Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Designing a research infrastructure on dietary intake and its determinants
Bogaardt, M.J. ; Geelen, A. ; Zimmermann, K. ; Finglas, P. ; Raats, M.M. ; Mikkelsen, B.E. ; Poppe, K.J. ; van't Veer, P. - \ 2018
Nutrition Bulletin 43 (2018)3. - ISSN 1471-9827 - p. 301 - 309.
big data - consumers - diet - food - public health - research infrastructure

Research on dietary intake and its determinants is crucial for an adequate response to the current epidemic of diet-related non-communicable chronic diseases. In order to respond to this challenge, the RICHFIELDS project was tasked with designing a research infrastructure (RI) that connects data on dietary intake of consumers in Europe, and its determinants, collected using apps and wearable sensors, from behavioural laboratories and experimental facilities and from other RIs. The main output of the project, an RI design, describes interfaces (portals) to collect data, a meta-database and a data-model to enable data linkage and sharing. The RICHFIELDS project comprises three phases, each consisting of three work packages, and an overarching methodological support work package. Phase 1 focused on data generated by consumers (e.g. collected by apps and sensors) relating to the purchase, preparation and consumption of food. Phase 2 focused on data generated by organisations such as businesses (e.g. retail data), government (e.g. procurement data) and experimental research facilities (e.g. virtual supermarkets). Phases 1 and 2 provided Phase 3 with insights on data types and design requirements, including the business models, data integration and management systems and governance and ethics. The final design will be used in the coming years to build an RI for the scientific research community, policy makers and businesses in Europe. The RI will boost interdisciplinary multi-stakeholder research through harmonisation and integration of data on food behaviour.

Soya bean meal increases litter moisture and foot pad dermatitis in maize and wheat based diets for turkeys but maize and non-soya diets lower body weight
Hocking, P.M. ; Vinco, L.J. ; Veldkamp, T. - \ 2018
British Poultry Science 59 (2018)2. - ISSN 0007-1668 - p. 227 - 231.
Cereal - dermatitis - diet - electrolyte balance - feed - feed intake - litter moisture - protein
1. A 2 × 2 factorial experiment was conducted to compare the effects of wheat or maize based diets differing in dietary electrolyte balance (DEB) on litter moisture and foot pad dermatitis (FPD) at 4, 8 and 12 weeks of age in heavy-medium turkeys. A second objective was to investigate the effects on foot pad dermatitis of the interaction between dietary composition and artificially increasing litter moisture by adding water to the litter. 2. High DEB diets contained soya as the main protein source whereas low DEB diets did not contain soya bean meal. Diets were formulated to be iso-caloric and iso-nitrogenous in each of 3 successive 4-week phases following recommended dietary compositions. DEB concentrations were 330, 290 and 250 mEq/kg in high DEB diets and 230, 200 and 180 mEq/kg in low DEB diets. 3. Litter moisture and mean FPD score were higher in turkeys fed on high DEB diets compared with low DEB diets whereas there was no difference between maize and wheat. 4. Food intake was similar and body weight was lower after litter moisture was artificially raised in the wet compared with the dry litter treatment and there was no interaction with dietary composition. 5. Mean body weight and feed intake were higher in turkeys fed on wheat compared with maize and in high DEB compared with low DEB diets at 12 weeks of age. 6. Lowering dietary DEB for turkeys may improve litter moisture and lower the prevalence of FPD in commercial turkey flocks.
Multi-objective decision-making for dietray assessment and advice
Lemmen - Gerdessen, J.C. van - \ 2017
University. Promotor(en): Jack van der Vorst; P. van 't Veer, co-promotor(en): Frits Claassen. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463437073 - 136
questionnaires - food - fractionation - modeling - diet - food intake - decision making - diet counseling - vragenlijsten - voedsel - fractionering - modelleren - dieet - voedselopname - besluitvorming - dieetadvisering

Unhealthy diets contribute substantially to the worldwide burden of non-communicable diseases, such as cardiovascular diseases, cancers, and diabetes. Globally, non-communicable diseases are the leading cause of death, and numbers are still rising, which makes healthy diets a global priority. In Nutrition Research, two fields are particularly relevant for formulating healthier diets: dietary assessment, which assesses food and nutrient intake in order to investigate the relation between diet and disease, and dietary advice, which translates food and nutrient recommendations into realistic food choices. Both fields face complex decision problems: which foods to include in dietary assessment or advice in order to pursue the multiple objectives of the researcher or fulfil the requirements of the consumer. This thesis connects the disciplines of Nutrition Research and Operations Research in order to contribute to formulating healthier diets.

In the context of dietary assessment, the thesis proposes a MILP model for the selection of food items for food frequency questionnaires (a crucial tool in dietary assessment) that speeds up the selection process and increases standardisation, transparency, and reproducibility. An extension of this model gives rise to a 0-1 fractional programming problem with more than 200 fractional terms, of which in every feasible solution only a subset is actually defined. The thesis shows how this problem can be reformulated in order to eliminate the undefined fractional terms. The resulting MILP model can solved with standard software.

In the context of dietary advice, the thesis proposes a diet model in which food and nutrient requirements are formulated via fuzzy sets. With this model, the impact of various achievement functions is demonstrated. The preference structures modelled via these achievement functions represent various ways in which multiple nutritional characteristics of a diet can be aggregated into an overall indicator for diet quality. Furthermore, for Operations Research the thesis provides new insights into a novel preference structure from literature, that combines equity and utilitarianism in a single model.

Finally, the thesis presents conclusions of the research and a general discussion, which discusses, amongst others, the main modelling choices encountered when using MODM methods for optimising diet quality.

Summarising, this thesis explores the use of MODM approaches to improve decision-making for dietary assessment and advice. It provides opportunities for better decision-making in research on dietary assessment and advice, and it contributes to model building and solving in Operations Research. Considering the added value for Nutrition Research and the new models and solutions generated, we conclude that the combination of both fields has resulted in synergy between Nutrition Research and Operations Research.

Changes in body composition as a result of chemotherapy : Comparing women with and without breast cancer
Berg, Maaike M.G.A. van den - \ 2017
University. Promotor(en): Ellen Kampman; M. Visser, co-promotor(en): Renate Winkels; Jeanne de Vries. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463436984 - 140
body composition - neoplasms - cancer - drug therapy - breast cancer - body weight - intake - diet - meta-analysis - toxicity - lichaamssamenstelling - neoplasma's - geneesmiddelenbehandeling - borstkanker - lichaamsgewicht - opname (intake) - dieet - meta-analyse - toxiciteit

Because of the improved survival rate, both short term and long term adverse effects of breast cancer treatment have become increasingly important. Body weight and body composition before, during, and after chemotherapy may influence side effects during treatment and survival. The aims of this thesis were to assess among stage I-IIIB breast cancer patients: 1) the association between pre-treatment body composition and dose-limiting toxicities during chemotherapy, 2) potential changes in body weight and body composition during and after chemotherapy compared to changes in age-matched women without cancer in the same time period, and 3) dietary intake during chemotherapy compared to age-matched women without cancer in the same time period.

Chapter 2 describes the association between pre-treatment body composition and dose-limiting toxicities during chemotherapy. Data from 172 breast cancer patients who participated in the COBRA-study were analysed. Body composition was measured using a total body Dual Energy X-ray Absorption (DEXA) scan. Information regarding dose-limiting toxicities was abstracted from medical records. A higher BMI (kg/m2) and a higher fat mass (kg and percentage) were associated with an increased risk of dose-limiting toxicity, while lean body mass (kg) was not associated with risk of toxicities.

Chapter 3 presents the findings of a meta-analysis on changes in body weight during chemotherapy in breast cancer patients. The meta-analysis showed an overall gain in body weight of 2.7 kg (95% CI: 2.0-3.3) during chemotherapy, with a high degree of heterogeneity (I2= 94.2%). Weight gain in breast cancer patients was more pronounced in papers published before 2000 and studies including cyclophosphamide, methotrexate and 5-fluorouracil as chemotherapy regime.

Chapter 4 describes changes in body weight and body composition during and after chemotherapy. Data from 145 patients and 121 women of an age-matched comparison group, participating in the COBRA-study were analysed. Body composition was measured using DEXA-scan at three time points during the study period. For the patient group, these tie points were: before start of chemotherapy, shortly after chemotherapy, and 6 months after chemotherapy. For the comparison group these measurements were conducted over a similar time frame: baseline, 6 months after baseline, and 12 months after baseline. In addition, we identified determinants of changes in body weight and body composition.

Shortly after chemotherapy, patients had a significantly higher body weight, BMI, and lean body mass than women in the comparison group, while fat mass was similar. Six months after chemotherapy no differences in body weight or body composition were observed between the patient and comparison group. A younger age, better appetite during chemotherapy, and an ER-receptor negative tumour were associated with greater changes in body weight over time. A younger age and better appetite during chemotherapy were associated with greater changes in fat mass over time, while the only determinant associated with greater changes in lean body mass over time was a better appetite during chemotherapy.

Chapter 5 describes the dietary intake and food groups before and during chemotherapy of breast cancer patients compared with women without cancer. In addition we assessed the association between symptoms and energy intake. Data from 117 breast cancer patients and 88 women without breast cancer who participated in the COBRA-study were used. Habitual dietary intake before chemotherapy was assessed using a food frequency questionnaire. Two 24-hr dietary recalls were used to assess actual dietary intake during chemotherapy for patients and within 6 months for the comparison group. Shortly after the 24-hr dietary recall, participants filled out questionnaires about symptoms. Before chemotherapy, dietary intake was similar for both groups. During chemotherapy, breast cancer patients reported significantly lower total energy, total fat, total protein, and alcohol intake than women without cancer, which could be explained by a lower intake of specific food groups.

Overall results from this thesis suggest that pre-treatment fat mass is associated with dose-limiting toxicities during chemotherapy. Weight gain during chemotherapy appeared to be more modest than we expected based on literature and changes in body composition during chemotherapy consist mainly of an increase in lean body mass, which is only temporary and returned to baseline within 6 months after chemotherapy. A higher appetite during chemotherapy was associated with changes in body weight and body composition. A younger age at diagnosis was associated with greater changes in body weight and fat mass, but not with changes in lean body mass. In addition, an ER-receptor negative tumour was associated with greater changes in body weight, but not with changes in fat mass or lean body mass. During chemotherapy women with breast cancer have a lower intake of energy, fat, protein and alcohol compared to age-matched women without cancer, which was expressed in a lower intake of specific food groups. The results of this thesis do not suggest that dietary intake is associated with weight gain during chemotherapy.

On the genetic mechanisms of nutrient-dependent lifespan and reproduction
Zandveld, Jelle - \ 2017
University. Promotor(en): Bas Zwaan, co-promotor(en): Fons Debets. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463436861 - 209
genetics - lifespan - reproduction - nutrients - drosophila melanogaster - fungi - diet - evolution - genetica - levensduur - voortplanting - voedingsstoffen - schimmels - dieet - evolutie

Dietary restriction (DR), a moderate reduction in nutrient intake, improves health or extends lifespan across many species. Moreover, recent insights have shown that also the effects of specific nutrients are of importance for the beneficial effects of DR rather than intake alone. However, we still lack much insight through what mechanisms the lifespan increase through diet changes is exactly mediated.

To further increase our understanding of the genetic mechanisms of nutrient-dependent lifespan, in Chapter 2, 3, 4, and 5 I employed different methods of genetic interventions (i.e. a genetic knockout, natural genetic variation and experimental evolution) using the model species Drosophila melanogaster and Podospora anserina. To test whether the genetic interventions affected the diet response, a broad range of diets was applied, thereby taking the recent insights of nutritional geometry into account. Furthermore, the response of the fly’s whole-genome transcription to different dietary treatments were assessed in Chapter 6 and 7 to identify and potentially disentangle genetic mechanisms for lifespan from those for reproduction.

Chapter 2 addressed the effects of a triple knockout in the insulin-IGF signalling (IIS) pathway, namely for three genes encoding insulin-like peptides in Drosophila (dilp2-3,5). The mutant showed a strong elevation of lifespan that was irrespective of food type, but also a strong reduction of the female fly fecundity. In addition, this assay also revealed that the same knockout can yield different interpretations for its function in the fly’s diet response, which was strongly dependent per diet dimension under consideration (i.e. varying yeast, sugar, or its ratio in the diet). This observation set the stage for other experimental chapters in this thesis, where a broad range of diets was applied to depict the exact genotypic effects that are involved in the lifespan response to diet. For example, in Chapter 2, interactive effects were observed between dilp2-3,5 knockout and the lifespan response to dietary sugar, but however, not for the yeast component of the diet.

In Chapter 3, for the same experimental diets, gene expression responses in dilp2-3,5 knockout flies were measured to describe the general dynamics on the pathway level. Interestingly, expression of the remaining fly head-expressed dilp, dilp6, was elevated on higher yeast levels upon dilp2-3,5 knockout. Therefore, compensatory mechanisms within IIS might still partly mediate the lifespan response to yeast.

In Chapter 4 the natural genetic variation for the response to DR was explored in wild-derived strains of the fungus Podospora anserina. By applying a broad range of glucose concentrations in a synthetic medium, we constructed reaction norms for 62 natural occurring strains and showed considerable natural variation in the shape of the reaction norms, including the glucose concentration at which lifespan increased and how steeply the fungus’ lifespan responds to diet (the slope S). Furthermore, I identified a significant correlation between a strain’s general lifespan and both parameters, suggesting that the lifespan response to diet partly acts through a mechanism involved in the fungus’ lifespan determination under high nutrient, growth and reproduction permissive, conditions. On moderate glucose restriction levels we showed that a reduced reproduction was not always associated with lifespan extension, which indicates that decoupling of these traits (that often trade-off) can be achieved.

An evolutionary perspective on diet response and the connection between reproduction and lifespan, two often interconnected traits in lifespan research, was provided in Chapter 5. Here, experimental evolution (EE) was performed in Drosophila melanogaster to test whether improved reproductive capacity (i.e. local adaptation) to three nutritionally distinct diets directly affected the lifespan response. Adaptation to the distinct nutritional conditions, had no consistent effect on the lifespan response to diet. Other life-history traits that I assessed could more consistently be associated with the evolutionary nutritional treatments, which together suggested that the adaptive genetic mechanisms increasing the fly’s reproduction were not necessarily interconnected singly with a change of lifespan, but rather with a change in the whole life-history strategy.

By exploring the fly’s whole-genome transcription response in a continuously changing environ­ment, Chapter 6 continued on the evolutionary relevance of lifespan responses to diet. This type of fluctuations may better reflect the fly’s natural ecological setting than the continuous diets typically applied in whole-genome transcription laboratory studies. This revealed that flies were able to respond quickly to diet fluctuations throughout lifespan by drastically changing their transcription pattern and, moreover, my results indicated that a large part of the whole-genome transcription response could be attributed to the female fly’s reproduction. Because I measured the response of multiple life-history traits to the fluctuating diet changes, I was able to decouple groups of genes associated with lifespan from those associated with reproduction. This is an important step in the direction of unravelling the genetic architecture that specifically mediates the lifespan response to diet, which can be especially useful in whole-genome transcription studies.

In Chapter 7, the consistencies between studies for their whole-genome transcription responses upon DR were investigated. This revealed large transcriptomic variations on different regulatory levels, i.e. the level of whole-genome transcription, most significant genes, and also gene ontology. To test whether the observed inconsistent whole-genome transcription responses were primarily a reflection of the fly’s reproduction, such as observed in Chapter 6, a new cohort of flies was subjected to different regimes that resulted in very different age-dependent reproduction patterns. By assessing whole-genome transcription in this cohort at two time points, the gene expression changes reflected the age-dependent reproduction patterns observed, rather than the lifespan phenotypes. Similar to Chapter 6, this again highlighted the importance of measuring multiple life-history traits for associating whole-genome transcription responses to lifespan effects of dietary restriction.

In Chapter 8 the acquired insights across the experimental chapters were synthesized, discussing the importance of assessing a broad range of nutrients for the interpretation of any genotypic effect, and in addition discussing the value of measuring multiple life-history traits for genetic associations. In this chapter I also suggested directions for future research in Drosophila and Podospora that may be valuable for further unravelling and understanding the mechanisms of diet responses in other organisms, including in humans.

Condensed Tannins in the Gastrointestinal Tract of Cattle after Sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia) Intake and Their Possible Relationship with Anthelmintic Effects
Desrues, Olivier ; Mueller-Harvey, Irene ; Pellikaan, Wilbert F. ; Enemark, Heidi L. ; Thamsborg, Stig M. - \ 2017
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 65 (2017)7. - ISSN 0021-8561 - p. 1420 - 1427.
Cooperia oncophora - diet - digesta - feces - helminth parasite - Ostertagia ostertagi - proanthocyanidins
Condensed tannins' (CTs) fate along the digestive tract of ruminants may account for the variable efficacy of CTs against gastrointestinal nematodes. We analyzed CTs in the digesta of cattle fed sainfoin. With the acetone-butanol-HCl assay, the total CTs concentrations in the digesta were close to those in the diets (6.3 and 1.5% of DM in experiments 1 and 2, respectively); thus, CTs remained potentially largely undegraded/unabsorbed. With the thiolysis assay, CTs concentration was much higher in the abomasum (2.3% of DM; expt 1) compared with the rumen and intestines, along with higher mean size and prodelphinidins percentage, corroborating CTs efficacy reported only against Ostertagia ostertagi in the abomasum. In expt 2, the dietary levels of CTs were probably too low to demonstrate anthelmintic effects in the rumen. Overall, the level of CTs accessible to thiolysis is favored under the acidic conditions of the abomasum, which seems critical for anthelmintic activity.
Diet-induced phenotypic plasticity during aging
Rusli, Fenni - \ 2016
University. Promotor(en): Michael Muller, co-promotor(en): Wilma Steegenga. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462578845 - 179
diet - liver diseases - energy restricted diets - fibroblasts - aging - fatty liver - dieet - leverziekten - energiearme diëten - fibroblasten - verouderen - vetlever

Increasing life expectancy in the past decades has led to the emergence of age-related chronic diseases and disabilities. A deeper understanding in the molecular events of the aging process is essential to provide evidence-based guidance how lifestyle interventions will be more efficient in delaying age-related disease phenotypes. Calorie restriction (CR) is by far the best nutritional strategy to achieve longevity in animal models. Although potentially also effective for humans, most people experience this rigorous diet as not feasible. To search for a practicable alternative we explored, using a C57BL/6J mice cohort, the effects of intermittent (INT) diet, a weekly alternating diet regimen between 40E% CR and ad libitum medium-fat feeding. We hypothesized that the weekly fluctuating energy availability provides beneficial challenges to the body.

In this thesis we focused on the effects induced by the INT diet on the liver, the central metabolic organ in the body. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common liver disease that develops with age and is considered as the hepatic phenotype of the metabolic syndrome. NAFLD is a disease that develops slowly over the years; its prevalence has been shown to increase at old age (>60 years). In chapter 2 we investigated whether the INT dietary regimen was able to reverse the unfavourable effects of a medium-fat (25%E fat; MF) diet on the liver and its implication on NAFLD development. We showed that, at the age of 12 months, the INT diet prevented NAFLD development. INT-exposed animals retained healthy physiological features as displayed by continuous exposure to CR; maintenance of glucose tolerance, normal insulin levels and low plasma alanine and aspartate aminotransferases. Furthermore, they did not exhibit signs of hepatic steatosis and fibrosis, indicated by the reduced hepatic TG levels and morphological observations. The results presented in chapter 3 show that, at the age of 24 months, INT-fed mice displayed normal plasma ALT levels, no liver inflammation or fibrosis. These mice, however, display mild steatosis with IHTG levels significantly lower than the MF-exposed mice. To summarize, long-term exposure to a MF diet seriously impaired metabolic homeostasis and was a risk factor for NAFLD development. Applying every-other-week 40E% CR largely reversed the adverse health effects induced by the MF diet. Although the livers of the INT-exposed mice were still protected for the advanced stages of NAFLD, it is noteworthy that, in the long run, liver fat accumulation still occurred.

The second part of chapter 3 describes the obesity-counteracting effects of the INT diet. Part of the mice that had been exposed to the MF diet till 12 months of age was switched to the INT diet until the age of 24 months. The switch to the INT diet successfully improved glucose clearance, survival and liver health, but failed to improve IHTG levels. Within the diet switch experiment, we also investigated the plasticity of adaptive response to the switch by means of transcriptome analysis. Most of the genes differentially expressed between the INT- and MF-exposed mice (~95% of 2,667 genes) switched to the INT-expression profile. There was only a small subset of 148 genes which expression levels persistently remained similar to the MF diet-induced expression levels, instead of adapting to INT’s expression profile. Pathway analysis pointed out that this subset of 148 genes contains genes involved in lipid and xenobiotic metabolism, with PXR as the strongest upstream regulator. This suggests that MF-induced deregulated PXR activity persistently affects lipid and xenobiotic metabolism in the liver of the old diet switch mice. Therefore, we suggested that, despite the strong improvement of overall and liver-specific phenotypes, these persistently regulated genes might have potentially adverse effects on health.

The adaptive response to the diet switch at an old age was further investigated in chapter 4, but then in the reverse order: switching from a healthy to an unhealthy diet. Our results showed that, despite the long-term exposure to CR regimen, mice in the CR-MF group displayed hyperphagia, rapid weight gain, and hepatic steatosis. However, no hepatic fibrosis/injury or alteration in CR-improved survival was observed in the diet switch group. The liver transcriptomic profile of CR-MF group largely shifted to a profile similar to the MF-fed animals but leaving ~22% of the 1578 differentially regulated genes between the CR and MF diet groups comparable with the expression of the life-long CR group. Therefore, although the diet switch was performed at an old age, the CR-MF-exposed mice were still able to rapidly gain weight to similar level as life-long MF mice with the same age, but without developing severe liver pathologies.

In chapter 5, the data from the different dietary interventions and age time points were combined to further explore the molecular mechanisms underlying the NAFLD development. Hereby, we focussed our analysis on the association with Fgf21, an emerging non-invasive biomarker for NAFLD. We demonstrated that plasma Fgf21 levels strongly reflected liver fat accumulation, confirming its potential as NAFLD marker. Transcriptomics analysis of the liver was performed and revealed that the link between plasma Fgf21 and IHTG levels was associated with differentially regulated PPARα and NRF2 targets during NAFLD. This suggested that the elevated Fgf21 levels in NAFLD was a measure to maintain homeostasis against the adverse effects of lipotoxicity, oxidative stress and endoplasmic reticulum stress in NAFLD. The PPARα challenge test, which was performed by administrating PPARa agonist Wy-14,643 to the mice, confirmed the dysregulation of PPARα signalling in NAFLD, including the hepatic expression of Fgf21.

To conclude, the results presented in this thesis adds to our understanding the effects of different diets have on genotype-phenotype relationships, which translate into different health states and are essential for identifying healthy aging strategies. We investigated the role of different dietary regimen on the phenotypes of genetically identical mice, particularly on an intermittent (INT) diet, which alternates weekly between the ad libitum medium-fat (MF) and calorie restriction (CR) diet. We found that the INT dietary regimen provided a remarkable protection against the severe health outcomes of the long-term medium-fat diet consumption, which may improve life quality by reducing the burden of chronic disease. Although it is too early to conclude that the INT dietary regimen (or modulation of the energy intake) is beneficial and safe to be applied in human population, this study is a proof-of-concept of intervening a chronic overnutrition status with a metabolic challenge of energy stress. Further investigation of this novel dietary regimen is needed to allow it to be safely applied in humans. By switching the diets at a defined time point during the study, we demonstrated that, even at middle and old age, the liver is still a highly flexible organ that rapidly adapts its transcriptional program to the different dietary challenges. We also demonstrated that the strong link between the diet-induced NAFLD and Fgf21 denoted a dysregulation of PPARa signalling pathway during the development of the liver disease.

Linking growing up and getting old : plastic and evolutionary effects of developmental diet on adult phenotypes and gene expression in the fruit fly
May, C.M. - \ 2016
University. Promotor(en): Bas Zwaan, co-promotor(en): Fons Debets. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462577633 - 183 p.
drosophila melanogaster - gene expression - nutrition - evolution - diet - lifespan - fecundity - biological development - genexpressie - voeding - evolutie - dieet - levensduur - voortplantingspotentieel - biologische ontwikkeling
Effectiveness of zinc fortified drinking water on zinc intake, status and morbidity of rural Kenyan pre-school children
Kujinga-Chopera, P. - \ 2016
University. Promotor(en): Michael Zimmermann, co-promotor(en): Inge Brouwer; D. Moretti. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462577572 - 127 p.
preschool children - drinking water - zinc - fortification - kenya - diarrhoea - nutrient deficiencies - morbidity - childhood diseases - diet - diet studies - peuters en kleuters - drinkwater - zink - fortificatie - diarree - voedingsstoffentekorten - morbiditeit - kinderziekten - dieet - dieetstudies
Meten wat jij moet eten
Luijendijk, Liesbeth ; Feskens, Edith - \ 2016
diet counseling - nutrition and health - food consumption - gastrointestinal microbiota - intestinal physiology - nutrition physiology - diet

Wat gezond eten is voor de één, kan voor de ander averechts uitpakken. Voedingonderzoekers zijn op zoek naar de oorzaken van deze individuele verschillen en de consequenties voor het dieet. Uiteindelijk willen ze de consument voorzien van een persoonlijk voedingsadvies.
‘Als de basis niet goed is, heeft de rest geen zin’ : Epke Zonderland op congres "Sport en Voeding"
Tieland, Michael - \ 2015
nutrition and health - sport performance - diet - nutrients - nutrient requirements - sport
Food Consumption and its Impact on Cardiovascular Disease: Importance of Solutions Focused on the Globalized Food System : A Report from the Workshop Convened by the World Heart Federation
Anand, Sonia S. ; Hawkes, Corinna ; Souza, Russell J. De; Mente, Andrew ; Dehghan, Mahshid ; Nugent, Rachel ; Zulyniak, Michael A. ; Weis, Tony ; Bernstein, Adam M. ; Krauss, Ronald M. ; Kromhout, Daan ; Jenkins, David J.A. ; Malik, Vasanti ; Martinez-Gonzalez, Miguel A. ; Mozaffarian, Dariush ; Yusuf, Salim ; Willett, Walter C. ; Popkin, Barry M. - \ 2015
Journal of the American College of Cardiology 66 (2015)14. - ISSN 0735-1097 - p. 1590 - 1614.
cardiovascular disease - climate change - diet - food consumption - food system - low- and middle-income countries

Major scholars in the field, on the basis of a 3-day consensus, created an in-depth review of current knowledge on the role of diet in cardiovascular disease (CVD), the changing global food system and global dietary patterns, and potential policy solutions. Evidence from different countries and age/race/ethnicity/socioeconomic groups suggesting the health effects studies of foods, macronutrients, and dietary patterns on CVD appear to be far more consistent though regional knowledge gaps is highlighted. Large gaps in knowledge about the association of macronutrients to CVD in low- and middle-income countries particularly linked with dietary patterns are reviewed. Our understanding of foods and macronutrients in relationship to CVD is broadly clear; however, major gaps exist both in dietary pattern research and ways to change diets and food systems. On the basis of the current evidence, the traditional Mediterranean-type diet, including plant foods and emphasis on plant protein sources provides a well-tested healthy dietary pattern to reduce CVD.

‘We moeten hypes blijven ontzenuwen’
Smit, A. ; Kok, F.J. - \ 2015
WageningenWorld (2015)4. - ISSN 2210-7908 - p. 18 - 21.
wetenschappers - humane voeding - dieet - voeding en gezondheid - voedselwetenschappen - scientists - human feeding - diet - nutrition and health - food sciences
Half oktober nam Frans Kok afscheid van Wageningen UR. Hij was er bijna een kwart eeuw hoogleraar en achttien jaar hoofd van de afdeling Humane Voeding. ‘Het wordt ons steeds duidelijker dat de crux van goede voeding niet in individuele stofjes zit, maar in voedingspatronen.’
Verification of Egg Farming Systems from the Netherlands and New Zealand Using Stable Isotopes
Rogers, Karyne M. ; Ruth, Saskia Van; Alewijn, Martin ; Philips, Andy ; Rogers, Pam - \ 2015
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 63 (2015)38. - ISSN 0021-8561 - p. 8372 - 8380.
authenticity - barn - carbon - diet - egg albumen - free range - isotope - Netherlands - New Zealand - nitrogen - organic - supermarket

Stable isotopes were used to develop authentication criteria of eggs laid under cage, barn, free range, and organic farming regimens from The Netherlands and New Zealand. A training set of commercial poultry feeds and egg albumen from 49 poultry farms across The Netherlands was used to determine the isotopic variability of organic and conventional feeds and to assess trophic effects of these corresponding feeds and barn, free range, and organic farming regimens on corresponding egg albumen. A further 52 brands of New Zealand eggs were sampled from supermarket shelves in 2008 (18), 2010 (30), and 2014 (4) to characterize and monitor changes in caged, barn, free range, and organic egg farming regimens. Stable carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N) isotopes of 49 commercial poultry feeds and their corresponding egg albumens reveals that Dutch poultry are fed exclusively on a plant-based feed and that it is possible to discriminate between conventional and organic egg farming regimens in The Netherlands. Similarly, it is possible to discriminate between New Zealand organic and conventional egg farming regimens, although in the initial screening in 2008, results showed that some organic eggs had isotope values similar to those of conventional eggs, suggesting hens were not exclusively receiving an organic diet. Dutch and New Zealand egg regimens were shown to have a low isotopic correlation between both countries, because of different poultry feed compositions. In New Zealand, both conventional and organic egg whites have higher δ15N values than corresponding Dutch egg whites, due to the use of fishmeal or meat and bone meal (MBM), which is banned in European countries. This study suggests that stable isotopes (specifically nitrogen) show particular promise as a screening and authentication tool for organically farmed eggs. Criteria to assess truthfulness in labeling of organic eggs were developed, and we propose that Dutch organic egg whites should have a minimum δ15N value of 4.8‰ to account for an organic plant derived diet. Monitoring of New Zealand egg isotopes over the past 7 years suggests that organic eggs should have a minimum δ15N value of 6.0‰, and eggs falling below this value should be investigated further by certification authorities.

Dietary patterns, biomarkers of atherosclerosis, cardiovascular and all-cause mortality
Sijtsma, F.P.C. - \ 2015
University. Promotor(en): Daan Kromhout; D.R. Jacobs, co-promotor(en): Sabita Soedamah-Muthu. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462575493 - 207
dieet - hart- en vaatziekten - atherosclerose - prognostische merkers - ziektemerkers - mortaliteit - classificatiesystemen - epidemiologie - longitudinaal onderzoek - diet - cardiovascular diseases - atherosclerosis - prognostic markers - disease markers - mortality - classification systems - epidemiology - longitudinal studies

Summary belonging to the thesis entitled ‘Dietary patterns, biomarkers of atherosclerosis, cardiovascular and all-cause mortality’

The long history of epidemiologic studies on diet and cardiovascular disease (CVD) has traditionally relied on analysis of specific nutrients or foods. Dietary patterns are multiple dietary components operationalized as a single exposure; they reflect the entire diet. In general, two methods are used to define dietary patterns: 1) theoretically, or a priori, defined dietary scores and 2) empirically, or a posteriori, derived dietary patterns. A priori dietary scores were developed to assess diet quality based on adherence to dietary patterns or recommendations. An example of an ‘a posteriori’ approach is factor analysis (e.g. principal components analysis (PCA)). Factor analysis reduces data into patterns based upon intercorrelations between nutrients or foods. The aim of this thesis was to create, examine and compare several dietary patterns and indices and assess these in relation to both early stage markers of CVD (markers of endothelial function and oxidative stress) and to mortality from CVD and all-causes.

In chapter 2 we described the creation of the A Priori Diet Quality Score, representing overall diet quality in the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study. The CARDIA study included 5115 black and white men and women, aged 18-30 at baseline (1985-86). Diet was assessed diet at baseline, year 7(1992-93) and 20 (2005-06) examinations. The A Priori Diet Quality Score summed 46 food groups rated by investigators as positive or negative on the basis of hypothesized health effects. In 2652 participants with 3 diet assessments, the mean (±SD) A Priori Diet Quality Score increased from 64.1± 13.0 at year 0 to 71.1 ± 12.6 at year 20, which was primarily attributable to increased age. However, the secular trend, which was estimated from differences of dietary quality scores across time at a fixed age (age matched time trend), decreased. The diet score was higher in whites than in blacks and in women than in men and increased with education, but demographic gaps in the score narrowed over 20 y. Consumption of positively rated food groups tended to increase and negatively rated food groups tended to decrease, and were similar in direction across demographic groups.

In chapter 3 we used the ‘A Priori Diet Quality Score’ and two dietary patterns derived using principal components analysis (PCA) the ‘Fruit and Vegetables’ dietary pattern and the ‘Meat’ dietary pattern in the CARDIA study. We studied prospective associations of the ‘A Priori Diet Quality Score’, the ‘Fruit and Vegetables’ dietary pattern and the ‘Meat’ dietary pattern with cellular adhesion molecules (CAMs). The ‘Fruit and Vegetables’ dietary pattern was characterized by high intakes of fruit, vegetables, and whole grains and the ‘Meat’ dietary pattern by high intakes of red meat, refined grain, and butter. The ‘A Priori Diet Quality Score’ was related to all CAMs. The ‘Fruit and Vegetables’ dietary pattern was related to E-selectin and sICAM-1 but not to P-selectin and VCAM. The ‘Meat’ dietary pattern was related to all CAMs except VCAM. Strongest associations were for the ‘Meat’ dietary pattern with E-selectin (effect size 28% of an SD (+3.9/13.7 ng/mL)) and P-selectin (effect size 37% of an SD (+4.1/11.2 ng/mL)) and the ‘A Priori Diet Quality Score’ with sICAM-1 (effect size 34% of an SD (-15.1/44.7 ng/mL)) and VCAM (effect size of 26% of an SD (-45.1/170.3 ng/mL)).

Chapter 4 described prospective associations of the A Priori Diet Quality Score, ‘Fruit and Vegetables’ dietary pattern and ‘Meat’ dietary pattern and a plasma biomarker of lipid peroxidation, F2-isoprostanes also in the CARDIA study. We estimated associations between each dietary pattern and plasma F2-isoprostanes cross-sectionally (at year 20, n=2736) and prospectively (year 0/7 average diet and year 15/20 average F2-isoprostanes, n=2718). In the cross-sectional analysis, the A Priori Diet Quality Score and the ‘Fruit and Vegetables’ dietary pattern were inversely, and the ‘Meat’ dietary pattern was positively, associated with F2-isoprostanes (all p values <0.001). These associations were also statistically significant in prospective analysis.

In chapter 5 we described a food classification system derived from the Food-based Dietary Guidelines in the Netherlands that can be used to systematically and objectively classify foods in relation to their effects on health. Classification criteria for each food group were developed based on presumed positive, neutral or negative effects on chronic diseases of five nutrients: four that likely increase (saturated fatty acids, mono-trans unsaturated fatty acids, sodium, and added sugar) and one that likely decreases (dietary fiber) the risk of chronic diseases. This classification system also provided a framework to create food-based dietary scores for epidemiologic research on diet and chronic disease relationships.

Chapter 6 describes the creation of two dietary scores the ‘Dutch Healthy Nutrient and Food Score’ and the ‘Dutch Undesirable Nutrient and Food Score’ based on the food classification system described in chapter 5 in the Alpha Omega Trial. The Alpha Omega Trial is a randomized controlled trial; however the current analyses were done from an observational prospective cohort perspective (with adjustment for intervention groups). We included 4307 cardiac patients aged 60-80 years and monitored mortality for 10 years. Patients in the highest quintile of the ‘Dutch Healthy Nutrient and Food Score’ had 30% (HR 0.70; 95% CI 0.55-0.91) lower CVD and 32% (HR 0.68; 95%CI 0.47-0.99) lower all-cause mortality risk compared to patients in the first quintile. The ‘Dutch Undesirable Nutrient and Food Score’ was unrelated to both CVD and all-cause mortality.

In Chapter 7 we also created a ‘Dutch Healthy Nutrient and Food Score’ and a ‘Dutch Undesirable Nutrient and Food Score’ in the Zutphen Elderly Study. We assessed the association of these scores with 25 year CVD and all-cause mortality and life-years gained. We divided the men (age 65-84 years) into those with (n=210) and without (n=616) cardiovascular-metabolic diseases at baseline in 1985. During a median follow-up of 10.6 years (IQR 5.8-15.9) 806 participants died, of whom 359 from CVD. Diet scores did not predict death in all men. Among men with cardiovascular-metabolic diseases, ‘Dutch Healthy Nutrient and Food Score’ was associated with lower CVD (HR: 0.57; 95%CI: 0.35-0.93) and all-cause mortality risk (HR: 0.64; 95% CI: 0.44-0.94) comparing highest vs. lowest tertiles of the score. Men with cardiovascular-metabolic diseases in the highest vs. lowest tertile of the ‘Dutch Healthy Nutrient and Food Score’ lived 2.5 year longer. The ‘Dutch Healthy Nutrient and Food Score’ was not associated with CVD and all-cause mortality in men without cardiovascular-metabolic diseases. The ‘Dutch Undesirable Nutrient and Food Score’ was not associated with any of the outcomes.

In Chapter 8 we summarized the main findings of this thesis and reflected on some methodological considerations. First, we discussed the different approaches to derive dietary scores and patterns and the advantages and disadvantages of these methods. Second, we reflected on important aspects for creating a priori dietary scores and on further research. Finally, the general conclusions and implications were presented.

From the results presented in this thesis we conclude that adherence to a healthy diet is inversely associated with early stage markers of CVD (markers of endothelial function and oxidative stress), CVD and all-cause mortality. In summary, a healthy diet consists of plenty of vegetables and fruit, legumes, whole grains, nuts and seeds, moderate intake of fish/poultry/lean meats and low fat dairy, and limited intake of processed meats, refined grains, sugar sweetened beverages, ready meals and snacks. However, this thesis also showed that a high quality dietary pattern can be achieved in several different ways, and may differ among populations.

Effect of dietary protein on lipid and glucose metabolism: implications for metabolic health
Rietman, A. - \ 2015
University. Promotor(en): Frans Kok; D. Tomé, co-promotor(en): Marco Mensink. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462573482 - 160
voeding en gezondheid - stofwisselingsstoornissen - eiwitinname - dieet - metabolisme - lipiden - glucose - macronutriënten - nutrition and health - metabolic disorders - protein intake - diet - metabolism - lipids - macronutrients

Abstract

Background: Diet is an important factor in the development of the Metabolic Syndrome (Mets) and type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. Accumulation of intra hepatic lipid (IHL) can result in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), which is sometimes considered the hepatic manifestation of Mets. Manipulation of the dietary macronutrient composition – altering either fat or simple carbohydrates – has the potential to change lipid storage in the liver. Protein also has this ability, however human data is scarce. Moreover, high dietary protein intake is linked with an increased type 2 Diabetes risk. Therefore, it is essential to study the metabolic consequences of changes in macronutrient composition focussing on altering dietary protein quantity.

Objective: In this thesis the effects of dietary protein on metabolic health focusing on lipid and glucose metabolism were investigated in both observational studies as well as in a human dietary intervention trial.

Methods: In an observational study (n=1283), Fatty Liver Index (FLI) was calculated and related to macronutrient consumption from dietary assessment data. In a controlled dietary intervention, participants (n=27) were assigned to either a control-diet for 4 weeks, or a high-fat, hypercaloric diet, with either a high-protein or a normal-protein content for two weeks, and vice versa. Measurements of IHL (1H-MRS) and blood plasma glucose and lipid concentrations were performed, both in the fasting state and following a meal.

Results: In the observational study, the prevalence of fatty liver as indicated by an FLI>60, was 22.0%. Compared to persons with a normal FLI score of <30, protein intake was positively related with high FLI score >60 (OR: 1.26 per 1 en%, 95%CI 1.16-1.37). This was in particular the case for protein intake from animal sources. In the dietary intervention study, the high-protein diet compared to the normal-protein diet resulted in lower IHL and plasma TG concentrations (IHL: 0.35 ± 0.04 % vs. 0.51 ± 0.08 %; p=0.08; TG: 0.65 ± 0.03 vs. 0.77 ± 0.05 mmol/L; p=0.07). Furthermore, after the meal challenge the free fatty acids (FFA) response was significant different between all three intervention diets (p=0.03). Moreover, the postprandial glucose response was significantly lower after adaptation to NP compared with HP (p=0.03), without differences in the postprandial insulin responses (p=0.37).

Conclusions: From data of the intervention study and observational studies reported in this thesis, it can be concluded that dietary protein intake is associated with alterations in metabolic profile, with both favourable and potential unfavorable health outcomes. On the short term increasing dietary protein in healthy subjects improved lipid metabolism, as seen by lower TG and IHL levels, but not glucose metabolism. On the long term, however, a high-protein intake was related to a fatty liver, and associated to insulin resistance.

Varken is goed als model voor suikerpatiënt
Sikkema, A. ; Koopmans, S.J. - \ 2015
Resource: weekblad voor Wageningen UR 10 (2015)1. - ISSN 1874-3625 - p. 8 - 8.
varkens - mensen - metabolisme - voeding - suikerziekte - dieet - voedingsonderzoek - pigs - people - metabolism - nutrition - diabetes - diet - nutrition research
Niet alle dikke mensen zijn ongezond. Dat blijkt uit Wagenings onderzoek dat is gedaan met varkens. Varkens doen het goed als onderzoekmodel om het effect van voeding op onze welvaartsziekten te bepalen. De stofwisseling van mensen en varkens komt namelijk sterk overeen, stelt onderzoeker Sietse Jan Koopmans. Dit artikel gaat hier nader op in.
Long-lasting effects of Early-life Antibiotic Treatment and routine Animal Handling on Gut Microbiota Composition and Immune System in Pigs
Schokker, D. ; Zhang, J. ; Vastenhouw, S.A. ; Heilig, G.H.J. ; Smidt, H. ; Rebel, J.M.J. ; Smits, M.A. - \ 2015
PLoS One 10 (2015)2. - ISSN 1932-6203
large gene lists - intestinal microbiota - bacterial - extraction - expression - disease - health - asthma - young - diet
Background In intensive pig husbandry systems, antibiotics are frequently administrated during early life stages to prevent respiratory and gastro-intestinal tract infections, often in combination with stressful handlings. The immediate effects of these treatments on microbial colonization and immune development have been described recently. Here we studied whether the early life administration of antibiotics has long-lasting effects on the pig’s intestinal microbial community and on gut functionality. Methodology/Principal Findings To investigate the long-lasting effect of early-life treatment, piglets were divided into three different groups receiving the following treatments: 1) no antibiotics and no stress, 2) antibiotics and no stress, and 3) antibiotics and stress. All treatments were applied at day four after birth. Sampling of jejunal content for community scale microbiota analysis, and jejunal and ileal tissue for genome-wide transcription profiling, was performed at day 55 (~8 weeks) and day 176 (~25 weeks) after birth. Antibiotic treatment in combination with or without exposure to stress was found to have long-lasting effects on host intestinal gene expression involved in a multitude of processes, including immune related processes. Conclusions/Significance The results obtained in this study indicate that early life (day 4 after birth) perturbations have long-lasting effects on the gut system, both in gene expression (day 55) as well as on microbiota composition (day 176). At day 55 high variance was observed in the microbiota data, but no significant differences between treatment groups, which is most probably due to the newly acquired microbiota during and right after weaning (day 28). Based on the observed difference in gene expression at day 55, it is hypothesized that due to the difference in immune programming during early life, the systems respond differently to the post-weaning newly acquired microbiota. As a consequence, the gut systems of the treatment groups develop into different homeostasis.
Understanding the role of oat ß-glucan in oat-based dough systems
Londono, D.M. ; Gilissen, L.J.W.J. ; Visser, R.G.F. ; Smulders, M.J.M. ; Hamer, R.J. - \ 2015
Journal of Cereal Science 62 (2015). - ISSN 0733-5210 - p. 1 - 7.
rheological properties - celiac-disease - bread quality - pentosans - diet - formulations - yeast
B-glucan is one of the components that differentiate oats from other cereals and that contribute to the health-related value of oats. However, so far oats cannot easily be applied in bread-like products without loss of product quality. Here we have studied how the content and viscosity of oat ß-glucan affect the technological properties of oat dough in both a gluten-free and a gluten-containing system. In both systems, increasing the ß-glucan concentration resulted in an increase of dough stiffness and in a reduction of dough extensibility. ¿-glucan negatively impacted the elastic properties that additional wheat gluten conferred to oat dough. This effect was smaller for medium-viscosity ß-glucan than for high-viscosity ß-glucan. Interestingly, dough made from low ß-glucan flour (
Mouse gut microbiomics of short chain fatty acid metabolism and mucosal responses
Hugenholtz, F. - \ 2015
University. Promotor(en): Hauke Smidt; Michiel Kleerebezem. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462571792 - 200
microbiota van het spijsverteringskanaal - slijmvlies - dieet - gastheren (dieren, mensen, planten) - diermodellen - spijsvertering - voedingsvezels - gastrointestinal microbiota - mucosa - diet - hosts - animal models - digestion - dietary fibres

Summary

The microbiota of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract plays a key role in the digestion of our food. The human gut microbiota can be studied using in vitro and animal models. In this thesis the mouse model is used to study the microbiota interaction with the diet and the host in different regions along the GI tract. These interacting microbes in the GI tract of humans and other mammals yield a wide range of metabolites, among which the short chain fatty acids (SCFA), in particular butyrate, acetate, and propionate, are the most abundant products of carbohydrate fermentation. Fermentable carbohydrates can modify the composition of the gut microbiota and change the SCFA concentrations in the gut. Opportunities for increasing specific SCFA by targeting their producers with carbohydrates are discussed. Five different fibres – resistant starch, inulin, fructooligosaccharides, arabinoxylan and guar gum – are tested for their modification of the mucosal tissue transcriptome, luminal microbiota composition and SCFA concentrations in the murine colon. The fibres inulin, fructooligosaccharides, arabinoxylan and guar gum led to increased SCFA concentrations and induced similar changes in relative abundance of microbial groups as determined by the MITChip, a phylogenetic microarray targeting the 16S ribosomal RNA of mouse intestinal microorganisms. Furthermore, these four fibres induced regulation of overlapping sets of genes in the mouse intestinal mucosa, where the transcription factor PPARγ was predicted to be a prominent upstream regulator of these processes. Multivariate data integration revealed strong correlations between the expression of genes involved in energy metabolism and the relative abundance of bacteria belonging to Clostridium cluster XIVa. Similar analyses were done for the caeca of the same mice, and were complemented with metatransciptome analyses. To comprehensively analyse RNAseq data of complex natural microbial communities, a de novo metatranscriptome assembly pipeline was developed and applied to unravel the activity profiles of the microbiota residing in the mouse cecum. This revealed distinct contributions of bacterial families to the fermentation of fibres into SCFA, involving the Bifidobacteriaceae, Lachnospiraceae, Clostridiaceae, Bacteroidaceae, Erysipelotrichaceae and Ruminococcaceae in some or all stages of the overall fibre fermentation activity. All families expressed genes encoding enzymes involved in the production of SCFA in different ratios. Specifically, butyrate producing bacteria correlated with a set of host genes involved in processes such as energy metabolism, transcriptional regulation and the mucosal immune system.

In addition to complex carbohydrates, amino acids derived from dietary proteins can also serve as substrates for SCFA formation, leading to expansion of the fermentation end-product palet by including branched-SCFA. The long-term effects of high protein-diets on microbial community composition and activity were analysed. The caecal microbiota composition was changed by the high dietary protein. Most of the gene functions detected by metatranscriptomics in these caecal samples were assigned to the Lachnospiraceae, Erysipelotrichaceae and Clostridiaceae. High protein diets induced a decrease of Lachnospiraceae activity, but stimulated the activity of the Erysipelotrichaceae, while the Clostridiaceae appeared to express the broadest range of amino acid metabolism associated pathways.

In conclusion, this thesis describes dietary interventions to modulate the mouse intestinal microbiota and mucosa. The data provides expansion of the knowledge on interactions between the diet, microbiota and host. This information can be used to optimize the design and validation on dietary intervention studies in humans.

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