GL. After adjustment for potential confounders, GI was significantly inversely associated with HDL cholesterol and positively associated with fasting insulin, the homeostasis model assessment index of insulin resistance, the ratio of total to HDL cholesterol, and CRP. No association was observed between GL and any, of the metabolic risk factors, except for a borderline significant positive association with CRP. Conclusions: In this population, a low-GI diet, which is high in dairy and fruit but low in potatoes and cereals, is associated with improved insulin sensitivity and lipid metabolism and reduced chronic inflammation. GL is highly correlated with carbohydrate intake and is not clearly associated with the investigated metabolic risk factors.
Exposure and effectiveness of phytosterol/-stanol-enriched margarines
Jong, N. ; Zuur, A. ; Wolfs, M.C.J. ; Wendel-Vos, G.C.W. ; Raaij, J.M.A. van; Schuit, A.J. - \ 2007
European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 61 (2007)12. - ISSN 0954-3007 - p. 1407 - 1415.
density-lipoprotein cholesterol - sitostanol-ester margarine - blood cholesterol - serum-cholesterol - plant sterols - hypercholesterolemic subjects - hdl-cholesterol - heart-disease - reduction - safety
Background: Studies on effectiveness of phytosterol/-stanol-enriched margarines in the community have received low priority. For postlaunch monitoring purposes including risk-benefit analyses, it is needed to investigate both exposure and effectiveness of these margarines. Objective: To study the use and effectiveness of phytosterol/-stanol-enriched margarine. Design, setting and subjects: The study population consisted of 2379 subjects that participated in a community intervention study ('Hartslag Limburg') aged 28-76 years. In 1998 and 2003, blood samples for total and high- density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol were obtained. A general questionnaire and food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) were administered. From 1999 onwards, phytosterol/-stanol-enriched margarines were introduced on the Dutch market. On the basis of 2003 data, subjects were classified in users of (a) phytosterol/-stanol-enriched margarine, (b) cholesterol-lowering drugs, (c) the combination (both enriched margarine and drugs) and (d) neither enriched margarines nor cholesterol-lowering drugs. Results: Mean (+/- s.d.) daily intake of phytosterol-enriched margarine (n=99) and phytostanol-enriched margarine (n=16) was 14 +/- 9 g. From 1998 to 2003, total serum cholesterol concentration changed significantly different among the four groups: in the combination users -2.04 +/- 1.50 mmol/l (-29%), in cholesterol-lowering drug users -1.09 +/- 1.17 mmol/l (-17%), in the enriched margarine users -0.24 +/- 0.75 mmol/l (-4%) and in non-users +0.10 +/- 0.72 mmol/l (+2%)(P <0.05). Conclusion: Recommended doses are not consumed, but phytosterol/-stanol-enriched margarines can modestly reduce serum total cholesterol in the community. These margarines cannot equal the effect of cholesterol-lowering drugs, but may act additively. Further investigation of the health effects that may occur during simultaneous cholesterol lowering drugs and phytosterol-or -stanol-enriched margarines usage is important, as well as community education about the cholesterol lowering foods and drugs. Sponsorship: Netherlands Organization for Health Research and Development (ZonMW) (data collection of Hartslag Limburg and further data-analyses).
The Emerging Risk Factors Collaboration: analysis of individual data on lipid, inflammatory and other markers in over 1.1 million participants in 104 prospective studies of cardiovascular diseases
Danish, J. ; Erqou, S. ; Walker, M. ; Feskens, E.J.M. ; Kromhout, D. - \ 2007
European Journal of Epidemiology 22 (2007)12. - ISSN 0393-2990 - p. 839 - 869.
coronary-heart-disease - c-reactive protein - middle-aged men - density-lipoprotein cholesterol - high blood cholesterol - adult-treatment-panel - 10-year follow-up - low-dose aspirin - myocardial-infarction - plasma-fibrinogen
Many long-term prospective studies have reported on associations of cardiovascular diseases with circulating lipid markers and/or inflammatory markers. Studies have not, however, generally been designed to provide reliable estimates under different circumstances and to correct for within-person variability. The Emerging Risk Factors Collaboration has established a central database on over 1.1 million participants from 104 prospective population-based studies, in which subsets have information on lipid and inflammatory markers, other characteristics, as well as major cardiovascular morbidity and cause-specific mortality. Information on repeat measurements on relevant characteristics has been collected in approximately 340,000 participants to enable estimation of and correction for within-person variability. Re-analysis of individual data will yield up to approximately 69,000 incident fatal or nonfatal first ever major cardiovascular outcomes recorded during about 11.7 million person years at risk. The primary analyses will involve age-specific regression models in people without known baseline cardiovascular disease in relation to fatal or nonfatal first ever coronary heart disease outcomes. This initiative will characterize more precisely and in greater detail than has previously been possible the shape and strength of the age- and sex-specific associations of several lipid and inflammatory markers with incident coronary heart disease outcomes (and, secondarily, with other incident cardiovascular outcomes) under a wide range of circumstances. It will, therefore, help to determine to what extent such associations are independent from possible confounding factors and to what extent such markers (separately and in combination) provide incremental predictive value.
Blood cholesterol and vascular mortality by age, sex, and blood pressure: a meta-analysis of individual data from 61 prospective studies with 55000 vascular deaths (Prospective Studies Collaboration)
Kromhout, D. - \ 2007
The Lancet 370 (2007)9602. - ISSN 0140-6736 - p. 1829 - 1839.
density-lipoprotein cholesterol - ischemic-heart-disease - floating absolute risk - asia-pacific region - serum-cholesterol - cardiovascular-disease - myocardial-infarction - follow-up - stroke - men
Background Age, sex, and blood pressure could modify the associations of total cholesterol (and its main two fractions, HDL and LDL cholesterol) with vascular mortality. This meta-analysis combined prospective studies of vascular mortality that recorded both blood pressure and total cholesterol at baseline, to determine the joint relevance of these two risk factors. Methods Information was obtained from 61 prospective observational studies, mostly in western Europe or North America, consisting of almost 900000 adults without previous disease and with baseline measurements of total cholesterol and blood pressure. During nearly 12 million person years at risk between the ages of 40 and 89 years, there were more than 55000 vascular deaths (34000 ischaemic heart disease [IHD], 12000 stroke, 10000 other). Information about HDL cholesterol was available for 150000 participants, among whom there were 5000 vascular deaths (3000 IHD, 1000 stroke, 1000 other). Reported associations are with usual cholesterol levels (ie, corrected for the regression dilution bias). Findings 1 mmol/L lower total cholesterol was associated with about a half (hazard ratio 0 . 44 [95% CI 0.42-0.48]), a third (0.66 [0.65-0.68]), and a sixth (0.83 [0.81-0.85]) lower IHD mortality in both sexes at ages 40-49, 50-69, and 70-89 years, respectively, throughout the main range of cholesterol in most developed countries, with no apparent threshold. The proportional risk reduction decreased with increasing blood pressure, since the absolute effects of cholesterol and blood pressure were approximately additive. Of various simple indices involving HDL cholesterol, the ratio total/HDL cholesterol was the strongest predictor of IHD mortality (40% more informative than non-HDL cholesterol and more than twice as informative as total cholesterol). Total cholesterol was weakly positively related to ischaemic and total stroke mortality in early middle age (40-59 years), but this finding could be largely or wholly accounted for by the association of cholesterol with blood pressure. Moreover, a positive relation was seen only in middle age and only in those with below-average blood pressure; at older ages (70-89 years) and, particularly, for those with systolic blood pressure over about 145 mm Hg, total cholesterol was negatively related to haemorrhagic and total stroke mortality. The results for other vascular mortality were intermediate between those for IHD and stroke. Interpretation Total cholesterol was positively associated with IHD mortality in both middle and old age and at all blood pressure levels. The absence of an independent positive association of cholesterol with stroke mortality, especially at older ages or higher blood pressures, is unexplained, and invites further research. Nevertheless, there is conclusive evidence from randomised trials that statins substantially reduce not only coronary event rates but also total stroke rates in patients with a wide range of ages and blood pressures.
The circulating PBEF/NAMPT/visfatin level is associated with a beneficial blood lipid profile
Wang, P. ; Greevenbroek, M.M.J. van; Bouwman, F.G. ; Brouwers, M.C.G.J. ; Kallen, C.J.H. van der; Smit, E. ; Keijer, J. ; Mariman, E.C.M. - \ 2007
Pflugers Archiv-European Journal of Physiology 454 (2007)6. - ISSN 0031-6768 - p. 971 - 976.
colony-enhancing factor - familial combined hyperlipidemia - density-lipoprotein cholesterol - type-2 diabetes-mellitus - nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase - glucose-tolerance - nad biosynthesis - visfatin - fat - insulin
Visfatin with the official gene name pre-B cell colony-enhancing factor 1 (PBEF) and the protein name nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT) is a recently discovered adipocyte-secreted protein that was shown by some to be associated with visceral fat and insulin resistance. To explore the link between PBEF/NAMPT/visfatin and lipid metabolism, we analyzed the relation of its plasma level with several parameters of adiposity, insulin resistance and the circulating blood lipid profile in a group of general population (n=40) and a group of subjects who are genetically predisposed to insulin resistance and hyperlipidemia (n=35). In both groups and pooled cohort, PBEF/NAMPT/visfatin lacked association with whole body adiposity, but correlated positively with HDL-cholesterol and negatively with triglycerides. The data suggested a negative correlation of the PBEF level with visceral fat and insulin resistance. But this negative correlation completely disappeared after adjustment for lipid profile. We concluded that circulating PBEF/NAMPT/visfatin level is an indicator of beneficial lipid profile in non-diabetic Caucasian subjects. The relation to lipid metabolism does not depend on visceral obesity and insulin resistance, but may be linked to its enzymatic function in NAD metabolism.
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