Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Key factors for loan repayment of micro entrepreneurs in Ghana
Agbeko, Daniel - \ 2017
University. Promotor(en): Onno Omta, co-promotor(en): Vincent Blok; Gerben van der Velde. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463437943 - 97
corporate social responsibility - bank loans - loans - debt - repayment - entrepreneurship - small businesses - ghana - west africa - developing countries - maatschappelijk verantwoord ondernemen - bankleningen - leningen - schuld - aflossing - ondernemerschap - kleine bedrijven - west-afrika - ontwikkelingslanden

This thesis examines the extent to what corporate social responsibility (CSR) strategies, entrepreneurial and business skills and programmes for training and monitoring improve microbusiness performance and loan repayment rates:

‘To what extent do corporate social responsibility strategies, entrepreneurial and business skills and programmes for training and monitoring improve loan repayment rates of microfinance debtors in developing countries?’

MFIs that adopt CSR strategies provide for both financial and social empowerment services. Social empowerment services may include primary health care services, occupational skills training for microfinance debtors and debtor monitoring programmes. The 2008 credit crunch led many MFIs to abandon their CSR strategies. We analyse the case of uniCredit Ghana MFI and argue that CSR strategies contribute to public support for the MFI. This helps raise deposits and improves funding opportunities. Social empowerment investment improve microbusiness performance and loan repayment rates. We expect those MFIs that adopt CSR strategies to improve their sustainability, more than do MFIs that specialize in providing financial services only.

We establish that those microfinance debtors who consider themselves endowed with entrepreneurial and business skills do not repay loans better than those microfinance debtors lacking these skills. Highly educated entrepreneurs do not repay their loans any better relative to those with primary or secondary education only. We establish that business experience is the only constituent of human capital that matters for business performance and loan repayment rates. Experienced microfinance debtors systematically repay their loans better than do those entrepreneurs lacking business experience.

We observe that microfinance debtors do not agree on what skills they think are important for loan repayment probabilities. This result implies that every single microfinance debtor needs to acquire specific skills. Training programmes cannot be standardized and should be tailored towards the needs of the individual microfinance debtor. We establish that MFI loan officers neither agree on the ranking of specific skills they think are important for microfinance debtors to repay their loans promptly. This result suggests that MFI loan officers should be trained to better understand the relevance of specific entrepreneurial and business skills for microfinance entrepreneurs.

We empirically establish that training programmes fail to improve loan repayment rates. Programmes for intensive microfinance debtor monitoring significantly improve loan repayment rates. Intensive monitoring is equally effective for highly and poorly educated, experienced and unexperienced, female and male microfinance debtors: MFIs may significantly improve repayment rates should they consistently monitor their microfinance debtors intensively.

Step-change: how micro-entrepreneurs enter the upcoming middle-class market in developing and emerging countries
Babah Daouda, Falylath - \ 2017
University. Promotor(en): Hans van Trijp, co-promotor(en): Paul Ingenbleek. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463436298 - 225
marketing - developing countries - entrepreneurship - small businesses - medium sized businesses - economic development - economic situation - gender relations - gender - ontwikkelingslanden - ondernemerschap - kleine bedrijven - middelgrote bedrijven - economische ontwikkeling - economische situatie - man-vrouwrelaties - geslacht (gender)

In developing and emerging (D&E) countries, the large number of poor people, most of whom are female, earn a living based on small-scale self-employed units established in subsistence marketplaces in the large informal sector. With the recent rise of middle-classes in developing and emerging countries, micro-entrepreneurs, can potentially lift themselves out of poverty by seizing the opportunities provided by the new upcoming middle-class (UMC) customers. To exploit these opportunities micro-entrepreneurs have to make a step-change away from their current customers in subsistence marketplaces to create higher value propositions for UMC customers. As a strategic marketing decision, the step-change inherently comes with challenges in developing resources and capabilities required to cater to UMC customers. It hosts potential conflicts between informal- and formal-sector stakeholders as it requires both new resources and continued access to existing resources. The findings suggest that step-change is a three-step process consisting of three market entries, into, “passing-by customers”, UMC, and business markets. The value propositions associated with these markets are also hierarchical in terms of quality, quantity, consistency, and complexity. Although the processes within the steps (motivations, opportunity recognition, assessing the need of resources, resource accumulation and (re-)integration, value proposition, and market entry) have a similar structure, their content differs between steps. The findings also indicate that gender issues vary by step. Whereas, in step 1 and 3 gender differences are less remarkable, they are more pronounced in step 2, where women mainly use their relationships with individuals to access resources whereas men use both individuals and groups to access resources. The thesis suggests that to initiate and sustain step-changes, both female and male entrepreneurs have to invest in capability-building.

The role of forests in climate change mitigation : a discursive-institutional analysis of REDD+ MRV
Ochieng, Robert M. - \ 2017
University. Promotor(en): Bas Arts; Martin Herold, co-promotor(en): Ingrid Visseren-Hamakers; M. Brockhaus. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463431712 - 172
forests - climatic change - mitigation - forest monitoring - developing countries - deforestation - forestry - bossen - klimaatverandering - mitigatie - bosmonitoring - ontwikkelingslanden - ontbossing - bosbouw

Since the advent of professional forestry in the 17th century, forest monitoring has been part and parcel of forest management, and has been implemented in different forms in many European countries. The practice of forest monitoring was later exported to the European colonies, and has since been taken over and conducted by post-colonial governments in many developing countries. From an earlier focus on assessment of timber stocks, the practice has evolved to include assessments of other forest variables than timber. Despite this evolution, national forest monitoring has remained largely timber-oriented, and a closed system with little participation of actors outside the state forestry bureaucracy. However, the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) decision on reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation, and the role of conservation, sustainable management of forests and enhancement of forest carbon stocks in developing countries (REDD+) has opened up new discussions on forest monitoring in developing countries. Specifically, the global discourse on monitoring, reporting and verification (MRV) of REDD+ outcomes has introduced new ideas and demands on the scope and objectives of forest monitoring, the actors to be involved, and resources to be used. Taken together, the emergence of the REDD+ MRV discourse and associated ideas calls for change in the institutional arrangements for forest monitoring in developing countries. Furthermore, while these ideas and demands are determined and agreed upon in an international negotiation process, they need to be translated and implemented in highly diverse country-specific contexts, with country-specific actors, ideas, interests, and institutions. Translating the REDD+ MRV discourse and ideas into national institutional arrangements thus involves negotiation and contestation among national stakeholders.

This dissertation examines the performance of REDD+ MRV in terms of its implementation and institutionalization in developing countries, and the political processes by which such institutionalization occurs. Specifically, it examines (1) the institutional effectiveness of REDD+ MRV; (2) how the concept of REDD+ MRV and associated ideas have materialized in new institutional arrangements for forest monitoring in developing countries; and (3) how discursive processes of policymaking and the argumentation and contestation inherent in such processes enable or constrain institutionalization. With this, the dissertation contributes to the literature on REDD+ MRV by examining forest monitoring from a social science perspective. While current research on REDD+ MRV remains highly technical, since it is assumed that forest monitoring is a neutral, apolitical activity, this study argues that monitoring deforestation is also political, and contributes by highlighting the political contestation involved in implementing REDD+ MRV at the national level. The dissertation also contributes to scientific debates on the performance of international environment agreements at the national level, and how contestation and negotiation among domestic stakeholders enable or constrain their institutionalization at the national level.

Chapter 1 introduces the research presented in this dissertation. It provides an overview of the emergence of reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation in developing countries (REDD+) within the United Nations Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) as a climate mitigation strategy, and argues that the UNFCCC’s decisions on monitoring, reporting and verification (MRV) for REDD+ pose new ideas and demands for forest monitoring in developing countries. It elucidates the research that has been done on REDD+ MRV so far, identifies gaps in the existing literature on forest monitoring for REDD+, and delineates the objectives of the study. It discusses the theoretical basis and framework for the study, explaining how the main theoretical concept – discursive institutionalism – is combined with the Policy Arrangement Approach (PAA) to examine how REDD+ MRV has been shaped and institutionalized in new or reformed institutional arrangements for forest monitoring in developing countries, and discursive processes by which such institutionalization occurs. After presenting the conceptual framework, four research questions are outlined, namely:

1. What is the institutional effectiveness of REDD+ MRV in terms of its implementation in developing countries?

2. How have institutional arrangements for forest monitoring in Peru evolved, and how and to what extent has their evolution been shaped by international discourses on forests, especially REDD+ MRV?

3. How and to what extent has the concept of MRV become institutionalized in new or reformed institutional arrangements for forest monitoring in Indonesia, Peru and Tanzania, and how can differences in this extent of institutionalization across the countries be explained?

4. How has discursive politics enabled or constrained institutionalization of MRV in Indonesia, Peru and Tanzania?

The chapter then describes the study’s overall research design and methodology, and ends by outlining the structure of the dissertation.

Chapter 2 examines the institutional effectiveness of REDD+ MRV. The chapter draws on regime literature to conceptualize UNFCCC and its decisions on REDD+ MRV as an international institution or regime, and outlines the technical and good governance requirements for MRV. Drawing on Young and Levy’s (1999) framework for assessing effectiveness of international institutions, and building on UNFCCC and IPCC methodological guidelines for Land Use, Land Use Change and Forestry (LULUCF), and good governance literature, it develops criteria and indicators for assessing progress in implementing the identified technical and governance requirements for MRV. Three dimensions on which effectiveness of REDD+ MRV can be evaluated are developed: ‘owning technical methods for MRV’, ‘developing administrative competence’ and ‘integrating good governance’ in MRV. The framework is applied to assess and compare institutional effectiveness of REDD+ MRV in 13 REDD+ countries, based on a review of national and international documents. The Chapter shows that REDD+ countries have high to very high ownership of technical methods. However, the majority of the countries rank only low to moderate on administrative capacity and good governance. This means that although countries have started developing technical methods for MRV, they are yet to develop the competence necessary to administer MRV and to incorporate aspects of good governance in MRV. The chapter explains the scores and suggest ways of improving implementation of REDD+ MRV.

Chapter 3 examines how and to what extent global discourses and ideas on forests, especially the concept of REDD+ MRV, have shaped institutional arrangements for forest monitoring in developing countries, using the case of Peru. It draws on discursive institutionalism to conceptualize REDD+ MRV as a discourse and identify the ideas represented in the discourse. It then combines discursive institutionalism with the policy arrangement approach to craft a framework for examining the extent to which REDD+ MRV, and other global discourses, have shaped national institutional arrangements for forest monitoring in Peru. An analytical distinction is made between ‘shallow’ and ‘deep’ institutional change. The chapter identifies three distinct discourses – productivist forest philosophy, multiple-use and sustainable forest management philosophies and REDD+ MRV – that have shaped forest monitoring in Peru. The chapter shows that while all the three discourses have shaped the scope and objectives of forest monitoring, the actors involved, resources used, and rules governing forest assessments, none of them has led to ‘deep’ institutionalization of forest monitoring. On REDD+ MRV specifically, the chapter shows that it has expanded the scope and objectives of forest assessments in Peru, inspired the mobilization of new actors and resources, and spawned the development of new rules to govern forest monitoring. However, these institutional changes are not yet ‘deep’, since the new rules for forest inventories have not yet been formally adopted, and the agencies envisioned to implement forest monitoring have not been established. The chapter concludes that forest monitoring in general, and REDD+ MRV in particular, is only shallowly institutionalized in Peru.

Chapter 4 compares how and to what extent the concept of REDD+ MRV has institutionalized in Indonesia, Peru and Tanzania. To do so, the chapter draws on insights from discursive institutionalism operationalized by means of the policy arrangement approach to develop the analytical categories of ‘shallow’, ‘shallow-intermediate’, ‘deep-intermediate’ and ‘deep’ institutionalization, and uses these categories to examine the extent of institutionalization across the countries. The chapter shows that in all three countries, REDD+ MRV has institutionalized in new or revised aims, scope and strategies for forest monitoring, and the development of new agencies and mobilization of new actors and resources. New legislation to anchor forest monitoring in law, and procedures to institutionalize the roles of the various agencies, are also being developed. Nevertheless, the extent of institutionalization of MRV varies across the countries, with Indonesia experiencing ‘deep’ institutionalization, Peru ‘shallow-intermediate’, and Tanzania ‘intermediate-deep’ institutionalization. To explain the differences in institutionalization, the chapter examines the theoretical factors for discourse institutionalization and their manifestation in each country. It shows that the relatively ‘deep’ institutionalization of REDD+ MRV in Indonesia and Tanzania is due to the presence of all five factors for discourse institutionalization. Only one factor is found to be present in Peru, and the ‘shallow- intermediate’ institutionalization of REDD+ is largely due to the absence of other factors. Based on the findings and conclusions, the chapter draws lessons to inform institutionalization of MRV in other countries.

Chapter 5 examines how the discursive politics of MRV policymaking has enabled or constrained institutionalization of REDD+ MRV in Indonesia, Peru and Tanzania. To do this, it draws on the concept of discourse – understood as ideas and the interactive process of policymaking and public deliberation – to examine the actors involved in MRV policy development in the respective countries, and how the deliberation, argumentation and contestation among them (discursive politics) have enabled or constrained institutionalization. The chapter shows that in all countries, the methodologies to be used for MRV, the actors to be involved and their roles were contentious. However, it shows that in Indonesia and Tanzania, where there was a broad-based national discourse on MRV, and where policy actors agreed on the strategies to implement MRV and the role of different actors in forest monitoring, there is relatively ‘deep’ institutionalization compared to Peru, where such discourse and agreement were lacking. The chapter discusses how the discursive process facilitated institutionalization of REDD+ MRV in Indonesia and Tanzania and constrained the same in Peru. It concludes that how discursive politics is played matters in institutionalization.

Chapter 6 presents the conclusions on the study. It draws on the empirical chapters to answer the research questions, concluding that majority (60%) of the analysed countries has achieved at least a ‘moderate’ institutional effectiveness for MRV. Further, it concludes that the concept of REDD+ MRV has materialized in reformed institutional arrangements for forest monitoring in Indonesia, Peru and Tanzania, albeit to varying degrees. The chapter also concludes that forest monitoring for REDD+ is not only a technical activity, but is also political. Specifically, it concludes that decisions on what exactly is to be monitored and reported, by whom and using what methods are determined through political negotiations, and that how this political process is managed has a significant influence on how, and the extent to which, MRV is institutionalized. After drawing the conclusions, the chapter reflects on the key theoretical concepts used in the study by outlining how discursive institutionalism and the policy arrangement approach can be used to enrich one another. The chapter ends by outlining several policy recommendations. First, it recommends that while the development of new agencies to implement REDD+ MRV is necessary in some countries, care should be taken to avoid establishment of many agencies. Where possible, policy makers and donors should consider working with and strengthening existing agencies before deciding to establish new agencies. Second, it recommends that more investments be directed to organizing inclusive MRV policy coordination processes, since the politics involved in these processes determine the extent to which REDD+ MRV is institutionalized. Lastly, investments in policy coordination should be accompanied with investments in broader communicative political discourse to enlighten all REDD+ stakeholders on MRV policy processes and the strategies being proposed, while seeking the views and feedback these strategies. This is necessary if the proposed strategies are to be legitimate in the eyes of key REDD+ stakeholders.

Breeding strategies for sustainable intensification of developing smallholder dairy cattle production systems
Kariuki, Charles Mbogo - \ 2017
University. Promotor(en): Hans Komen, co-promotor(en): Johan van Arendonk; A.K. Kahi. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463430951 - 134
dairy cattle - small businesses - sustainable animal husbandry - intensification - breeding programmes - progeny testing - genetic improvement - dairy performance - developing countries - melkvee - kleine bedrijven - duurzame veehouderij - intensivering - veredelingsprogramma's - nakomelingenonderzoek - genetische verbetering - melkresultaten - ontwikkelingslanden

Smallholder dairy cattle production systems in Africa are intensifying production through importation of germplasm from breeding programs conducted in temperate regions to improve commercial cow populations. Presence of genotype by environment interaction results in unfavorable correlated responses. The aim this thesis was to develop strategies for breeding programs in developing countries that can support sustainable intensification of these systems. Specific objectives were (a) to determine desired gains for breeding objective traits, (b) compare progeny testing (PT) and genomic selection (GS) selection strategies, (c) evaluate the economic performance of PT and GS selection strategies and (d) compare genetic gains for economic and non-economic breeding objectives; the Kenya dairy cattle sector was used as a working example. To account for the limited pedigree and performance recording, a five-trait breeding objective and small-sized breeding program were studied. Breeding objective traits, determined based on producer preferences, were milk yield (MY), production lifetime (PLT), calving interval (CI), fat yield (FY) and mature body weight (MBW). Producers were categorized into high intensive group, who placed highest preference on PLT and MY, and low intensity group that placed highest preferences on CI and PLT. MY and FY were the most important traits for processors. Consensus desired gains, based on weighted goal programming, were 2.51, 2.42, 0.22, 0.87 and 0.15% for PLT, MY, CI, FY and MBW, respectively. Comparison of breeding schemes shows that GS schemes had lower accuracies but gave higher responses per year due to shorter generation intervals. Besides genetic gains, economic performance underpins the adoption of selection strategies. GS schemes had between 3.2 and 5.2-fold higher cumulated genetic gain in the commercial cow population and higher gross margins compared to PT schemes. Semen storage made PT schemes more profitable but less so than GS schemes. Functional traits can increase the sustainability of resource poor smallholder systems under harsh environments. Economic breeding objectives yielded undesirable responses in functional traits. Breeding objectives based on desired gains or non-market objectives improved response in functional traits but at a monetary cost. It is concluded that sustainable productivity of smallholder systems can be improved by implementation of local breeding program based on GS, but this requires more emphasis on functional traits, which can be achieved by use of non-economic objectives.

Zambia kan biodiesel uit soja produceren
Drabik, Dusan - \ 2016
biodiesel - soyabeans - biofuels - government policy - zambia - developing countries - biobased economy
Sanitation planning in developing countries : added value of resource recovery
Kerstens, S.M. - \ 2016
University. Promotor(en): Grietje Zeeman, co-promotor(en): Ingo Leusbrock. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462576889 - 316 p.
sanitation - developing countries - recovery - urban planning - waste water treatment - waste treatment - waste management - environmental technology - volksgezondheidsbevordering - ontwikkelingslanden - terugwinning - stedelijke planning - afvalwaterbehandeling - afvalverwerking - afvalbeheer - milieutechnologie

Sanitation planning in developing countries: Added value of resource recovery

Worldwide 2.5 billion people lack access to sanitation. This impacts human live, the environment and represents a loss of valuable resources that can be regained from wastewater. This study shows that resource recovery can be a potential driver to accelerate sanitation. A new sanitation decision framework for policy makers was created and tested in Indonesia.

The variety of advantages and disadvantages of sanitation interventions complicates the sanitation planning process. Conventional sanitation systems consume energy, chemicals and land or produce a sludge that requires disposal, whereas a range of opportunities exists that enables valorization of resources from our “waste”. To support policy makers in planning sanitation that considers sustainability dimensions (social, environment and economy), a new sanitation framework was developed. This framework resolves trade-offs of sanitation alternatives across spatial and temporal scales in three steps. First, it identifies feasible wastewater and solid waste systems in relation to the type of residential area. Secondly, the anticipated population development, current access and formulated targets are an input to generate the number of required systems, their location and associated implementation costs. The required systems are visualized in geographical maps, while budgets are allocated to responsible implementing institutions. Thirdly, the potential demand from “back-end users” of sanitation products, such as agriculture for compost and phosphorus, aquaculture for produced duckweed and industries for recovered plastic and paper, to substitute conventionally produced materials is determined. These three steps are then combined to quantitatively evaluate the (1) environmental impact, (2) operational costs and benefits, and (3) the potential of selected sanitation alternatives to close material cycles. A case study of the Citarum River was performed in which (monetized) benefits such as health, welfare and revenues from the sale of recovered resources were compared with the costs of different (conventional and resource recovery) sanitation systems. The study showed that the economic Benefit to Cost Ratio (BCR) of resource recovery technologies is bigger than BCR of conventional (low cost) technologies, while improving the water quality. It thus shows that resource recovery is a potential driver to accelerate sanitation development. The framework was illustrated using Indonesia as an example, but its application can benefit the quality of millions of lives worldwide.

Meer doen met mest
Didde, R. ; Vellinga, Th.V. ; Andeweg, K. ; Teenstra, E.D. - \ 2015
WageningenWorld (2015)4. - ISSN 2210-7908 - p. 34 - 39.
mestverwerking - ontwikkelingslanden - mestvergisting - biogas - bemesting - kringlopen - vietnam - landbouwontwikkeling - manure treatment - developing countries - manure fermentation - fertilizer application - cycling - agricultural development
Wageningen UR probeert boeren in ontwikkelingslanden ervan te overtuigen meer te doen met de mest van hun vee. Dat kan bijdragen aan de energievoorziening, de conditie van de bodem en vermindering van de uitstoot van broeikasgassen. In Vietnam worden de eerste resultaten geboekt.
Life and capital : development and change in the 21st century
Büscher, B.E. - \ 2015
Wageningen : Wageningen University, Wageningen UR - ISBN 9789462573680 - 36 p.
development studies - rural development - environmental degradation - environmental impact - social change - developing countries - quality of life - ontwikkelingsstudies - plattelandsontwikkeling - milieuafbraak - milieueffect - sociale verandering - ontwikkelingslanden - kwaliteit van het leven
Exit strategies for social venture entrepreneurs
Nuer, A.T.K. - \ 2015
University. Promotor(en): Gert van Dijk; Hans van Trijp, co-promotor(en): Joost Jongerden. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462575684 - 227
ondernemerschap - bedrijfsmanagement - markten - marktstructuur - marketing - ontwikkelingslanden - entrepreneurship - business management - markets - market structure - developing countries

Key Words: Social Venture Entrepreneurs, Exit, Ownership

Social Venture Entrepreneurs invest in local and mostly bottom of pyramid (BoPs), and more so in developing economies. Different understanding and meanings given to the term exit and ownership, by social venture entrepreneurs and local communities with varied cultural business practices, are highlighted in this thesis. Results from this thesis show that it is important to factor in local and cultural practices into current social venture business models. This will help to ensure the sustainability and scale up of social ventures.

The study explores exit options within business and development management literature. There were limited scientific related social entrepreneurship literatures on the subject matter at the inception of this study. The choice to conduct a qualitative case study was made in order to bring to out the forms and meanings of exit, as well as perceived exit, and ownership forms expected or anticipated by both the social venture entrepreneur and related stakeholders, such as communities and local partners, covered in this study

Conference Report: Monitoring and Evaluation for Responsible Innovation
Kusters, C.S.L. ; Guijt, I. ; Buizer, N.N. ; Brouwers, J.H.A.M. ; Roefs, M.M.I. ; Vugt, S.M. van; Wigboldus, S.A. - \ 2015
Wageningen : Centre for Development Innovation, Wageningen UR (Report / Wageningen UR, Centre for Development Innovation CDI-15-103) - 39
evaluation - program evaluation - innovations - responsibility - monitoring - conferences - development projects - development programmes - society - developing countries - netherlands - gelderland - evaluatie - programma-evaluatie - innovaties - verantwoordelijkheid - conferenties - ontwikkelingsprojecten - ontwikkelingsprogramma's - samenleving - ontwikkelingslanden - nederland
This report presents the key highlights and contributions from the conference ‘Monitoring and Evaluation for Responsible Innovation’ that was held on 19-20 March 2015 in Wageningen, the Netherlands. This conference was part of the International Year of Evaluation, and is the eighth annual ‘M&E on the Cutting Edge’ conference. These events are organised by Centre for Development Innovation, Wageningen University and Research centre and Learning by Design. The conference focused on how monitoring and evaluation efforts can support the kind of transformative and responsible innovation needed to tackle critical questions for society.
How does the fruit and vegetable sector contribute to food and nutrition security?
Joosten, F.J. ; Dijkxhoorn, Y. ; Sertse, Y. ; Ruben, Ruerd - \ 2015
Wageningen : LEI Wageningen UR (Nota / LEI 2015-076) - 57
voedselzekerheid - fruit - groenten - landbouwsector - tuinbouw - geslacht (gender) - voedselvoorziening - ontwikkelingslanden - food security - vegetables - agricultural sector - horticulture - gender - food supply - developing countries
The Dutch Food & Business Knowledge Platform (F&BKP) commissioned an explorative study regarding the existing knowledge base from development practice and research about the potential of the Fruit and Vegetables (F&V) sector to contribute to Food & Nutrition Security (FNS) in the context of (a) sustainable development (i.e. economic, social, ecological and gender equity) and (b) the Dutch international cooperation agenda (i.e. combining aid, trade and investments). The outcome of this explorative study is reflected in this document. The findings and recommendations in this report are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect those of the Food & Business Knowledge Platform.
A review of damage-reducing measures to manage fluvial flood risks in a changing climate
Kreibich, H. ; Bubeck, Ph. ; Vliet, M. van; Moel, H. de - \ 2015
Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change 20 (2015)6. - ISSN 1381-2386 - p. 967 - 989.
klimaatverandering - landgebruiksplanning - overstromingen - risicobeheersing - ontwikkelingslanden - climatic change - land use planning - floods - risk management - developing countries
Damage due to floods has increased during the last few decades, and further increases are expected in several regions due to climate change and growing vulnerability. To address the projected increase in flood risk, a combination of structural and non-structural flood risk mitigation measures is considered as a promising adaptation strategy. Such a combination takes into account that flood defence systems may fail, and prepares for unexpected crisis situations via land-use planning and private damage reduction, e.g. via building precautionary measures, and disaster response. However, knowledge about damage-reducing measures is scarce and often fragmented since based on case studies. For instance, it is believed that private precautionary measures, like shielding with water shutters or building fortification, are especially effective in areas with frequent flood events and low flood water levels. However, some of these measures showed a significant damage-reducing effect also during the extreme flood event in 2002 in Germany. This review analyses potentials of land-use planning and private flood precautionary measures as components of adaptation strategies for global change. Focus is on their implementation, their damage-reducing effects and their potential contribution to address projected changes in flood risk, particularly in developed countries.
De productie van Artemia-cysten, hoeksteen lokale economie in ontwikkelingslanden : ontwikkelingsmodel Tual ( Kleine Keï-eiland, Ind.)
Scheerboom, J. ; Leenstra, S.H. ; Rothuis, A.J. - \ 2014
Aquacultuur 29 (2014)3. - ISSN 1382-2764 - p. 11 - 19.
aquacultuur - visvoeding - artemia - cysten (ontwikkelingsstadia) - prijsbepalende factoren - ontwikkelingslanden - aquaculture - fish feeding - cysts (developmental stages) - price determining factors - developing countries
De wereldwijde groei van de aquacultuur had een toename tot gevolg van de vraag naar cysten van Artemia (voor het voeden van larven van vissen en garnalen in een hatchery). Mondiaal worden cysten van zoutwaterkreeftje Artemia gewonnen in natuurlijke, zoute wateren. De beschikbaarheid van cysten is echter beperkt; niet alleen stijgt de vraag, de hoeveelheid te oogsten cysten is ook onvoorspelbaar door de wisselende klimatologische omstandigheden. De wetmatigheden van vraag en aanbod veroorzaken daarom fluctuaties in de prijs.
Reduce losses in agri production : developing building blocks for the network of excellence postharvest food losses
Gogh, J.B. van; Westra, E.H. - \ 2014
Wageningen : Wageningen UR - Food & Biobased Research (Report / Wageningen UR Food & Biobased Research 1488) - ISBN 9789462570566 - 105
verliezen na de oogst - bederfelijke producten - infrastructuur - netwerken (activiteit) - stakeholders - deskundigen - ontwikkelingslanden - voedselverspilling - postharvest losses - perishable products - infrastructure - networking - experts - developing countries - food wastage
Value chains for perishable products, including fruits and vegetables, require an integrated approach to cope with the challenges in producing sufficient food products in a resourceefficient manner. Developing economies are increasingly investing in their potential of agricultural production. However, the lack of an adequate functioning infrastructure in the postharvest chain, lack of or limited knowledge of products and the proper handling of these, but also the poor linkages between production and markets, often result in large losses of the harvested product before it reaches the consumer market. This report forms the synthesis of the development of a Network of Excellence Postharvest Food Losses and a summary of the status regarding the development of the Network.
Met bomen op landbouwgrond opbrengsten verhogen
Noordwijk, M. van - \ 2014
Wageningen UR
agroforestry - agroforestrysystemen - ontwikkelingslanden - kennis van boeren - ontwikkelingsstudies - kennisoverdracht - landbouw - agrosilviculturele systemen - duurzame landbouw - agroforestry systems - developing countries - farmers' knowledge - development studies - knowledge transfer - agriculture - agrosilvicultural systems - sustainable agriculture
Filmpje over agroforestry. Aan het woord is prof.dr. Meine van Noordwijk, buitengewoon hoogleraar Agroforestry aan Wageningen University. “We moeten ons realiseren dat op 43% van het landbouwareaal in de wereld bomen staan die voor minstens 10% de bodem bedekken. Het gaat dus om een landbouwareaal ter grootte van een continent".
Zuinig zijn op de oogst : een derde van het voedsel gaat verloren
Didde, R. ; Westra, E.H. ; Timmermans, A.J.M. ; Mheen-Sluijer, J. van der - \ 2014
WageningenWorld (2014)3. - ISSN 2210-7908 - p. 20 - 25.
voedselzekerheid - ontwikkelingslanden - verliezen na de oogst - voedselvoorziening - voedselproductie - voedselverspilling - verse producten - food security - developing countries - postharvest losses - food supply - food production - food wastage - fresh products
Vooral in ontwikkelingslanden gaat na de oogst veel voedsel verloren. Met eenvoudige technieken is daar al veel aan te doen, maar vooral als nauw wordt samengewerkt met lokale producenten. Wageningen ontwikkelt een servicedesk die boeren en bedrijven daarin advies geeft.
Reducing food wastage, improving food security? An inventory study on stakeholders’ perspectives and the current state
Tielens, J. ; Candel, J.J.L. - \ 2014
Den Haag : Food & Business Knowledge Platform - 37
voedselzekerheid - voedselverspilling - verliezen - voedselvoorziening - ontwikkelingslanden - food security - food wastage - losses - food supply - developing countries
This study is concerned with the relation between food wastage reduction and the improvement of food security. The central question of this inventory study is to what extent interventions to reduce food wastage are effective contributions for food security, in particular for local access in developing regions, but also the food system stability in general? To investigate this, an overview of international actors working in the field of wastage has been made, with a European/Dutch focus. Their activities and motivations and their assumptions on the relation between reducing food wastage and increasing food security have been mapped. Following this, a synthesis of insights on this relation from scientific and grey literature was made. Finally, conclusions were drawn up.
Bio-slurry as fertilizer : is bio-slurry from household digesters a better fertilizer than manure? : a literature review
Bonten, L.T.C. ; Zwart, K.B. ; Rietra, R.P.J.J. ; Postma, R. ; Haas, M.J.G. de; Nysingh, S.L. - \ 2014
Wageningen : Alterra, Wageningen-UR (Alterra-report 2519) - 45
bemesting - digestaat - biogasmest - fermentatie - vergelijkingen - ontwikkelingslanden - biobased economy - fertilizer application - digestate - biogas slurry - fermentation - comparisons - developing countries
In many developing countries manure is anaerobically digested to produce biogas. The residue of manure digestion, bio-slurry, can be used as fertilizer for crop production and aquaculture. This study compared bio-slurry and manure as fertilizers. Nutrients in bio-slurry, especially nitrogen, are more readily available then in manure, leading to a larger short term fertilisation effect. However, risks for N losses through volatilisation and leaching are large for bio-slurry than for manure during storage, handling and application. Unfortunately, most studies that compared bio-slurry and manure exhibited methodological shortcomings that hamper an adequate comparison.
Learning through collaboration – Knowledge Transfer and Sharing in Climate Change Adaptation. Research between European and developing countries. A CIRCLE-2 research policy brief
Swart, R.J. ; Alberth, J. ; Kuna, B. ; Lillieskold, M. ; Hanzlickova, M. ; Horstmann, B. - \ 2014
Lisbon/Portugal : Foundation of the Faculty of Sciences - 20
klimaatverandering - klimaatadaptatie - kennisoverdracht - milieubeleid - ontwikkelingslanden - landen van de europese unie - climatic change - climate adaptation - knowledge transfer - environmental policy - developing countries - european union countries
From 2004-2009, and from 2009-2014, partners of CIRCLE (Climate Impact Research & Response Coordination for a Larger Europe) have collaborated to fund research and share knowledge on climate change impacts, vulnerability and adaptation and the promotion of long-term cooperation among national and regional climate change programmes in Europe.
Woodfuel for urban markets in the Congo Basin: a livelihood perspective
Schure, J.M. - \ 2014
University. Promotor(en): Bas Arts, co-promotor(en): Freerk Wiersum; P. Levang. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789461737717 - 186
hout - markten - stadsomgeving - brandhout - brandstofgewassen - huishoudens - afrika - energie - ontwikkelingslanden - biobased economy - wood - markets - urban environment - fuelwood - fuel crops - households - africa - energy - developing countries
Hout is de belangrijkste energiebron van huishoudens in sub-Sahara Afrika en het gebruik van houtskool in stedelijke gebieden groeit. Deze dissertatie maakt deel uit van een nieuwe generatie van houtenergie-studies sinds de begin jaren 2000. De hernieuwde interesse komt voort uit de erkenning, dat handel in houtenergie mogelijk bijdraagt aan het oplossen van armoede en energieproblemen. Waar in het verleden houtenergie- studies zich nog voornamelijk concentreerden op het kappen voor eigen huishoudelijk gebruik en productievraagstukken, is er nu meer aandacht voor de rol van stedelijke vraag en commercie. Dit omvat het potentieel van houtenergie als bron van inkomsten. Omdat houtenergie-studies zich traditioneel meer gericht hebben op de kwetsbare droge en semi-aride gebieden in de wereld, is er weinig informatie over het karakter en het ontwikkelingsperspectief van de handel in Afrika’s tropische humide bos regio’s. Deze dissertatie analyseert houtenergie als een bron van levensonderhoud in de context van stedelijke brandhoutbevoorrading in het Kongobekken.
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