- W.E. Connor (1)
- H. Du (1)
- E.J.M. Feskens (1)
- J. Halkjaer (1)
- C. Jeppesen (1)
- R. Kaaks (1)
- M.B. Katan (1)
- R.P. Mensink (1)
- V. Pala (1)
- S. Rohrmann (1)
- Y.T. Schouw van der (1)
- J. Seidell (1)
- S.S. Soedamah-Muthu (1)
- M.J. Tormo (1)
- B. Vessby (1)
- A.A. Welch (1)
- W. Willett (1)
- D.R. Witte (1)
Glycemic index and glycemic load in relation to glucose intolerance among Greenland's Inuit population
Aerde, M.A. van; Witte, D.R. ; Jeppesen, C. ; Soedamah-Muthu, S.S. - \ 2012
Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice 97 (2012)2. - ISSN 0168-8227 - p. 298 - 305.
dependent diabetes-mellitus - insulin-resistance atherosclerosis - dietary fiber intake - life-style - type-2 - risk - women - tolerance - carbohydrate - prevalence
BACKGROUND: Intake of carbohydrates which elicit a large glycemic response is hypothesized to increase the risk of diabetes. However, studies assessing the relationship between glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) and diabetes are inconsistent. Only few studies have studied the relationship between GI and GL and markers of glucose metabolism, mostly in western populations. OBJECTIVE: To determine the relationship between GI and GL and indices of glucose metabolism and prevalence of diabetes in Greenland's Inuit population. DESIGN: The Inuit Health in Transition Study is a geographically representative cross-sectional study among aged =18years. Diet was assessed using a 67-item food frequency questionnaire. Logistic and linear regression was used to assess the association between GI and GL and diabetes, impaired fasting glucose, impaired glucose tolerance, HbA(1c), fasting plasma glucose, 2h plasma glucose, HOMA2-IR and HOMA2-%ß. RESULTS: No association was found between GI and GL and diabetes. GL was significantly inversely associated with IFG (OR: 0.91 (0.84-0.98)). While GI was positively associated with FPG, GL was positively associated with both HOMA2-IR and HOMA2-%ß and inversely associated with IFG. CONCLUSION: These findings do not support a link between dietary GI or GL and risk of type 2 diabetes among Greenland's Inuit population.
Dietary glycaemic index and glycaemic load in the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition
Bakel, M.M. van; Kaaks, R. ; Feskens, E.J.M. ; Rohrmann, S. ; Welch, A.A. ; Pala, V. ; Avloniti, K. ; Schouw, Y.T. van der; A, A.D. van der; Du, H. ; Halkjaer, J. ; Tormo, M.J. - \ 2009
European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 63 (2009)4. - ISSN 0954-3007 - p. S188 - S205.
middle-aged women - dependent diabetes-mellitus - breast-cancer - epic project - risk - carbohydrate - calibration - health - fiber - metaanalysis
Objectives: To describe dietary glycaemic index (GI) and glycaemic load (GL) values in the population participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study according to food groups, nutrients and lifestyle characteristics. Methods: Single 24-h dietary recalls (24-HDRs) from 33¿566 subjects were used to calculate dietary GI and GL, and an ad hoc database was created as the main reference source. Mean GI and GL intakes were adjusted for age, total energy intake, height and weight, and were weighted by season and day of recall. Results: GI was the lowest in Spain and Germany, and highest in the Netherlands, United Kingdom and Denmark for both genders. In men, GL was the lowest in Spain and Germany and highest in Italy, whereas in women, it was the lowest in Spain and Greece and highest in the UK health-conscious cohort. Bread was the largest contributor to GL in all centres (15–45%), but it also showed the largest inter-individual variation. GL, but not GI, tended to be lower in the highest body mass index category in both genders. GI was positively correlated with starch and intakes of bread and potatoes, whereas it was correlated negatively with intakes of sugar, fruit and dairy products. GL was positively correlated with all carbohydrate components and intakes of cereals, whereas it was negatively correlated with fat and alcohol and with intakes of wine, with large variations across countries. Conclusions: GI means varied modestly across countries and genders, whereas GL means varied more, but it may possibly act as a surrogate of carbohydrate intake.
Which are the greatest recent discoveries and the greatest future challenges in nutrition?
Katan, M.B. ; Boekschoten, M.V. ; Connor, W.E. ; Mensink, R.P. ; Seidell, J. ; Vessby, B. ; Willett, W. - \ 2009
European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 63 (2009). - ISSN 0954-3007 - p. 2 - 10.
density-lipoprotein cholesterol - coronary-heart-disease - neural-tube defects - n-3 fatty-acids - dependent diabetes-mellitus - impaired glucose-tolerance - fetal origins hypothesis - serum-cholesterol - blood-pressure - beta-carotene
Background: Nutrition science aims to create new knowledge, but scientists rarely sit back to reflect on what nutrition research has achieved in recent decades. Methods: We report the outcome of a 1-day symposium at which the audience was asked to vote on the greatest discoveries in nutrition since 1976 and on the greatest challenges for the coming 30 years. Most of the 128 participants were Dutch scientists working in nutrition or related biomedical and public health fields. Candidate discoveries and challenges were nominated by five invited speakers and by members of the audience. Ballot forms were then prepared on which participants selected one discovery and one challenge. Results: A total of 15 discoveries and 14 challenges were nominated. The audience elected Folic acid prevents birth defects as the greatest discovery in nutrition science since 1976. Controlling obesity and insulin resistance through activity and diet was elected as the greatest challenge for the coming 30 years. This selection was probably biased by the interests and knowledge of the speakers and the audience. For the present review, we therefore added 12 discoveries from the period 1976 to 2006 that we judged worthy of consideration, but that had not been nominated at the meeting. Conclusions: The meeting did not represent an objective selection process, but it did demonstrate that the past 30 years have yielded major new discoveries in nutrition and health.