Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Losse bijlage bij rapport 'Onderzoek naar kritische succesfactoren voor een laag antibioticumgebruik bij vleeskuikens'
Wiegel, J. ; Holstege, M.M.C. ; Bouwstra, R.J. ; Lauwere, C.C. de; Kluivers-Poodt, M. ; Bokma-Bakker, M.H. - \ 2017
Wageningen : Wageningen UR Livestock Research (Livestock Research rapport 1065B) - 115
dierenwelzijn - dierlijke productie - vleeskuikens - pluimvee - diergezondheid - animal welfare - animal production - broilers - poultry - animal health
Onderzoek naar kritische succesfactoren voor een laag antibioticumgebruik bij vleeskuikens: rapport van het project Kritische Succesfactoren Pluimvee (KSF Pluimvee)
Bokma-Bakker, M.H. ; Wiegel, J. ; Holstege, M.M.C. ; Lauwere, C.C. de; Kluivers-Poodt, M. ; Bouwstra, R.J. - \ 2017
Wageningen : Wageningen UR Livestock Research (Livestock Research rapport 1065A) - 78
dierenwelzijn - dierlijke productie - diergezondheid - pluimvee - vleeskuikens - animal welfare - animal production - animal health - poultry - broilers
Commissioned by AVINED and the Ministry of Agriculture, Nature and Food Quality, research is carried out to identify critical success factors for low antibiotic use in broilers. By analysis of sectoral databases, associations between farm and flock characteristics and antibiotics use are determined. With the results of an additional survey, differences in technical and social factors between structural low and high users of antibiotics are examined.
Losse bijlage bij rapport 'Onderzoek naar kritische succesfactoren voor een laag antibioticumgebruik bij vleeskalveren'
Riel, J.W. van; Lauwere, C.C. de; Kluivers-Poodt, M. ; Antonis, A.F.G. ; Bokma-Bakker, M.H. - \ 2017
Wageningen : Wageningen UR Livestock Research (Livestock Research rapport 1068B) - 47
diergezondheid - dierenwelzijn - dierlijke productie - vleeskalveren - animal health - animal welfare - animal production - veal calves
Onderzoek naar kritische succesfactoren voor een laag antibioticumgebruik bij vleeskalveren : Rapport van het project Kritische Succesfactoren Vleeskalveren (KSF Vleeskalveren)
Bokma-Bakker, M.H. ; Riel, J.W. van; Lauwere, C.C. de; Antonis, A.F.G. ; Kluivers-Poodt, M. - \ 2017
Wageningen : Wageningen UR Livestock Research (Livestock Research rapport 1068A) - 92
dierenwelzijn - diergezondheid - dierlijke productie - vleeskalveren - animal welfare - animal health - animal production - veal calves
Commissioned by SBK and the Ministry of Agriculture, Nature and Food Quality, research is carried out to identify critical success factors for low antibiotic use in veal calves. By analysis of sectoral data-bases, associations between farm and stock characteristics and antibiotics use are determined. With the results of an additional survey, differences in technical and social factors between structural low and high users of antibiotics are examined.
Aanpak van fijnstof in stallen
Winkel, A. - \ 2017
Wageningen : Kennisonline
dierenwelzijn - diergezondheid - pluimvee - dierlijke productie - animal welfare - animal health - poultry - animal production
Sinds 2008 werken alle sectoren in Nederland aan het verlagen van hun uitstoot van fijnstof. In de veehouderij wordt gebruik gemaakt van speciale technieken zoals een strooiselschuif. Wageningen University & Research heeft deze technieken ontwikkeld.
Validation of Meyn Footpad Inspection System
Harn, J. van; Jong, I.C. de - \ 2017
Wageningen : Wageningen Livestock Research (Wageningen Livestock Research report 1044B) - 42
animal welfare - animal production - poultry - animal health - dierenwelzijn - dierlijke productie - pluimvee - diergezondheid
The current report describes the results of a validation of the Meyn Footpad Inspection System, a video imaging system to score footpad lesions in broiler chickens at the slaughter plant. It was suggested that the system might assign a different score to footpad lesions compared to a trained manual scorer. Therefore, on the request of the Ministry of Economic Affairs, Wageningen Livestock Research performed a limited validation of the system during two days at a commercial plant in The Netherlands. During the validation, the footpad lesion score was determined in a sample of each flock slaughtered on that particular day, manually by a trained observer as well as by the camera system, and the results were compared. This reports describes the results of this validation.
Metabolic status, lactation persistency, and udder health of dairy cows after different dry period lengths
Hoeij, Renny van - \ 2017
University. Promotor(en): Bas Kemp; T.J.G.M. Lam, co-promotor(en): Ariette van Knegsel; Jan Dijkstra. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463438070 - 285
dairy cattle - animal health - animal behaviour - dry period - metabolism - energy balance - lactation - milk production - udders - cattle feeding - melkvee - diergezondheid - diergedrag - gustperiode - metabolisme - energiebalans - lactatie - melkproductie - uiers - rundveevoeding

Cows traditionally have a 6 to 8 week non-lactating –‘dry period’- before calving and the start of the next lactation in order to maximize milk production in the subsequent lactation. An omitted, compared with a shortened, dry period reduces milk yield and improves energy availability in cows postpartum, but effects on udder health and persistency were unclear. Cows without a dry period fattened and spontaneously dried off due to the improved energy availability. Reducing the energy availability in the feed for cows without a dry period did not affect fattening or lactation persistency in late lactation. Cows with a short or without a dry period did not receive dry cow antibiotics in this study and this did not affect udder health across the dry period or in early lactation, but seemed to impair udder health in late lactation for cows without a dry period.

Stalboekje Pluimvee 2017 : Handboek voor natuurlijke pluimveegezondheidzorg met kruiden en andere natuurproducten
Groot, Maria ; Puls-van der Kamp, Ineke ; Asseldonk, Tedje van - \ 2017
Wageningen : RIKILT Wageningen University & Research (RIKILT uitgave 2017.701) - 107
pluimveehouderij - pluimvee - diergezondheid - dierenwelzijn - medicinale planten - geneeskrachtige kruiden - dierziektepreventie - dierlijke productie - biologische landbouw - handboeken - vleeskuikens - hennen - poultry farming - poultry - animal health - animal welfare - medicinal plants - herbal drugs - animal disease prevention - animal production - organic farming - handbooks - broilers - hens
De stalboekjes zijn oorspronkelijk gemaakt voor de biologische veehouderij (versies 2009 en 2011) in het kader van onderzoek voor Biokennis. Deze uitgave is in 2014 en 2015 aangevuld met nieuwe middelen en inzichten en aangepast voor toepassing in de gangbare pluimveehouderij. Dit betekent o.a. dat een hoofdstuk over vleeskuikens is toegevoegd en het leghennen stuk is uitgebreid. Het streven om het gebruik van antibiotica terug te dringen vraagt om een ander management. Goede voeding, huisvesting en hygiëne zijn hierbij belangrijk. In dit boekje worden aanwijzingen gegeven om met natuurlijke middelen de gezondheid van de dieren te bevorderen en zo ziektes te voorkomen. Tevens kunnen middelen worden ingezet om de ernst van de ziekte te reduceren. Doel is tevens om de dierenartsen te informeren over de mogelijkheden van natuurproducten en de wetenschappelijke onderbouwing hiervan inzichtelijk te maken.
Alternatieve vloeren voor vleeskalveren
Heeres-van der Tol, Jetta ; Wolthuis, Maaike ; Bokma, Sjoerd ; Smits, Dolf ; Stockhofe, Norbert ; Vermeij, Izak ; Reenen, Kees van - \ 2017
Wageningen : Wageningen Livestock Research (Wageningen Livestock Research rapport 1056) - 103
dierenwelzijn - dierlijke productie - vleeskalveren - huisvesting - diergedrag - diergezondheid - animal welfare - animal production - veal calves - housing - animal behaviour - animal health
Stand van zaken achterwege laten van ingrepen bij pluimvee : Evaluatie september 2017
Niekerk, T.G.C.M. van; Jong, I.C. de - \ 2017
Wageningen : Wageningen Livestock Research (Wageningen Livestock Research rapport 1051) - 57
dierenwelzijn - pluimvee - dierlijke productie - diergezondheid - animal welfare - poultry - animal production - animal health
Monitoring verduurzaming veehouderij 1.0 : een eerste proeve van een Monitorings-systematiek voor de 15 ambities van de Uitvoeringsagenda Duurzame Veehouderij, met initiële resultaten voor drie diersectoren en een aantal keteninitiatieven
Bos, A.P. ; Puente-Rodríguez, Daniel ; Reijs, Joan W. ; Peet, G.F.V. van der; Groot Koerkamp, Peter W.G. - \ 2017
Wageningen : Wageningen Livestock Research (Wageningen Livestock Research rapport 1045) - 113
dierenwelzijn - dierlijke productie - melkvee - varkens - pluimvee - huisvesting, dieren - diergezondheid - diergedrag - animal welfare - animal production - dairy cattle - pigs - poultry - animal housing - animal health - animal behaviour
In 2013, the governance network UDV formulated fifteen ambitions towards a sustainable livestock production. In this way, the UDV’s stakeholders defined the long-term goals of an integrated and sustainable livestock production. To what extent have these 15 ambitions been achieved? And, how substantial is the contribution of supra-legal initiatives to this process? In this report, we present the first elaboration of a monitoring system that enables the visualization of the progress made. Moreover, it also enables comparing the different livestock production systems and creates the basis for a comparison between conventional animal production and supra-legal initiatives. In this concept-report the system is applied initially to the three larger livestock production sectors in the Netherlands (i.e., dairy, pigs, and poultry) and –as far as enough data is available– to four supra-legal initiatives. The system is currently under construction. Particularly because it involves interpretation and a number of value-laden choices that –notwithstanding their current support by arguments and references to the literature– should become shared and supported by (at least) the UDV stakeholders in the near future.
Evaluatie Actieplan Stalbranden 2012-2016
Bokma-Bakker, Martien ; Bokma, Sjoerd ; Ellen, Hilko ; Hagen, René ; Ruijven, Charlotte van - \ 2017
Wageningen : Wageningen Livestock Research (Wageningen Livestock Research rapport 1035) - 80
dierenwelzijn - dierlijke productie - diergezondheid - pluimvee - varkens - melkvee - schapen - geiten - paarden - stallen - brand - voorkomen van branden - veiligheid - animal welfare - animal production - animal health - poultry - pigs - dairy cattle - sheep - goats - horses - stalls - fire - fire prevention - safety
Elearning Cursus mens-dier interactie in de varkenshouderij
Ruis, M.A.W. - \ 2017
Wageningen : Wageningen Livestock Research - 2 p.
dierenwelzijn - dierlijke productie - varkens - diergedrag - diergezondheid - huisvesting, dieren - varkenshouderij - gedrag - behandeling - animal welfare - animal production - pigs - animal behaviour - animal health - animal housing - pig farming - behaviour - treatment
Hoe ervaart een varken de omgeving? En waarom is het van belang om hierbij stil te staan? Deze cursus richt zich op het belang van een goede mens-dier relatie, waarbij onder andere gekeken wordt naar de manier waarop een varken de wereld ervaart. Dit geeft inzicht in de manier van omgang, met als gevolg minder stress voor dier én mens. Het doel is een win-win situatie; het bevorderen van dierge - zondheid en dierenwelzijn dat onder andere zorgt voor meer werkplezier en meer benutting van het productie potentieel van het varken.
Systeemomschrijving “Plateau 2.0”
Hoofs, Anita - \ 2017
Wageningen : Wageningen Livestock Research - 5
dierenwelzijn - varkens - huisvesting, dieren - diergezondheid - diergedrag - animal welfare - pigs - animal housing - animal health - animal behaviour
En varkenshok met plateau is een hok waarin varkens vrij beschikken over twee verblijfsniveaus, één op de begane grond en één op het plateau. Varkens kunnen gemakkelijk het plateau op - en aflopen via een trap. Bij toepassing van een plateau, dat voldoet aan de systeemomschrijving, mag het beschikbare vloeroppervlak van het plateau als beschikbaar vloeroppervlak meegerekend worden.
Stalboekje Varkens 2016: handboek voor natuurlijke diergezondheidzorg met kruiden en andere natuurproducten : Natuurlijk gezond met kruiden en andere natuurproducten
Groot, Maria ; Asseldonk, Tedje van - \ 2017
IJmuiden : RIKILT Wageningen UR (RIKILT-uitgave 2016.701) - 168
varkens - veehouderij - biologische landbouw - geneeskrachtige kruiden - diervoeding - diergezondheid - dierenwelzijn - dierlijke productie - pigs - livestock farming - organic farming - herbal drugs - animal nutrition - animal health - animal welfare - animal production
Stalboekje Vleeskalveren 2016 : handboek voor natuurlijke diergezondheidzorg met kruiden en andere natuurproducten
Groot, Maria ; Asseldonk, Tedje van - \ 2017
IJmuiden : RIKILT Wageningen UR (RIKILT-uitgave 2016.702) - 128
rundvee - dierenwelzijn - diergezondheid - diervoeding - geneeskrachtige kruiden - dierlijke productie - biologische landbouw - cattle - animal welfare - animal health - animal nutrition - herbal drugs - animal production - organic farming
Deze uitgave van ‘Stalboekje vleeskalveren’ is bedoeld om kalverhouders te helpen bij het vinden van de juiste toepassing van kruiden en andere natuurproducten. Kruiden en andere natuurproducten kunnen ter ondersteuning van gezonde dieren bij stress en ter ondersteuning van therapeutische maatregelen worden ingezet. Grootste meerwaarde is dat problemen voorkomen worden en dieren weerbaar gemaakt worden. Deze gids geeft een leidraad welke kruiden en natuurproducten op basis van beschikbare kennis een effect kunnen hebben bij verschillende gezondheidsproblemen. De ontwikkelingen op dit gebied gaan snel en daarom zal dit boekje regelmatig herzien en aangevuld moeten worden.
Signaalindicatoren bij handhaving van "Open Normen" voor dierenwelzijn : pilot klimaat in varkensstallen
Vermeer, Herman ; Hopster, Hans - \ 2017
Wageningen : Wageningen Livestock Research (Wageningen Livestock Research rapport 1017) - 44
dierenwelzijn - dierlijke productie - varkens - huisvesting, dieren - diergedrag - diergezondheid - wetgeving - toezicht - animal welfare - animal production - pigs - animal housing - animal behaviour - animal health - legislation - surveillance
Wat zijn de mogelijkheden om een leverbotinfectie van melkvee te voorkomen?
Neijenhuis, Francesca ; Verwer, Cynthia ; Verkaik, Jan - \ 2017
Wageningen : Wageningen UR Livestock Research (Livestock Research rapport 1029) - 65
leverbot - fascioliasis - melkvee - melkveehouderij - parasitosen - infectieziekten - dierlijke productie - dierenwelzijn - diergezondheid - biologische landbouw - liver flukes - dairy cattle - dairy farming - parasitoses - infectious diseases - animal production - animal welfare - animal health - organic farming
Infecties met leverbot zijn in toenemende mate een knelpunt in de diergezondheid van grazende (of vers gras gevoerde) herkauwers. Leverbotinfectie leidt tot ziekte met economische gevolgen en voor melkgevende dieren zijn geen anthelmintica vrij beschikbaar. In dit project is het leverbotinstrument ontwikkeld met als doel om veehouders inzicht en handelingsperspectief te geven ten aanzien van de leverbotsituatie op hun bedrijf. In dit rapport worden de resultaten weergegeven van het leverbotinstrument en een drietal preventieve maatregelen die zijn uitgeprobeerd.
Nutrition of pigs kept under low and high sanitary conditions : effects on animo acid and energy metabolism and damaging behaviour
Meer, Yvonne van der - \ 2017
University. Promotor(en): Walter Gerrits, co-promotor(en): Alfons Jansman; Aart Lammers. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463431972 - 181
pigs - feeds - pig feeding - animal nutrition - amino acid metabolism - animal health - energy metabolism - abnormal behaviour - behaviour disorders - immune system - nutrition physiology - varkens - voer - varkensvoeding - diervoeding - aminozuurmetabolisme - diergezondheid - energiemetabolisme - abnormaal gedrag - gedragsstoornissen - immuunsysteem - voedingsfysiologie

It is economically and environmentally important to match the nutrient supply to the nutrient requirements in pig production. Until now, the effects of different sanitary conditions on energy and nutrient requirements are not implemented in recommendations for nutrient composition of pig diets. The current nutrient requirement data are based on studies with pigs in experimental settings, which can be regarded as rather optimal. Changes in nutrient requirements caused by differences in sanitary conditions are poorly documented. As in the pig production sector farm conditions are variable it is of major importance to determine the effects of low sanitary conditions (LSC) on requirements for amino acids and energy in growing pigs. Pigs under LSC have an increased risk of clinical and subclinical infections, resulting in a chronic stimulation of their immune system. Immune system stimulation is known to influence energy and amino acid metabolism. However, most studies in pigs evaluating the relationship between immune system stimulation and nutrient requirements often use specific experimental challenge models. Whereas such models have the obvious advantage of reproducibility and allow mechanistic insight in the effects of stimulating specific parts of the immune system, these models often induce clinical illness, rather than subclinical infections. Results obtained with such models may therefore be difficult to translate to practical situations. Therefore the objective of the present thesis was to study the effect of low and high sanitary conditions (HSC) on amino acids and energy metabolism in pigs. Also interactions between the immune system, nutrient metabolism and damaging behaviour of pigs were considered in this thesis.

The experiment described in Chapter 2 was designed to study the effect of different dietary crude protein levels and extra amino acid supplementation on the growth performance of pigs kept under different sanitary conditions. In a 2×2×2 factorial arrangement, 68 groups of 9 pigs were allocated to either LSC or HSC, and were offered ad libitum access to two different diets, a normal crude protein concentration diet or a low crude protein concentration diet, each having either a basal dietary amino acid profile or supplemented dietary amino acid profile containing 20% more methionine, threonine, and tryptophan compared with the basal profile. The pigs were followed from 10 weeks of age until slaughter. Haptoglobin concentrations in serum and IgG antibody titers against keyhole limpet heamocyanin, collected in the starter, grower, and finisher phases, and pleuritis scores at slaughter were greater for LSC pigs compared with HSC pigs, illustrating that sanitary conditions affected health conditions. The average daily gain and gain to feed ratio were greater for HSC pigs compared with LSC pigs. A 20% increase in dietary supplementation of methionine, threonine, and tryptophan relative to lysine increased gain to feed ratio more in LSC than in HSC pigs. The results therefore illustrated that dietary requirements for methionine. threonine, and tryptophan were greater for LSC compared with HSC pigs.

In Chapter 3 the damaging behaviour of 576 pigs from the experiment in Chapter 2 was evaluated. At 15, 18, and 24 weeks of age, prevalence of tail and ear damage, and of tail and ear wounds was scored. At 20 and 23 weeks of age, frequencies of biting behaviour and aggression were scored by behaviour sampling. The prevalence of ear damage during the finisher phase and the frequency of ear biting were increased in LSC compared with HSC pigs. The frequency of ear biting was increased in low protein fed pigs compared with normal protein fed pigs. The supplemented AA profile reduced ear biting only in LSC pigs. The prevalence of tail wounds was lower for pigs in LSC than for pigs in HSC in the grower phase. Regardless of dietary amino acid profile or sanitary status, pigs fed low protein diets showed more ear biting, tail biting, belly nosing, other oral manipulation directed at pen mates, and aggression than pigs fed normal protein diets, with no effect on ear or tail damage. In conclusion, both LSC and a reduction of dietary protein increased the occurrence of damaging behaviours in pigs and therefore may negatively impact pig welfare.

The experiment of Chapter 4 was designed to quantify the difference in energy requirements for maintenance, and in incremental efficiencies for deposition of dietary energy and protein in the body of clinically healthy pigs kept under LSC or HSC, fed a basal diet either or not supplemented with additional methionine, threonine and tryptophan.

In a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement, 24 groups of 6 pigs each were allocated to either a LSC or HSC, and were offered two different diets having either a basal or a dietary amino acid profile supplemented with methionine, threonine, and tryptophan. For each group of pigs, complete energy and nitrogen balances were determined during two consecutive weeks, during which feed was available ad libitum or at 70% of ad libitum. Fasting heat production was determined over a 25 h period of fasting after a period of restricted feeding. Low sanitary conditions increased fasting heat production from 696 to 750 kJ/(kg BW0.6 . d), regardless of the dietary amino acid supplementation. The incremental efficiency of ingested nitrogen for retention in the body was reduced in LSC pigs from 73 to 53%, but incremental efficiencies of digestible energy intake for fat deposition in the body were unaffected by the experimental treatments. These findings showed that the effects of continuous immune stimulation by introducing LSC, was affecting energy and nutrient efficiencies of pigs both at maintenance level and at a feeding level close to ad libitum intake.

In Chapter 5 diurnal patterns for heat production, respiratory quotient, and carbohydrate and fat oxidation of the pigs studied in the experiment of Chapter 4 were evaluated to get more insight in the mechanisms behind the effects found in Chapter 4. The LSC pigs had reduced activity compared with HSC and a higher resting metabolic rate during the period of restricted feeding, especially during the light parts of the day. Therefore the diurnal energy expenditure pattern of LSC and HSC pigs can be considered as different. Fat and carbohydrate oxidation patterns were not different for LSC and HSC pigs, indicating that protein and fat deposition during the day was similar for LSC and HSC pigs.

Overall, the results of this thesis indicate that both energy and AA requirements are greater in LSC pigs compared with HSC pigs. It is questionable, however, whether it is nutrient and cost effective and biologically possible to satisfy these increased nutrient requirements in LSC pigs, as the incremental efficiency of N for retained protein is low, and ADFI is reduced for LSC pigs compared with HSC pigs. The present thesis demonstrates that care should be taken in reducing dietary protein concentrations to improve protein efficiency in pigs, as it incurs a risk to increased damaging behaviours, particularly when pigs are kept under LSC.

Interactions and functionalities of the gut revealed by computational approaches
Benis, Nirupama - \ 2017
University. Promotor(en): Mari Smits; Vitor Martins dos Santos, co-promotor(en): Dirkjan Schokker; Maria Suarez Diez. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463434546 - 247
pigs - mice - digestive tract - digestive system - intestinal microorganisms - intestinal mucosa - computational science - immune system - feeds - animal nutrition - nutrition physiology - animal health - varkens - muizen - spijsverteringskanaal - spijsverteringsstelsel - darmmicro-organismen - darmslijmvlies - immuunsysteem - voer - diervoeding - voedingsfysiologie - diergezondheid

The gastrointestinal tract is subject of much research for its role in an organism’s health owing to its role as gatekeeper. The tissue acts as a barrier to keep out harmful substances like pathogens and toxins while absorbing nutrients that arise from the digestion of dietary components in in the lumen. There is a large population of microbiota that plays an important role in the functioning of the gut. All these sub-systems of the gastrointestinal tract contribute to the normal functioning of the gut. Due to its various functionalities, the gut is able to respond to different types of stimuli and bring the system back to homeostasis after perturbations.

The work done in this thesis uses several bioinformatic tools to improve our understanding of the functioning of the gut. This was achieved with data from model animals, mice and pigs which were subjected to changing environments before their gastrointestinal response was measured. Different types of stimuli were studied (eg, antibiotic exposure, changing diets and infection with pathogens) in order to understand the response of the gut to varying environments. This data was analysed using different data integration techniques that provide a holistic view of the gut response.

Vertical data integration techniques look for associations between different types of ~omics data to highlight possible interactions between the measured variables. Lateral integration techniques allow the study of one type of ~omics data over several time points or several experimental conditions. Using these techniques, we show proof of interactions between different sub-systems of the gut and the functional plasticity of the gut. Of the several hypotheses generated in this thesis we have validated several using existing literature and one using an in-vitro system. Further validation of these hypotheses will increase understanding of the responses of the gut and the interactions involved.

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