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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

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Consumption of fatty foods and incident type 2 diabetes in populations from eight European countries
Buijsse, B. ; Boeing, H. ; Drogan, D. ; Schulze, M.B. ; Feskens, E.J.M. ; Amiano, P. ; The InterAct Consortium, A. - \ 2015
European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 69 (2015). - ISSN 0954-3007 - p. 455 - 461.
coronary-heart-disease - dietary-fat - postprandial glycemia - insulin sensitivity - meat consumption - nut consumption - saturated fat - epic-interact - metabolic syndrome - physical-activity
Background/Objectives: Diets high in saturated and trans fat and low in unsaturated fat may increase type 2 diabetes (T2D) risk, but studies on foods high in fat per unit weight are sparse. We assessed whether the intake of vegetable oil, butter, margarine, nuts and seeds and cakes and cookies is related to incident T2D. Subjects/Methods: A case-cohort study was conducted, nested within eight countries of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer (EPIC), with 12¿403 incident T2D cases and a subcohort of 16¿835 people, identified from a cohort of 340¿234 people. Diet was assessed at baseline (1991–1999) by country-specific questionnaires. Country-specific hazard ratios (HRs) across four categories of fatty foods (nonconsumers and tertiles among consumers) were combined with random-effects meta-analysis. Results: After adjustment not including body mass index (BMI), nonconsumers of butter, nuts and seeds and cakes and cookies were at higher T2D risk compared with the middle tertile of consumption. Among consumers, cakes and cookies were inversely related to T2D (HRs across increasing tertiles 1.14, 1.00 and 0.92, respectively; P-trend
Lifestyle factors and mortality risk in individuals with diabetes mellitus: are the associations different from those in individuals without diabetes?
Sluik, D. ; Boeing, H. ; Li, K. ; Fons Johnsen, N. ; Tjonneland, A. ; Arriola, L. ; Barricarte, A. ; Masala, G. ; Grioni, S. ; Tumino, R. ; Ricceri, F. ; Matiello, A. ; Spijkerman, A.M.W. ; A, D.L. van der; Sluijs, I. van der - \ 2014
Diabetologia 57 (2014)1. - ISSN 0012-186X - p. 63 - 72.
food frequency questionnaire - american-heart-association - cardiovascular-disease - multiple imputation - relative validity - physical-activity - clinical-research - missing data - dietary-fat - cancer
Aims/hypothesis Thus far, it is unclear whether lifestyle recommendations for people with diabetes should be different from those for the general public. We investigated whether the associations between lifestyle factors and mortality risk differ between individuals with and without diabetes. Methods Within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC), a cohort was formed of 6,384 persons with diabetes and 258,911 EPIC participants without known diabetes. Joint Cox proportional hazard regression models of people with and without diabetes were built for the following lifestyle factors in relation to overall mortality risk: BMI, waist/height ratio, 26 food groups, alcohol consumption, leisure-time physical activity, smoking. Likelihood ratio tests for heterogeneity assessed statistical differences in regression coefficients. Results Multivariable adjusted mortality risk among individuals with diabetes compared with those without was increased, with an HR of 1.62 (95% CI 1.51, 1.75). Intake of fruit, legumes, nuts, seeds, pasta, poultry and vegetable oil was related to a lower mortality risk, and intake of butter and margarine was related to an increased mortality risk. These associations were significantly different in magnitude from those in diabetes-free individuals, but directions were similar. No differences between people with and without diabetes were detected for the other lifestyle factors. Conclusions/interpretation Diabetes status did not substantially influence the associations between lifestyle and mortality risk. People with diabetes may benefit more from a healthy diet, but the directions of association were similar. Thus, our study suggests that lifestyle advice with respect to mortality for patients with diabetes should not differ from recommendations for the general population.
Effect of Alpha Linolenic Acid Supplementation on Serum Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA): Results from the Alpha Omega Trial
Brouwer, I.A. ; Geleijnse, J.M. ; Klaasen, V.M. ; Smit, L.A. ; Giltay, E.J. ; Goede, J. de; Heijboer, A.C. ; Kromhout, D. ; Katan, M.B. - \ 2013
PLoS One 8 (2013)12. - ISSN 1932-6203
n-3 fatty-acids - cancer risk - dietary-fat - metaanalysis - men - disease
Background: Alpha linolenic acid (ALA) is the major omega-3 fatty acid in the diet. Evidence on health effects of ALA is not conclusive, but some observational studies found an increased risk of prostate cancer with higher intake of ALA. We examined the effect of ALA supplementation on serum concentrations of prostate-specific antigen (PSA), a biomarker for prostate cancer. Methods: The Alpha Omega Trial (ClinicalTrials.govIdentifier: NCT00127452) was a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of ALA and the fish fatty acids eicosapentanoic acid (EPA) and docosahexanoic acid (DHA) on the recurrence of cardiovascular disease, using a 262 factorial design. Blood was collected at the start and the end of the intervention period. The present analysis included 1622 patients with a history of a myocardial infarction, aged 60-80 years with an initial PSA concentration,4 ng/mL. They received either 2 g per day of ALA or placebo in margarine spreads for 40 months. T-tests and logistic regression were used to assess the effects of ALA supplementation on changes in serum PSA (both continuously and as a dichotomous outcome, cut-off point: >4 ng/mL). Findings: Mean serum PSA increased by 0.42 ng/mL on placebo (n = 815) and by 0.52 ng/mL on ALA (n = 807), a difference of 0.10 (95% confidence interval: 20.02 to 0.22) ng/mL (P = 0.12). The odds ratio for PSA rising above 4 ng/mL on ALA versus placebo was 1.15 (95% CI: 0.84-1.58). Interpretation: An additional amount of 2 g of ALA per day increased PSA by 0.10 ng/mL, but the confidence interval ranged from 20.02 to 0.22 ng/mL and included no effect. Therefore, more studies are needed to establish whether or not ALA intake has a clinically significant effect on PSA or prostate cancer.
Effects of short- and long-chain fatty acids on the expression of stearoyl-CoA desaturase and other lipogenic genes in bovine mammary epithelial cells
Jacobs, A.A.A. ; Dijkstra, J. ; Liesman, J.S. ; VandeHaar, M.J. ; Lock, A.L. ; Vuuren, A.M. van; Hendriks, W.H. ; Baal, J. van - \ 2013
Animal 7 (2013)9. - ISSN 1751-7311 - p. 1508 - 1516.
element-binding protein-1 - activated receptor-gamma - conjugated linoleic-acid - milk-fat - dairy-cows - lipid-synthesis - dietary-fat - tissue - lactation - networks
Stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD) in the bovine mammary gland introduces a cis-double bond at the ¿9 position in a wide range of fatty acids (FA). Several long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) inhibit expression of SCD, but information on the effect of short-chain fatty acids on mammary SCD expression is scarce. We used a bovine mammary cell line (MAC-T) to assess the effect of acetic acid (Ac) and ß-hydroxybutyric acid (BHBA) in comparison with the effect of various long-chain fatty acids on the mRNA expression of the lipogenic enzymes SCD, acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACACA), fatty acid synthase (FASN) and their associated gene regulatory proteins sterol regulatory element binding transcription factor 1 (SREBF1), insulin-induced gene 1 protein (INSIG1) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARA)and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta (PPARD) by quantitative real-time PCR. MAC-T cells were treated for 12 h without FA additions (CON) or with either 5 mM Ac, 5 mM BHBA, a combination of 5 mM Ac + 5 mM BHBA, 100 µM C16:0, 100 µM C18:0, 100 µM C18:1 cis-9, 100 µM C18:1 trans-11, 100 µM C18:2 cis-9,12 or 100 µM C18:3 cis-9,12,15. Compared with control, mRNA expression of SCD1 was increased by Ac (+61%) and reduced by C18:1 cis-9 (-61%), C18:2 cis-9,12 (-84%) and C18:3 cis-9,12,15 (-88%). In contrast to native bovine mammary gland tissue, MAC-T cells did not express SCD5. Expression of ACACA was increased by Ac (+44%) and reduced by C18:2 cis-9,12 (-48%) and C18:3 cis-9,12,15 (-49%). Compared with control, FASN expression was not significantly affected by the treatments. The mRNA level of SREBF1 was not affected by Ac or BHBA, but was reduced by C18:1 cis-9 (-44%), C18:1 trans-11 (-42%), C18:2 cis-9,12 (-62%) and C18:3 cis-9,12,15 (-68%) compared with control. Expression of INSIG1 was downregulated by C18:0 (-37%), C18:1 cis-9 (-63%), C18:1 trans-11 (-53%), C18:2 cis-9,12 (-81%) and C18:3 cis-9,12,15 (-91%). Both PPARA and PPARD expression were not significantly affected by the treatments. Our results show that Ac upregulated mRNA expression of SCD1 and ACACA in MAC-T cells. The opposite effect of the PUFA C18:2 cis-9,12 and C18:3 cis-9,12,15 on the these genes and the failure of Ac to mimic the PUFA-inhibited SREBF1 and INSIG1 mRNA expression, suggest that Ac can stimulate mammary lipogenesis via a transcriptional regulatory mechanism different from PUFA.
Meat consumption, diabetes and its complications
Feskens, E.J.M. ; Sluik, D. ; Woudenbergh, G.J. van - \ 2013
Current Diabetes Report 13 (2013)2. - ISSN 1534-4827 - p. 298 - 306.
coronary-heart-disease - impaired glucose-tolerance - life-style intervention - beta-cell autoimmunity - dietary-fat - processed meat - risk-factors - cardiovascular-disease - nutritional factors - islet autoimmunity
Several prospective studies have reported that risk of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) is elevated in meat consumers, especially when processed meats are consumed. Elevated risks of coronary heart disease (CHD) and stroke in meat consumers have also been reported. In this overview, the evidence regarding meat consumption and the risk of diabetes, both type 1 diabetes (T1DM) and T2DM and their macro- and microvascular complications, is reviewed. For T2DM, we performed a new meta-analysis including publications up to October 2012. For T1DM, only a few studies have reported increased risks for meat consumers or for high intake of saturated fatty acids and nitrates and nitrites. For T2DM, CHD, and stroke, the evidence is strongest. Per 100 g of total meat, the pooled relative risk (RR) for T2DM is 1.15 (95 % CI 1.07–1.24), for (unprocessed) red meat 1.13 (95 % CI 1.03–1.23), and for poultry 1.04 (95 % CI 0.99–1.33); per 50 g of processed meat, the pooled RR is 1.32 (95 % CI 1.19–1.48). Hence, the strongest association regarding T2DM is observed for processed (red) meat. A similar observation has been made for CHD. For stroke, however, a recent meta-analysis shows moderately elevated risks for meat consumers, for processed as well as for fresh meats. For the microvascular complications of diabetes, few prospective data were available, but suggestions for elevated risks can be derived from findings on hyperglycemia and hypertension. The results are discussed in the light of the typical nutrients and other compounds present in meat—that is, saturated and trans fatty acids, dietary cholesterol, protein and amino acids, heme-iron, sodium, nitrites and nitrosamines, and advanced glycation end products. In light of these findings, a diet moderate to low in red meat, unprocessed and lean, and prepared at moderate temperatures is probably the best choice from the public health point of view.
Effect of intake of linoleic acid and a-linolenic acid levels on conversion into long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in backfat and in intramuscular fat of growing pigs
Smink, W. ; Verstegen, M.W.A. ; Gerrits, W.J.J. - \ 2013
Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition 97 (2013)3. - ISSN 0931-2439 - p. 558 - 565.
arachidonic-acid - broiler-chickens - adipose-tissue - term infants - meat quality - dietary-fat - metabolism - pork - n-3 - performance
A study was conducted to determine the effect of two levels of linoleic acid (LA) intake at either high or low a-linolenic acid (ALA) intake on their conversion and subsequent deposition into long-chain (20–22 C-atoms) polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC PUFA) in muscle and backfat in growing pigs. In a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement, 32 gilts from 8 litters were assigned to one of four dietary treatments, varying in LA and ALA intakes. Low ALA and LA intakes were 0.15 and 1.31 g/(kg BW0.75/day), respectively, and high ALA and LA intakes were 1.48 and 2.65 g/(kg BW0.75/day) respectively. There was a close positive relation between intake of ALA and the concentration of ALA in backfat and in intramuscular fat. Dietary ALA did not affect the concentration of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), but increased docosapentaenoic acid (DPA) in backfat. High ALA intake did not significantly affect DHA but significantly increased EPA, 20:3 n-3 and DPA concentrations in intramuscular fat. The n-3 LC PUFA proportion in backfat was increased from approximately 1–3%, which may be useful to enrich meat with these fatty acids. The effect of ALA intake on n-3 LC PUFA was suppressed by LA intake. Dietary ALA suppressed the concentration of n-6 LC PUFA in blood plasma by more than 50%. When compared at equal incremental dose, the inhibiting effect of ALA on blood arachidonic acid was stronger than the stimulating effect of LA as precursor.
Linoleic acid intake, plasma cholesterol and 10-year incidence of CHD in 20.000 middle-aged men and women in the Netherlands
Goede, J. de; Geleijnse, J.M. ; Boer, J.M.A. ; Kromhout, D. ; Verschuren, W.M.M. - \ 2012
British Journal of Nutrition 107 (2012)7. - ISSN 0007-1145 - p. 1070 - 1076.
coronary-heart-disease - polyunsaturated fatty-acids - food frequency questionnaire - dietary-fat - cardiovascular-disease - relative validity - physical-activity - controlled-trials - saturated fat - risk
We studied the associations of a difference in linoleic acid or carbohydrate intake with plasma cholesterol levels and risk of CHD in a prospective cohort study in the Netherlands. Data on diet (FFQ) and plasma total and HDL-cholesterol were available at baseline (1993–7) of 20 069 men and women, aged 20–65 years, who were initially free of CVD. Incidence of CHD was assessed through linkage with mortality and morbidity registers. During an average of 10 years of follow-up, 280 CHD events occurred. The intake of linoleic acid ranged from 3·6 to 8·0 % of energy (en%), whereas carbohydrate intake ranged from 47·6 to 42·5 en% across quintiles of linoleic acid intake. Linoleic acid intake was inversely associated with total cholesterol and HDL-cholesterol in women but not in men. Linoleic acid intake was not associated with the ratio of total to HDL-cholesterol. No association was observed between linoleic acid intake and CHD incidence, with hazard ratios varying between 0·83 and 1·00 (all P>0·05) compared to the bottom quintile. We conclude that a 4–5 en% difference in linoleic acid or carbohydrate intake did not translate into either a different ratio of total to HDL-cholesterol or a different CHD incidence
Comparison of fatty acid proportions in serum cholesteryl esters among people with different glucose tolerance status: The CoDAM study
Woudenbergh, G.J. van; Kuijsten, A. ; Kallen, C.J. ; Greevenbroek, M.M. ; Stehouwer, C.D. ; Blaak, E.E. ; Feskens, E.J.M. - \ 2012
Nutrition, Metabolism & Cardiovascular Diseases 22 (2012). - ISSN 0939-4753 - p. 133 - 140.
dietary-fat - diabetes-mellitus - desaturase activities - insulin sensitivity - erythrocyte-membranes - metabolic syndrome - relative validity - adipose-tissue - plasma - women
Background and aim - Altered fatty acid patterns in blood may be associated with insulin resistance and related disorders. We investigated whether serum proportions of cholesteryl fatty acids and desaturase activity are associated with glucose tolerance status and insulin resistance. Methods and results - Data were obtained from a cross-sectional study among 471 Dutch participants aged =40 years. Individual fatty acids in serum cholesteryl esters were determined and endogenous conversions by desaturases were estimated from product-to-precursor ratios. Proportions of fatty acids were compared among participants with normal glucose tolerance, impaired glucose metabolism and newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes. Partial Spearman correlation coefficients between fatty acids and homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) were calculated. Adjustments were made for lifestyle and nutritional factors. The proportions of total saturated, mono-unsaturated, trans- and poly-unsaturated fatty acids did not differ significantly between groups, but several individual fatty acids did; the proportions of C18:0 and C20:3n6 were higher, whereas those of C18:1n7 and C20:4n6 were lower in participants with type 2 diabetes compared with those with normal glucose tolerance. Activity of ¿5-desaturase, that is, ratio of C20:4n6 to C20:3n6, was lower (p <0.01) in participants with type 2 diabetes (7.4) than with normal glucose tolerance (8.4). HOMA-IR was correlated positively with ¿9-desaturase activity (r = 0.11, p <0.01) and inversely with ¿5-desaturase activity (r = -0.21, p <0.01). Conclusion - The observed lower ¿5-desaturase activity in participants with type 2 diabetes and its inverse association with HOMA-IR suggest that changes in fatty-acid metabolism may play a role in the aetiology of type 2 diabetes
Increased preconception omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid intake improves embryo morphology
Hammiche, F. ; Vujkovic, M. ; Wijburg, W. ; Vries, J.H.M. de; Macklon, N.S. ; Laven, J.S.E. ; Steegers-Theunissen, R.P.M. - \ 2011
Fertility and Sterility 95 (2011)5. - ISSN 0015-0282 - p. 1820 - 1823.
in-vitro fertilization - ovarian stimulation - hormone-levels - holstein cows - energy-intake - dietary-fat - dairy-cows - fish-meal - women - supplementation
The association between preconception dietary intake of the polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs) omega-6 and omega-3 and the E2 levels and IVF/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) outcome were investigated in women in a prospective study. It revealed that high intakes of omega-3 LC-PUFA alpha-linolenic acid increase baseline E2, high intakes of eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid reduce E2 response and the number of follicles after ovarian stimulation, and total omega-3 intake, in particular alpha-linolenic acid and docosahexaenoic acid, improve embryo morphology
The ethanolamide metabolite of DHA, docosahexaenoylethanolamine, shows immunomodulating effects in mouse peritoneal and RAW264.7 macrophages: evidence for a new link between fish oil and inflammation
Meijerink, J. ; Plastina, P. ; Vincken, J.P. ; Poland, M.C.R. ; Attya, M. ; Balvers, M.G.J. ; Gruppen, H. ; Gabriele, B. ; Witkamp, R.F. - \ 2011
British Journal of Nutrition 105 (2011)12. - ISSN 0007-1145 - p. 1798 - 1807.
nitric-oxide synthase - monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 - fatty-acid-composition - docosahexaenoic acid - n-acylethanolamine - insulin-resistance - adipose-tissue - reduces atherosclerosis - eicosapentaenoic acid - dietary-fat
Several mechanisms have been proposed for the positive health effects associated with dietary consumption of long-chain n-3 PUFA (n-3 LC-PUFA) including DHA (22 : 6n-3) and EPA (20 : 5n-3). After dietary intake, LC-PUFA are incorporated into membranes and can be converted to their corresponding N-acylethanolamines (NAE). However, little is known on the biological role of these metabolites. In the present study, we tested a series of unsaturated NAE on the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced NO production in RAW264.7 macrophages. Among the compounds tested, docosahexaenoylethanolamine (DHEA), the ethanolamide of DHA, was found to be the most potent inhibitor, inducing a dose-dependent inhibition of NO release. Immune-modulating properties of DHEA were further studied in the same cell line, demonstrating that DHEA significantly suppressed the production of monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1), a cytokine playing a pivotal role in chronic inflammation. In LPS-stimulated mouse peritoneal macrophages, DHEA also reduced MCP-1 and NO production. Furthermore, inhibition was also found to take place at a transcriptional level, as gene expression of MCP-1 and inducible NO synthase was inhibited by DHEA. To summarise, in the present study, we showed that DHEA, a DHA-derived NAE metabolite, modulates inflammation by reducing MCP-1 and NO production and expression. These results provide new leads in molecular mechanisms by which DHA can modulate inflammatory processes.
Short communication: milk fat composition of 4 cattle breeds in the Netherlands
Maurice-Van Eijndhoven, M.H. ; Hiemstra, S.J. ; Calus, M.P.L. - \ 2011
Journal of Dairy Science 94 (2011)2. - ISSN 0022-0302 - p. 1021 - 1025.
genetic-parameters - acid composition - dairy-products - linoleic-acid - holstein cows - dietary-fat - jersey - quality - health
Milk fatty acid (FA) composition was compared among 4 cattle breeds in the Netherlands: Dutch Friesian (DF; 47 animals/3 farms), Meuse-Rhine-Yssel (MRY; 52/3), Groningen White Headed (GWH; 45/3), and Jersey (JER; 46/3). Each cow was sampled once between December 2008 and March 2009 during the indoor housing season, and samples were analyzed using gas chromatography. Significant breed differences were found for all traits including fat and protein contents, 13 major individual FA, 9 groups of FA, and 5 indices. The saturated fatty acid proportion, which is supposed to be unfavorable for human health, was smaller for GWH (68.9%) compared with DF (74.1%), MRY (72.3%), and JER (74.3%) breeds. The proportion of conjugated linoleic acid and the unsaturation index, which are associated positively with human health, were both highest for GWH. Differences in milk fat composition can be used in strategies to breed for milk with a FA profile more favorable for human health. Our results support the relevance of safeguarding the local Dutch breeds.
The role of reducing intakes of saturated fat in the prevention of cardiovascular disease: where does the evidence stand in 2010?
Astrup, A. ; Dyerberg, J. ; Elwood, P. ; Hermansen, K. ; Hu, F.B. ; Uhre Jakobsen, M. ; Kok, F.J. ; Krauss, R.M. ; Lecerf, J.M. ; Legrand, P. ; Nestel, P. ; Riserus, U. ; Sanders, T. ; Sinclair, A. ; Stender, S. ; Tholstrup, T. ; Willett, W. - \ 2011
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 93 (2011)4. - ISSN 0002-9165 - p. 684 - 688.
coronary-heart-disease - randomized controlled-trials - dietary-fat - nonfasting triglycerides - myocardial-infarction - prospective cohort - risk-factors - women - metaanalysis - carbohydrate
Current dietary recommendations advise reducing the intake of saturated fatty acids (SFAs) to reduce coronary heart disease (CHD) risk, but recent findings question the role of SFAs. This expert panel reviewed the evidence and reached the following conclusions: the evidence from epidemiologic, clinical, and mechanistic studies is consistent in finding that the risk of CHD is reduced when SFAs are replaced with polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). In populations who consume a Western diet, the replacement of 1% of energy from SFAs with PUFAs lowers LDL cholesterol and is likely to produce a reduction in CHD incidence of =2–3%. No clear benefit of substituting carbohydrates for SFAs has been shown, although there might be a benefit if the carbohydrate is unrefined and has a low glycemic index. Insufficient evidence exists to judge the effect on CHD risk of replacing SFAs with MUFAs. No clear association between SFA intake relative to refined carbohydrates and the risk of insulin resistance and diabetes has been shown. The effect of diet on a single biomarker is insufficient evidence to assess CHD risk. The combination of multiple biomarkers and the use of clinical endpoints could help substantiate the effects on CHD. Furthermore, the effect of particular foods on CHD cannot be predicted solely by their content of total SFAs because individual SFAs may have different cardiovascular effects and major SFA food sources contain other constituents that could influence CHD risk. Research is needed to clarify the role of SFAs compared with specific forms of carbohydrates in CHD risk and to compare specific foods with appropriate alternatives
Fatty acids measured in plasma and erythrocyte-membrane phospholipids and derived by food-frequency questionnaire and the risk of new-onset type 2 diabetes a pilot study in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-Norfolk cohort
Patel, P.S. ; Sharp, S.J. ; Jansen, E.H.J.M. - \ 2010
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 92 (2010)5. - ISSN 0002-9165 - p. 1214 - 1222.
dietary-fat - epic-norfolk - adipose-tissue - blood-cells - biomarkers - women - men - predicts - mellitus - storage
Background Epidemiologic evidence for the association between types of fatty acid and risk of type 2 diabetes is inconsistent This may in part be due to the limitations of fatty acid measurement methods Objective The objective was to use 3 different measures of fatty acid to estimate the prospective association between fatty acid composition and development of incident diabetes Design We analyzed 199 cases of clinically incident diabetes and 184 noncases aged 40-79 y at baseline in the EPIC (European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition)-Norfolk study Fatty acids were derived from a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and measured in plasma phospholipid (P FA) and erythrocyte membrane phospholipid (Ery FA) fractions by gas chromatography Results There were stronger associations with diabetes risk with the use of objectively measured tatty acids (P FA and Ery-FA) than with the FFQ in analyses adjusted for age sex and potential confounders Positive associations with diabetes were greater in magnitude with the use of P FA than with Ery FA (highest lowest tertiles) for example the palmitic acid odds ratios (ORs) were 247 (95% CI 1 37 4 46) and 1 96 (95% CI 1 10 3 49) respectively Inverse associations with diabetes were also stronger with the use of P FA than with Ery FA for example the OR for linoleic acid was 050 (95% CI 028 0 91) compared with 0 77 (95% CI 043 1 37) respectively Conclusions The objective measurement of fatty acids with the use of either P-FA or Ery-FA identifies important associations with diabetes Incidence that may be missed when assessed by FFQ Fatty acids measured in P-FA appear to be more strongly associated with diabetes incidence These findings endorse the use of objective measurement of fatty acids for nutritional-epidemiologic studies and the apparently stronger findings for the plasma fraction should be confirmed in larger studies and in different populations Am J Clin Nutr 2010 92 1214-22
Dairy consumption and patterns of mortality of Australian adults
Bonthuis, M. ; Hughes, M.C.B. ; Ibiebele, T.I. ; Green, A.C. ; Pols, J.C. van der - \ 2010
European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 64 (2010)6. - ISSN 0954-3007 - p. 569 - 577.
food-frequency questionnaire - coronary-heart-disease - conjugated linoleic-acid - growth-factor-i - fatty-acids - dietary-fat - personal characteristics - healthy-men - vitamin-d - cancer
Background/Objectives: Dairy foods contain various nutrients that may affect health. We investigated whether intake of dairy products or related nutrients is associated with mortality due to cardiovascular disease (CVD), cancer and all causes. Subjects/Methods: We carried out a 16-year prospective study among a community-based sample of 1529 adult Australians aged 25-78 years at baseline. Habitual intakes of dairy products (total, high/low-fat dairy, milk, yoghurt and full-fat cheese), calcium and vitamin D were estimated as mean reported intake using validated food frequency questionnaires (FFQs) self-administered in 1992, 1994 and 1996. National Death Index data were used to ascertain mortality and cause of death between 1992 and 2007. Hazard ratios (HRs) were calculated using Cox regression analysis. Results: During an average follow-up time of 14.4 years, 177 participants died, including 61 deaths due to CVD and 58 deaths due to cancer. There was no consistent and significant association between total dairy intake and total or cause-specific mortality. However, compared with those with the lowest intake of full-fat dairy, participants with the highest intake (median intake 339 g/day) had reduced death due to CVD (HR: 0.31; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.12-0.79; P for trend = 0.04) after adjustment for calcium intake and other confounders. Intakes of low-fat dairy, specific dairy foods, calcium and vitamin D showed no consistent associations. Conclusions: Overall intake of dairy products was not associated with mortality. A possible beneficial association between intake of full-fat dairy and cardiovascular mortality needs further assessment and confirmation. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition (2010) 64, 569-577; doi:10.1038/ejcn.2010.45; published online 7 April 2010
Eating Fish and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes: A population-based, prospective follow-up study
Woudenbergh, G.J. van; Ballegooijen, A.J. van; Kuijsten, A. ; Sijbrands, E.J.G. ; Rooij, F.J.A. van; Geleijnse, J.M. ; Hofman, A. ; Witteman, J.C.M. ; Feskens, E.J.M. - \ 2009
Diabetes Care 32 (2009)11. - ISSN 0149-5992 - p. 2021 - 2026.
impaired glucose-tolerance - blood-pressure - dietary-fat - meat intake - selenium - women - consumption - questionnaire - prevalence - prevention
Objective: To investigate the relation between total fish, type of fish (lean and fatty), and EPA&DHA intake and risk of type 2 diabetes in a population-based cohort. Research design and methods: The analysis included 4,472 Dutch participants aged =55 years without diabetes at baseline. Dietary intake was assessed with a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Hazard ratios (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were used to examine risk associations adjusted for age, sex, lifestyle, and nutritional factors. Results: After 15 years of follow-up, 463 participants developed type 2 diabetes. Median fish intake, mainly lean fish (81% ), was 10 g/d. Total fish intake was associated positively with risk of type 2 diabetes; the RR was 1.32 (95% CI 1.02, 1.70) in the highest total fish group (=28 g/d) compared with non-fish eaters (p for trend= 0.04). Correspondingly, lean fish intake tended to be associated positively with type 2 diabetes (RR highest group (=23 g/d): 1.30 (95% CI 1.01, 1.68), p for trend= 0.06), but fatty fish was not. No association was observed between EPA&DHA intake and type 2 diabetes (RR highest group (=149.4 mg/d): 1.22 (95% CI 0.97, 1.53)). When additionally adjusted for intake of selenium, cholesterol, and vitamin D this RR decreased to 1.05 (95% CI 0.80, 1.38) (p for trend= 0.77). Conclusion: The findings do not support a beneficial effect of total fish, type of fish, or EPA&DHA intake on the risk of type 2 diabetes. Alternatively, other dietary components, like selenium, and unmeasured contaminants present in fish might explain our results
A reappraisal of the impact of dairy foods and milk fat on cardiovascular disease risk
German, J.B. ; Gibson, R.A. ; Krauss, R.M. ; Nestel, P. ; Lamarche, B. ; Staveren, W.A. van; Steijns, J.M. ; Groot, C.P.G.M. de; Lock, A.L. ; Destaillats, F. - \ 2009
European Journal of Nutrition 48 (2009)4. - ISSN 1436-6207 - p. 191 - 203.
coronary-heart-disease - high-density-lipoprotein - randomized controlled-trials - dietary-fat - blood-pressure - vitamin-d - ischemic-stroke - saturated fat - healthy-men - intraparenchymal hemorrhage
Background This review provides a reappraisal of the potential effects of dairy foods, including dairy fats, on cardiovascular disease (CVD)/coronary heart disease (CHD) risk. Commodities and foods containing saturated fats are of particular focus as current public dietary recommendations are directed toward reducing the intake of saturated fats as a means to improve the overall health of the population. A conference of scientists from different perspectives of dietary fat and health was convened in order to consider the scientific basis for these recommendations. Aims This review and summary of the conference focus on four key areas related to the biology of dairy foods and fats and their potential impact on human health: (a) the effect of dairy foods on CVD in prospective cohort studies; (b) the impact of dairy fat on plasma lipid risk factors for CVD; (c) the effects of dairy fat on non-lipid risk factors for CVD; and (d) the role of dairy products as essential contributors of micronutrients in reference food patterns for the elderly. Conclusions Despite the contribution of dairy products to the saturated fatty acid composition of the diet, and given the diversity of dairy foods of widely differing composition, there is no clear evidence that dairy food consumption is consistently associated with a higher risk of CVD. Thus, recommendations to reduce dairy food consumption irrespective of the nature of the dairy product should be made with caution.
Field study on broilers' first-week mortality
Yassin, H. ; Velthuis, A.G.J. ; Boerjan, M. ; Rielt, J. van - \ 2009
Poultry Science 88 (2009). - ISSN 0032-5791 - p. 798 - 804.
day-old chick - live performance - egg storage - dietary-fat - breeder age - flock age - hatchability - incubation - nutrition - quality
In the Dutch poultry meat production chain, first week mortality (FWM) of the chicks is an important measure to quality and is therefore highly related to the price of the chicks that the broiler farm has to pay to the hatchery. Therefore, next to the total number of broiler eggs produced per hen and hatchability, this figure is often used as a measure of efficiency in the breeder-hatchery-broiler production chain. In this study, factors that are related to chick mortality in the first week at broiler farms were investigated. Field data obtained from 2 commercial Dutch hatcheries, for which 482 broiler farms voluntarily recorded FWM of 16,365 flocks of broiler chicks over the years 2004, 2005, and 2006, were analyzed. These represented 79% of the total number of day-old chicks delivered to separate broiler farms. First week mortality was significantly related to breeder age, egg storage length at the hatchery, season, strain, feed company of the breeder farm, year, and hatchery. Furthermore, FWM differed significantly between chicks originating from eggs of different breeder flocks and which were kept for grow-out at different broiler farms
DGAT1 underlies large genetic variation in milk-fat composition of dairy cows
Schennink, A. ; Stoop, W.M. ; Visker, M.H.P.W. ; Heck, J.M.L. ; Bovenhuis, H. ; Poel, J.J. van der; Valenberg, H.J.F. van; Arendonk, J.A.M. van - \ 2007
Animal Genetics 38 (2007)5. - ISSN 0268-9146 - p. 467 - 473.
dierveredeling - melkkoeien - melkvee - zwartbont - melksamenstelling - melkvet - vetzuren - lactatie - genetische variatie - genotypen - genetische parameters - heritability - selectief fokken - nederland - animal breeding - dairy cows - dairy cattle - holstein-friesian - milk composition - milk fat - fatty acids - lactation - genetic variation - genotypes - genetic parameters - selective breeding - netherlands - coa-diacylglycerol acyltransferase - serum-cholesterol - production traits - dietary-fat - bovine - acids - cattle - yield - parameters - disease
Dietary fat may play a role in the aetiology of many chronic diseases. Milk and milk-derived foods contribute substantially to dietary fat, but have a fat composition that is not optimal for human health. We measured the fat composition of milk samples in 1918 Dutch Holstein Friesian cows in their first lactation and estimated genetic parameters for fatty acids. Substantial genetic variation in milk-fat composition was found: heritabilities were high for short- and medium-chain fatty acids (C4:0¿C16:0) and moderate for long-chain fatty acids (saturated and unsaturated C18). We genotyped 1762 cows for the DGAT1 K232A polymorphism, which is known to affect milk-fat percentage, to study the effect of the polymorphism on milk-fat composition. We found that the DGAT1 K232A polymorphism has a clear influence on milk-fat composition. The DGAT1 allele that encodes lysine (K) at position 232 (232K) is associated with more saturated fat; a larger fraction of C16:0; and smaller fractions of C14:0, unsaturated C18 and conjugated linoleic acid (P <0.001). We conclude that selective breeding can make a significant contribution to change the fat composition of cow¿s milk.
Fat oxidation before and after a high fat load in the obese insulin-resistant state
Blaak, E.E. ; Hul, G. ; Verdich, C. ; Stich, V. ; Martinez, A. ; Petersen, M. ; Feskens, E.J.M. ; Patel, K. ; Oppert, J.M. ; Barbe, P. ; Toubro, S. ; Anderson, I. ; Polak, J. ; Astrup, A. ; Macdonald, I.A. ; Holst, C. ; Sørensen, T.I. ; Saris, W.H. - \ 2006
Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 91 (2006)4. - ISSN 0021-972X - p. 1462 - 1469.
skeletal-muscle - dietary-fat - substrate oxidation - nutrient balance - acid-metabolism - lipid oxidation - leptin levels - body-weight - carbohydrate - women
Background: Obesity may be associated with a lowered use of fat as a fuel, which may contribute to the enlarged adipose tissue stores. Aim: The aim of the present study was to study fatty acid use in the fasting state and in response to a high fat load in a large cohort of obese subjects (n = 701) and a lean reference group (n = 113). Methods: Subjects from eight European centers underwent a test meal challenge containing 95 en% fat [energy content 50% of estimated resting energy expenditure (EE)]. Fasting and postprandial fat oxidation and circulating metabolites and hormones were determined over a 3-h period. Results: Postprandial fat oxidation (as percent of postprandial EE, adjusted for fat mass, age, gender, center, and energy content of the meal) decreased with increasing body mass index (BMI) category (P <0.01), an effect present only in those obese subjects with a relatively low fasting fat oxidation (below median, interaction BMI category x fasting fat oxidation, P <0.001). Fasting fat oxidation increased with increasing BMI category (P <0.001), which was normalized after adjustment for fat-free mass and fat mass. Furthermore, insulin resistance was positively associated with postprandial fat oxidation (P <0.05) and negatively associated with fasting fat oxidation (expressed as percent of EE), independent of body composition. Conclusions: The present data indicate an impaired capacity to regulate fat oxidation in the obese insulin-resistant state, which is hypothesized to play a role in the etiology of both obesity and insulin resistance.
Improvements in glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity after lifestyle intervention are related to changes in serum fatty acid profile and desaturase activities: the SLIM study
Corpeleijn, E. ; Feskens, E.J.M. ; Jansen, E.H.J.M. ; Mensink, M.R. ; Saris, W.H.M. ; Bruin, T.W.A. de; Blaak, E.E. - \ 2006
Diabetologia 49 (2006)10. - ISSN 0012-186X - p. 2392 - 2401.
stearoyl-coa desaturase-1 - skeletal-muscle phospholipids - metabolic syndrome - dietary-fat - lipid-metabolism - gene-expression - healthy-men - fish-oil - resistance - niddm
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: The aim of this study was to investigate whether lifestyle intervention-induced changes in serum fatty acid profile of cholesteryl esters and estimated desaturase activities are related to improvements in insulin sensitivity in subjects at risk of type 2 diabetes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In the Study on Lifestyle Intervention and Impaired Glucose Tolerance Maastricht (SLIM), 97 men and women with IGT were randomised to a combined diet and exercise programme (47 intervention) or a control group (50 control subjects). At baseline and after 1 year the following assessments were made: an OGTT, an exercise test to determine maximal aerobic capacity, anthropometry, and analysis of the serum fatty acid profile of cholesteryl esters. RESULTS: The lifestyle programme was effective in reducing the intake of total and saturated fat, increasing physical activity, reducing obesity and improving insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance. Regression analysis of the total population showed that an increase in the C20:4 n-6/C20:3 n-6 ratio (estimated Delta5-desaturase activity) and reductions in the C18:3 n-6/C18:2 n-6 ratio (estimated Delta6-desaturase activity) and the C16:1 n-7/C16:0 ratio (estimated Delta9-desaturase activity or stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1) were significantly associated with a decrease in homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance. After adjustment for lifestyle changes (change in percentage body fat, aerobic capacity and saturated fat intake), these associations were partly reduced, but remained statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: Lifestyle-induced changes in fatty acid profile of cholesteryl esters and desaturase activities were independently related to changes in insulin sensitivity in subjects at risk of type 2 diabetes.
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