Staff Publications

Staff Publications

  • external user (warningwarning)
  • Log in as
  • language uk
  • About

    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

    We have a manual that explains all the features 

Current refinement(s):

Records 1 - 20 / 29

  • help
  • print

    Print search results

  • export

    Export search results

  • alert
    We will mail you new results for this query: keywords==domesticatie
Check title to add to marked list
Ontwikkeling pluimveehouderij met focus op dierenwelzijn - Dierenwelzijn in beeld
Ruis, M.A.W. - \ 2016
You Tube
pluimvee - dierlijke productie - dierenwelzijn - diergedrag - huisvesting, dieren - diervoeding - diergezondheid - dierethiek - domesticatie - kippen - pluimveehouderij - lesmaterialen - poultry - animal production - animal welfare - animal behaviour - animal housing - animal nutrition - animal health - animal ethics - domestication - fowls - poultry farming - teaching materials
De hedendaagse kip is ontstaan uit vier wilde rassen. Het Bankivahoen uit Zuid-Oost Azie is hiervan de belangrijkste. Vanaf 1.500 vóór Christus verspreidde het hoen zich door heel Zuid-Oost Azië, China en Japan. In Noordwest Europa is de kip vermoedelijk rond 200 voor Christus geïntroduceerd door de Grieken en Romeinen. In de jaren ’50 van de vorige eeuw werd in Nederland op grote schaal geïnvesteerd in innovaties en verschenen de grote broedmachines en de eerste volautomatische legbatterijen. Ook kwamen begin jaren ’50 verschillende ‘merken’ hybride kippen - kruisingen van zuivere lijnen of rassen - op de markt. Hieruit ontstonden de hoogproductieve leghennen en vleeskuikens.

Halverwege de jaren ’60 dringt in de maatschappij het besef door dat er weinig oog is voor het welzijn van kippen. Decennia later heeft dit geleid tot een aantal veranderingen en verboden. Vanaf 2012 is het in heel Europa verboden om leghennen in legbatterijen te houden, en het aantal vleeskuikens per vierkante meter is in Europa aan banden gelegd. Een ander voorbeeld is de aankomende plicht om leghennen, en vermeerderingsdieren voor de vleessector, met hele snavels te houden. De pluimveesector is de uitdaging aangegaan om vlees en eieren duurzamer te produceren.
Ontwikkeling varkenshouderij met focus op dierenwelzijn - Dierenwelzijn in beeld
Ruis, M.A.W. - \ 2016
Wageningen UR Livestock Research
pigs - animal production - animal welfare - animal housing - animal nutrition - animal health - animal ethics - domestication - pig farming - teaching materials - varkens - dierlijke productie - dierenwelzijn - huisvesting, dieren - diervoeding - diergezondheid - dierethiek - domesticatie - varkenshouderij - lesmaterialen
De geschiedenis van het varken gaat terug naar de eerste boeren die wilde zwijnen gingen houden. Ongeveer 6.000 jaar vóór Christus zouden in Iran en Irak de eerste varkens uit zwijnen zijn gedomesticeerd. De eerste landbouwers met tamme varkens vestigden zich ongeveer 5.000 jaar vóór Christus in Nederland. Het varken is altijd een vaste bewoner van boerenbedrijven geweest. Varkens waren natuurlijk leveranciers van spek en vlees, maar ze ploegden ook de akkers om, zorgden voor bemesting en ze verwerkten ook afval van de boerderij. Na de Tweede Wereldoorlog werd de varkenshouderij enorm geïndustrialiseerd: schaalvergroting, mechanisatie, en specialisatie werden gestimuleerd. Men keek in de jaren vijftig tot zeventig van de vorige eeuw met een zakelijke blik naar het dier; de economische voordelen waren het belangrijkst. Vanaf halverwege de jaren zestig nam de aandacht voor dierenwelzijn toe, en dit heeft geleid tot een aantal verboden en verplichtingen. Voorbeelden zijn een verbod op de volledige roostervloeren en het aanbinden van de zeugen, en verplichte groepshuisvesting voor drachtige zeugen. De varkenshouderij is de uitdaging aangegaan om varkensvlees duurzamer te produceren.
Genetic diversity and evolution in Lactuca L. (Asteraceae) : from phylogeny to molecular breeding
Wei, Z. - \ 2016
University. Promotor(en): Eric Schranz. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462576148 - 210 p.
lactuca sativa - leafy vegetables - phylogeny - genetic diversity - domestication - molecular breeding - genomes - dna - quantitative trait loci - evolution - bladgroenten - fylogenie - genetische diversiteit - domesticatie - moleculaire veredeling - genomen - loci voor kwantitatief kenmerk - evolutie

Cultivated lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) is an important leafy vegetable worldwide. However, the phylogenetic relationships between domesticated lettuce and its wild relatives are still not clear. In this thesis, I focus on the phylogenetic relationships within Lactuca L., including an analysis of the wild Lactuca species that are endemic to Africa for the first time. The genetic variation of responses to salinity in a recombinant inbred line population, derived from a cross between the lettuce crop (L. sativa ‘Salinas’) and wild species (L. serriola), was investigated and the candidate gene in the identified QTL regions was further studied.

In Chapter 1, I introduce and discuss topics related to genetic diversity and evolution in Lactuca, including an overview of lettuce cultivars and uses, its hypothesized domestication history, the taxonomic position of Lactuca, current status of molecular breeding in lettuce and mechanisms of salinity tolerance in plants, especially the High-affinity K+ Transporter (HKT) gene family.

In Chapter 2, the most extensive molecular phylogenetic analysis of Lactuca was constructed based on two chloroplast genes (ndhF and trnL-F), including endemic African species for the first time. This taxon sampling covers nearly 40% of the total Lactuca species endemic to Africa and 34% of all Lactuca species. DNA sequences from all the subfamilies of Asteraceae in Genbank and those generated from Lactuca herbarium samples were used to elucidate the monophyly of Lactuca and the affiliation of Lactuca within Asteracaeae. Based on the subfamily tree, 33 ndhF sequences from 30 species and 79 trnL-F sequences from 48 species were selected to infer phylogenetic relationships within Lactuca using Randomized Axelerated Maximum Likelihood (RAxML) and Bayesian Inference (BI) analyses. In addition, biogeographical, chromosomal and morphological character states were analysed based on the Bayesian tree topology. The results showed that Lactuca contains two distinct phylogenetic clades - the crop clade and the Pterocypsela clade. Other North American, Asian and widespread species either form smaller clades or mix with the Melanoseris species in an unresolved polytomy. The newly sampled African endemic species probably should be excluded from Lactuca and treated as a new genus.

In Chapter 3, twenty-seven wild Lactuca species and four outgroup species were sequenced using next generation sequencing (NGS) technology. The sampling covers 36% of total Lactuca species and all the important geographical groups in the genus. Thirty chloroplast genomes, including one complete (partial) large single copy region (LSC), one small single copy region (SSC), one inverted repeat (IR) region, and twenty-nine nuclear ribosomal DNA sequences (containing the internal transcribed spacer region ) were successfully assembled and analysed. A methodology paper for which I am co-author, but is not included in this thesis, of the sequencing pipeline was published: ‘Herbarium genomics: plastome sequence assembly from a range of herbarium specimens using an Iterative Organelle Genome Assembly (IOGA) pipeline’. These NGS data helped resolve deeper nodes in the phylogeny within Lactuca and resolved the polytomy from Chapter 2. The results showed that there are at least four main groups within Lactuca: the crop group, the Pterocypsela group, the North American group and the group containing widely-distributed species. I also confirmed that the endemic African species should be removed and treated as a new genus.

In Chapter 4, quantitative trait loci (QTLs) related to salt-induced changes in Root System Architecture (RSA) and ion accumulation were determined using a recombinant inbred line population derived from a cross between cultivated lettuce and wild lettuce. I measured the components of RSA by replicated lettuce seedlings grown on vertical agar plates with different NaCl concentrations in a controlled growth chamber environment. I also quantified the concentration of sodium and potassium in replicates of greenhouse-grown plants watered with 100 mM NaCl. The results identified a total of fourteen QTLs using multi-trait linkage analysis, including three major QTLs associated with general root development (qRC9.1), root growth in salt stress condition (qRS2.1), and ion accumulation (qLS7.2).

In Chapter 5, one of the identified QTL regions (qLS7.2) reported in Chapter 4 was found to contain a homolog of the HKT1 from Arabidopsis thaliana. I did a phylogenetic analysis of Lactuca HKT1-like protein sequences with other published HKT protein sequences and determined transmembrane and pore segments of lettuce HKT1;1 alleles, according to the model proposed for AtHKT1;1. Gene expression pattern and level of LsaHKT1;1 (L. sativa ‘Salinas’) and LseHKT1;1 (L. serriola) in root and shoot were investigated in plants growing hydroponically over a time-course. The measurements of Na+ and K+ contents were sampled at the same time as the samples used for gene expression test. In addition, I examined the 5’ promoter regions of the two genotypes. The results showed low expression levels of both HKT1;1 alleles in Lactuca root and relatively higher expression in shoot, probably due to the negative cis-regulatory elements of HKT1 alleles found in Lactuca promoter regions. Significant allelic differences were found in HKT1;1 expression in early stage (0-24 hours) shoots in and in late stage (2-6 days) roots. shoot HKT1;1 expression/root HKT1;1 expression was generally consistent with the ratios of Na+/K+ balance in the relevant tissues (shoot Na+/K+ divided by root Na+/K+).

In Chapter 6, I summarize and discuss the results from previous chapters briefly. The implications of Chapter 2 and 3 for Lactuca phylogenetics are discussed, including some key characters for the diagnosis of species within Lactuca, the use of herbarium DNA for NGS technology, and perspectives into Lactuca phylogeny. Future perspectives of genome-wide association mapping for lettuce breeding were also discussed. Lastly, I propose to integrate phylogenetic approaches into investigations of allelic differences in lettuce, not just associated with salinity stress but also with other stressed and beneficial characters, both within and between species.

Speciation and domestication in Suiformes: a genomic perspective
Frantz, L.A.F. - \ 2015
University. Promotor(en): Martien Groenen, co-promotor(en): Ole Madsen; Hendrik-Jan Megens. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462572546 - 227
domesticatie - suiformes - soortvorming - dierveredeling - genomica - evolutie - genenstroom - dna-sequencing - moleculaire fylogenetica - domestication - speciation - animal breeding - genomics - evolution - gene flow - dna sequencing - molecular phylogenetics

Abstract

Frantz, L.A.F. (2015). Speciation and Domestication in Suiformes: a genomic perspective. PhD thesis, Wageningen University, the Netherlands

The diversity of life on earth owes its existence to the process of speciation. The concept of speciation is primordial for evolutionary biologists because it provides a framework to understand how contemporary biodiversity came to be. Moreover, not only natural phenomena can result in the differentiation of life forms. Indeed, biodiversity can also be the result of direct and indirect human influence such as domestication. In this thesis, I investigate these evolutionary processes (speciation and domestication) in the Suiformes superfamily (pigs and related species). I use complete genome sequences to illuminate many specific aspects of the speciation and domestication in Suiformes as well as to draw general conclusions on these crucial processes. In chapter 2 I show how genomes provide an essential source of information to retrieve deep taxonomic relationships among Suiformes. This allows me to describe multiple novel aspects of their early evolutionary history such as the fact that Suiformes colonised North America at least twice. In this chapter, I further highlight and discuss novel methodological limitations that are inherent to phylogenomics. In chapters 3, 4 and 5 I use genome sequences to resolve the evolutionary history of the genus Sus (domestic pigs and wild boars species). More precisely, I show that, contrary to the expectation of simple models of speciation, the evolutionary history of these species involved alternating periods of gene-flow and genetic differentiation that are tightly linked to past climatic fluctuations that took place over the last 4 million years. In addition, these chapters also provide novel insights into the process of speciation by demonstrating that genetic differentiation between species can be achieved, even when gene-flow is strong. Lastly, in chapter 6 I tested multiple models of domestication for S. scrofa. In this chapter I show that models involving reproductive isolation between wild and domestic forms are incompatible with genomic data. Moreover, this chapter demonstrates that, while domestic pigs are morphologically homogenous, they are not genetically homogenous. Together, these findings have important implications for our understanding of the process of domestication because it shows that this process was not solely the result of captivity. Together, the results of this work not only provide a comprehensive evolutionary history for the Suiformes, but also novel insights into the complex processes (speciation and domestication) that are responsible for the diversity of life on earth.

Boekbespreking: Het oerrund, een levende legende
Oldenbroek, J.K. - \ 2014
Zeldzaam huisdier 39 (2014)3. - ISSN 0929-905X - p. 20 - 21.
rundvee - rundveerassen - bos primigenius - domesticatie - rassen (dieren) - begrazing - cattle - cattle breeds - domestication - breeds - grazing
Uitgeverij Roodbont heeft een interessant boek uitgegeven over de achtergronden van een project waarin het uitgestorven oerrund teruggefokt wordt. Het is een initiatief van de stichting Taurus samen met Rewilding Europe en ARK Natuurontwikkeling. Het is een boek geworden met veel informatie over de geschiedenis van het (oer)rund, de rol die het speelde bij begrazing, de domesticatie en over de rassen van nu die het meest op het oerrund lijken. Het boek is geïllustreerd met schitterende tekeningen en foto’s.
Characterization of African Bush Mango trees with emphasis on the differences between sweet and bitter trees in the Dahomey Gap (West Africa)
Vihotogbe, R. - \ 2012
University. Promotor(en): Marc Sosef; B. Sinsin, co-promotor(en): Ronald van den Berg. - [S.l. : S.n. - ISBN 9789461734129 - 189
irvingia - domesticatie - bomen - plantenmorfologie - plantengeografie - genetische diversiteit - taxonomie - smaken - benin - west-afrika - domestication - trees - plant morphology - phytogeography - genetic diversity - taxonomy - tastes - west africa
New Insight into the History of Domesticated Apple: Secondary Contribution of the European Wild Apple to the Genome of Cultivated Varieties
Cornille, A. ; Gladieux, P. ; Smulders, M.J.M. ; Roldán-Ruiz, I. ; Laurens, F. ; Cam, B. le; Nersesyan, A. ; Clavel, J. ; Olonova, M. ; Feugey, L. ; Gabrielyan, I. ; Zhang, Xiu-Guo ; Tenaillon, M.I. ; Giraud, T. - \ 2012
Plos Genetics 8 (2012)5. - ISSN 1553-7404
appels - malus domestica - domesticatie - voorouders - wilde verwanten - genetische bronnen van plantensoorten - genetische diversiteit - apples - domestication - ancestors - wild relatives - plant genetic resources - genetic diversity - approximate bayesian computation - multilocus genotype data - allele frequency data - sylvestris l. mill. - population-structure - microsatellite markers - molecular-genetics - spondias-purpurea - genus malus - fruit tree
The apple is the most common and culturally important fruit crop of temperate areas. The elucidation of its origin and domestication history is therefore of great interest. The wild Central Asian species Malus sieversii has previously been identified as the main contributor to the genome of the cultivated apple (Malus domestica), on the basis of morphological, molecular, and historical evidence. The possible contribution of other wild species present along the Silk Route running from Asia to Western Europe remains a matter of debate, particularly with respect to the contribution of the European wild apple. We used microsatellite markers and an unprecedented large sampling of five Malus species throughout Eurasia (839 accessions from China to Spain) to show that multiple species have contributed to the genetic makeup of domesticated apples. The wild European crabapple M. sylvestris, in particular, was a major secondary contributor. Bidirectional gene flow between the domesticated apple and the European crabapple resulted in the current M. domestica being genetically more closely related to this species than to its Central Asian progenitor, M. sieversii. We found no evidence of a domestication bottleneck or clonal population structure in apples, despite the use of vegetative propagation by grafting. We show that the evolution of domesticated apples occurred over a long time period and involved more than one wild species. Our results support the view that self-incompatibility, a long lifespan, and cultural practices such as selection from open-pollinated seeds have facilitated introgression from wild relatives and the maintenance of genetic variation during domestication. This combination of processes may account for the diversification of several long-lived perennial crops, yielding domestication patterns different from those observed for annual species.
Het wilde dier in onze samenleving. Een contextuele benadering van intrinsieke waarde
Keulartz, J. ; Swart, J.A.A. - \ 2010
Filosofie en Praktijk 31 (2010)2. - ISSN 0167-2444 - p. 12 - 27.
wilde dieren - waarden - domesticatie - filosofie - habitats - natuurwaarde - wild animals - values - domestication - philosophy - natural value
In deze bijdrage gaan de auteurs in op de vraag naar de intrinsieke waarde van wilde dieren in natuurlijke én menselijke omgevingen. Na eerst enkele bestaande benaderingen te schetsen, gaan zij in op het onderscheid tussen wild en gedomesticeerd als opmaat naar een meer genuanceerd beeld van het begrip intrinsieke waarde. De auteurs stellen dat er een drietal interpretaties van intrinsieke waarde van het wilde dier onderscheiden kunnen worden: een naturalistische, een soortspecifieke en een individualistische interpretatie. De omstandigheden en de mogelijkheden van het dier zich te kunnen ontplooien volgens zijn aard en capaciteiten horen te bepalen welke interpretatie de meest geëigende is.
Variatie in vee : biodiversiteit op de boerderij bedreigd
Zegwaard, A. ; Buiter, R. ; Oldenbroek, J.K. ; Everdingen, J. - \ 2010
Den Haag : Stichting Bio-Wetenschappen en Maatschappij (Cahier / Bio-Wetenschappen en Maatschappij 29e jrg., nr. 3) - ISBN 9789073196599 - 88
genetische bronnen van diersoorten - zeldzame rassen - domesticatie - huisdieren - genetica - rassen (dieren) - dierveredeling - genetische diversiteit - in-situ conservering - bedreigde rassen - agrarische geschiedenis - ex-situ conservering - animal genetic resources - rare breeds - domestication - domestic animals - genetics - breeds - animal breeding - genetic diversity - in situ conservation - endangered breeds - agricultural history - ex situ conservation
Op de boerderij wordt de diversiteit van het leven bedreigd. Steeds minder dieren krijgen steeds meer nakomelingen. Een gebrek aan genetische variatie in het gevolg. Door inteelt kunnen gezondheidsproblemen ontstaan, en ongemerkt kunnen bepaalde eigenschappen verdwijnen. Ook de variatie in ons landschap en zelfs op ons bord verdwijnt. Dit cahier biedt een helder overzicht van de stand van de wetenschap rond het behoud van zeldzame huisdierrassen.
Het paard in Nederland
Weerdt, M. de; Oldenbroek, J.K. - \ 2010
Wageningen : Centrum voor Genetische Bronnen Nederland (CGN) (CGN rapport 17) - 44
paarden - paardenrassen - gelderlander (paardenras) - paardenfokkerij - domesticatie - zeldzame rassen - fries (paardenras) - groninger paard - nederlands trekpaard - horses - horse breeds - gelderland (horse breed) - horse breeding - domestication - rare breeds - frisian (horse breed) - groningen horse - dutch draught horse
Paardenrassen, die hun oorsprong hebben in Nederland, zijn het Friese paard, het Gelderse paard, de Groninger en het Nederlands trekpaard. Dit verslag over de rol en de toekomst van de Nederlandse paardenrassen beschrijft de domesticatie van het paard en het ontstaan en de ontwikkeling van deze rassen. Daarna komt de huidige paardenfokkerij aan bod. Het verslag wordt afgerond met een hoofdstuk over het belang van het behoud van deze rassen.
Diversity makes a difference: Farmers managing inter- and intra-specific tree species diversity in Meru Kenya
Lengkeek, A.G. - \ 2003
University. Promotor(en): Jos van der Maesen. - [S.l.] : S.n. - ISBN 9058089363 - 171
trees - agroforestry - vitex - plant genetic resources - domestication - medicinal plants - biodiversity - kenya - east africa - on-farm research - bomen - genetische bronnen van plantensoorten - domesticatie - medicinale planten - biodiversiteit - oost-afrika
De Oeros: het spoor terug
Vuure, C. van - \ 2003
Wageningen : Wetenschapswinkel (Rapport / Wetenschapswinkel Wageningen UR nr. 186) - ISBN 906754678X - 346
bos primigenius - rundvee - evolutie - uitsterven - dierecologie - morfologie - domesticatie - plantensuccessie - bossen - habitats - natuurlijke historie - paleozoölogie - historische ecologie - cattle - evolution - extinction - animal ecology - morphology - domestication - plant succession - forests - natural history - palaeozoology - historical ecology
"In De oeros ontrafelt Cis van Vuure het spoor terug naar de oorsprong van de in 1627 uitgestorven oeros. Die kwam oorspronkelijk uit Zuidoost-Azië, zijn leefgebied strekte zich uit van Thailand tot West-Europa. De laatste oeros leefde in het gebied rondom de Centraal-Poolse plaats Jaktorów. Van Vuure speurde naar het spoor van de oeros via historische bronnen als tekeningen, boeken en runenverzen en bezoeken aan runderfokkerijen van onder meer Spaanse vechtstieren. De oeros is niet alleen een historisch interessante zoektocht, omdat Van Vuure in twee conclusies direct aansluit bij de huidige natuurdiscussie. De Heck-runderen die nu in de Nederlandse natuur grazen werden in de jaren 1920 door de gebroeders Heck gefokt naar het toen heersende beeld van de oeros. Volgens Van Vuure klopt daar echter weinig van. Volgens hem leek de oeros meer op een Spaans vechtrund. De stier van de oeros had een schofthoogte van 170 à 180 centimeter, de koe 150. Dat is veel groter dan de Heck-runderen. Volgens Van Vuure leefde de oeros in een landschap met dichte bossen, verschillende soorten moerassen en hoogvenen, vooral in de rivierdalen, kwelders en zeggemoerassen. Van Vuure baseert zich hiervoor onder meer op een runenvers uit de negende eeuw, waarin de os de bijnaam 'moerasloper' krijgt, op overleveringen dat oerossen in Egypte langs de Nijl leefden. Dat opent weer nieuwe perspectieven voor de discussie die ecoloog Frans Vera in 2000 opende over hoe het Nederlandse landschap er in vroeger tijden uit heeft gezien, en naar welk evenbeeld we de huidige natuur moeten vormen." (Recensie door Martin Woestenburg, 2003. http://www.woestenburg.nl/)
Wildheid gewogen : samenspel van ethologie en ethiek bij de de-domesticatie van grote grazers
Koene, P. ; Gremmen, B. - \ 2002
Wageningen [etc.] : Wageningen Universiteit [etc.] - ISBN 9789067546829 - 200
herbivoren - begrazing - natuurreservaten - domesticatie - wilde kuddes - dierenwelzijn - diergedrag - ethiek - bedrijfsvoering - herbivores - grazing - nature reserves - domestication - feral herds - animal welfare - animal behaviour - ethics - management
Towards domestication of Dimorphotheca pluvialis : studies on the genetic improvement of a potential oilseed crop for industrial applications
Hof, L. - \ 2000
Agricultural University. Promotor(en): P. Stam; Oene Dolstra. - S.l. : S.n. - ISBN 9789058082756 - 95
dimorphotheca - industriële gewassen - domesticatie - genetische verbetering - oliezaden - oilseeds - industrial crops - domestication - genetic improvement
<p>World-wide, but particularly in Western Europe and the USA, the interest in arable crops for non-food use has increased substantially over the past few decades. Surpluses of the major food crops and the industrial interest for renewable resources have led to research and development programmes aiming at the introduction of crops with industrial applications. Particularly vegetable oils with fatty acids containing functional groups are very attractive as substitutes for mineral oils used in the production of e.g. lubricants, surfactants, coatings and polymers. Therefore, in recent years much effort has been made to domesticate wild species containing such oils.</p><p>Although the domestication and development of each new oilseed crop requires a specific approach dependent on the characteristics of the plant species, the history of the crop and its potential uses, some generalisations can be made about the steps involved. Both for crop development (agricultural side) and product development (industrial side), four stages can be distinguished: exploration, examination, expansion and exploitation. A more detailed description of this concept, known as the '4-ex model', can be found in Chapter 1 of this thesis.</p><p>In 1986, the first of a series of projects on potential industrial crops in the Netherlands was launched. Around 40 oilseed species were evaluated for various agronomic characteristics as well as oil content and quality. After considering the industrial interest and agricultural potential, one of the species selected for further breeding research was <em>Dimorphotheca pluvialis</em> (L.) Moench. Seeds of this species contain ca 21% oil with approximately 60-65% dimorphecolic acid (Δ9-hydroxy,10t,12t-octadecadienoid acid). The highly reactive hydroxydiene structure provides this fatty acid with a unique functionality and properties, making it potentially suitable for application in e.g. pharmaceuticals, surfactants, coatings, plastic foams, polymers, fragrances and flavours.</p><p>Although species of the genus <em>Dimorphotheca</em> have been known in the Netherlands as garden ornamentals for several centuries, the use of <em>D. pluvialis</em> for the production of seed oil is completely new. With regard to its use as an arable crop no breeding activities have been reported earlier, and as such the species should be considered as undomesticated. In the exploration of its potential as an arable oilseed crop, several constraints were identified, e.g. a long and unsynchronised period of flowering and seed ripening, poor seed retention and rather low oil content of the seeds. Hence, reported seed and oil yields were erratic. Seed retention seemed difficult to quantify, and preliminary observations revealed little variation for this character. Given the relatively short duration of the projects on which this thesis is based, attention was therefore focused on other important yield limiting factors: flowering synchronisation and oil content. Emphasis was laid on genetic improvement of these traits by means of selection. The efficiency of selection was examined by determination of the response to selection and estimations of the heritability.</p><p>For successful seed production, knowledge on the mode of reproduction of the crop is imperative. In the literature, <em>D. pluvialis</em> is described as a highly allogamous species, but little is known about the mode of pollen transfer. The influence of insects on several yield components was studied by comparing plant populations in the presence and absence of insects (Chapter 2). Exclusion of insects had a dramatic effect on the production of flowers and the duration of the flowering period. The total number of flowers at peak bloom was higher, and flowering continued longer in the absence of insects. Seed weight was somewhat higher, but seed set, seed yield and oil content were severely reduced under these circumstances, thousand seed weight was somewhat higher. The total seed and oil yield of insect-visited plots were, respectively, 4.5 and 5.5 times higher than those of insect-free plots. These results confirm the assumptions on the allogamous nature of the species and underline the importance of insect pollination for adequate seed yield in <em>D. pluvialis</em> .</p><p>Next to seed yield, oil content is a second important oil yield determining factor. High and stable oil yields of good quality are essential to provide industry with a constant supply. Three different populations of <em>D. pluvialis</em> were therefore subjected to mass selection for higher oil content (Chapter 3). After three cycles of selection at an intensity of 10%, for all three populations a significant increase in oil content was observed. Per selection cycle, an average gain in oil content ranging from 0.5% to 1.2% was achieved, depending on the population used. Realised heritabilities for this feature after three selection cycles in these populations ranged from 0.15 to 0.58. In Chapter 4, heritabilities for oil content were estimated from parent-offspring regression and half-sib family variance components. For this, forty plants were selected and progenies were tested twice, in two consecutive years. Heritability estimates from this experiment were moderately low: 0.34 from parent-offspring regression and 0.27 from variance components. If from this experiment 10% of the parental plants had been selected, an increase in oil content of 0.8% in one selection cycle would have been achieved. These values are in accordance with the values mentioned in Chapter 3. Although heritability estimates are specific for populations and environmental circumstances, it is likely that (mass) selection for increased oil content in general will be effective, particularly in the early generations. Considering the observed additive genetic variation in the populations, an average oil content of at least 30% seems feasible.</p><p>Particularly in combination with poor seed retention, the long, unsynchronised period of flowering and seed ripening is undesired. When a crop is harvested too early, yield losses occur due to incomplete setting and maturation of the seeds. When harvested too late, however, seed shattering will account for a severe reduction of seed yield. With regard to synchronisation of flowering, two main components can be distinguished; i.e. the synchronisation between plants and the synchronisation within plants. Synchronisation between plants is attained when plants of a population start flowering at the same time. Synchronisation within a plant is achieved when its flowers are produced in a short period of time. Both components are considered important for improvement of flowering synchronisation of the crop. Therefore, the flowering of individual plants was studied by counting the open flowers at regular time intervals (Chapter 5). It appeared that the flowering process of individual plants can be described mathematically by a logistic curve, obtained by the regression of the cumulative number of open flowers plotted against time. The curve is characterised by three parameters, corresponding with the total number of flowers produced by the plant, the rate of flowering development and the day at which peak bloom was reached. From these parameters, subsequently two other characteristics could be derived, namely onset of flowering and duration of flowering within the plant. Similar to the method described for oil content, heritabilities of the flowering traits were estimated by using parent-offspring regression and half-sib family variance components analyses. Onset of flowering and peak bloom showed high (&gt; 0.69) heritabilities for both methods and both years, and total number of flowers showed moderate to high (0.30 - 0.90) heritability values. For these traits considerable progress may be expected from mass selection, particularly in the early selection generations. Duration of flowering showed low to moderate values (0.25 - 0.45), and thus for improvement of this trait methods other than mass selection should be considered.</p><p>Duration of flowering, total number of flowers and onset of flowering do not seem to be correlated (Chapter 5). Oil content and onset of flowering also seem to be uncorrelated (Chapter 4). Selection for either of these traits will most likely not influence the others.</p><p>Modern agriculture requires uniform plant populations. The currently available populations of <em>D. pluvialis</em> , however, most often originate from botanical gardens or gene banks and show considerable variation for morphological and agronomic traits. To improve morphological uniformity and to determine a preliminary ideotype for plant architecture, divergent mass selection for this character was carried out (Chapter 6). In order to minimise undesired side-effects due to assortative mating caused by variation in onset of flowering, selection for plant architecture was combined with selection for onset of flowering (earliness). Hence, six selection groups were distinguished: all possible combinations of two plant architecture types (erect and procumbent), with three earliness classes (early, middle and late). Three cycles of combined selection resulted in a significant response for both traits in both directions, even at a low selection pressure. In this experiment, selection for early flowering or procumbent architecture showed a better response and a higher heritability than selection for late flowering or erect plant architecture. The different plant architecture selections showed similar flowering development and seed yield. Therefore, from these results no conclusions on ideal architecture type with regard to breeding for increased yield could be drawn. However, for cultivation generally erect plant types are preferred. Earliness did have a significant effect on seed yield: early flowering types showed the highest yields. As the yield experiment was carried out only in one year, and genotype by environment interactions could not be assessed, no firm conclusions on ideotype with regard to earliness could be drawn. Nevertheless, (very) late flowering selections in general are undesired in the Netherlands because of an increased risk of experiencing unfavourable weather conditions during flowering and seed set.</p><p><em>D. pluvialis</em> seems well adapted to the climatic conditions of north-west Europe, and fits well in a crop rotation system with annuals (Chapter 7). Its susceptibility to soil-borne diseases should be taken into consideration, but so far this has not caused major crop damage. Other pests and diseases seem to be easily controlled by agrochemicals. Improvement of resistance to several diseases can most likely be achieved by breeding, and deserves further attention. Genotypes with quick soil cover and improved harvest index may contribute to a higher potential seed production. Apart from further selection for increased oil content and flowering synchronisation, special attention should be directed towards improvement of seed retention. Even under optimal harvest conditions, seed losses of 20% were reported, entirely due to shattering. For good oil quality, relatively expensive methods for oil recovery have to be used. At present, oil of <em>D. pluvialis</em> seems particularly suitable for use in products with a high added value. However, many potential applications have not been explored yet. The unique structure and functionalities of dimorphecolic acid call for further research!</p>
Domestication paysanne des arbres fruitiers forestiers : cas de Coula edulis Bail, Olacaceae, et de Tieghemella heckelii Pierre ex A. Chev., Sapotaceae, autour du Parc National de Taï, Côte d'Ivoire
Bonnéhin, L. - \ 2000
Agricultural University. Promotor(en): R.A.A. Oldeman; R.S.A.R. van Rompaey. - S.l. : S.n. - ISBN 9789051130409 - 140
tieghemella heckelii - olacaceae - bosbestanden - domesticatie - plantenvermeerdering - bosbomen - teelt - agroforestry - biodiversiteit - bosecologie - ivoorkust - nieuwe cultuurgewassen - forest resources - domestication - propagation - forest trees - cultivation - biodiversity - forest ecology - cote d'ivoire - new crops
<p>In Côte d'Ivoire agriculture has confined the forest to national parks and state forests. Forest species are disappearing from the rural landscape and the products of these species get ever rarer. Thus, the rural population goes out collecting these products in national parks and state forests, the access to which is legally is forbidden. This situation leads to numerous conflicts that threaten the long term conservation of these last forest relics. How to ensure this long term conservation and sustainable management of national parks and state forests, or simply of biodiversity in Côte d'Ivoire?</p><p>Maintaining local forest species in the rural landscape may contribute to biodiversity conservation. The path to follow is, that farmers themselves domesticate the forest species they are interested in.</p><p>Domestication is a process in several steps one being to bring into cultivation the wild plants. For this study, the following questions were raised :</p><UL><LI>Which are the forest species that farmers around Taï National Park want to domesticate and for what reasons?<LI>Are these species apt to be domesticated and is their propagation easy on the farm?<LI>How do the farmers conceive the domestication and which socio-cultural and economic factors determine their decisions?<LI>How do the forest species perform as to growth and development during on-farm domestication?</UL><p>To answer these questions, a number of enquiries, direct and participative observations and experiments on farms in the Taï region were undertaken.</p><p>After a participative analysis of local useful forest species in the rural environment, two fruit tree species have been selected, with the agreement of the farmers, to become the subject of this study. They are Makoré ( <em>Tieghemella heckelii,</em> Pierre ex A.Chev., <em></em> Sapotaceae) and Attia ( <em>Coula edulis</em> Baill., Olacaceae). Farmers found problems in obtaining seeds or seedlings of those for biological, ecological or phenological reasons, and this justified our choice. Biology, ecology and socioeconomic aspects of both species have been described.</p><p>On-farm propagation of the species in both vegetative and generative way, using simple techniques available to farmers was experimentally done</p><p>Both types of propagation were successful with Makoré:</p><UL><LI>Germination was rapid and abundant; germination levels up to 90% were reached four weeks after sowing in the tree nursery. These seedlings started branching after two months and measured between 25 and 68 cm high after 4 to 5 months in the nursery;<LI>layered branches developed roots after eight weeks;<LI>73% of cuttings developed roots in a sandy substrate and 41% on a sawdust substrate. No effect could be found of rooting hormone treatment;<LI>Plants reproduce AUBREVILLE's model, which is the basic architectural model of the species by vegetative propagation.</UL><p>With Attia:</p><UL><LI>germination was very slow; the germination strategy of the species is of the Durian type and seems to be suicidal, without success and negatively selective in tropical rain forest; germination levels attain 44 to 75% depending on the length of observation in the nursery. Seedlings branch in a sequential sylleptic way.<LI>the vegetative propagation of the species is not autonomous.</UL><p>Domestication is a very complex process that involves biological, ecological and economic aspects of the species under study as well as the socio-economic situation of the participating farmer. After having treated biological and economical aspects of the species the socio-economic situation of farmers that showed interest in domestication during the study was analysed. Domestication over time from protoculture to the actual cultivation of Makoré in the Taï region was discussed. Protoculture consists of caring for trees issued from natural regeneration and was practised until 1969. At that time forest resources were still abundant and planting trees was a taboo for the farmers. Between 1969 and 1989 the first timid steps were set towards really cultivating forest fruit trees. Farmers secretly planted local forest fruit trees. From 1990 on there has been a certain dynamism to start cultivating these trees, especially Makoré. Makoré seed oil was the primary motivation for domesticating Makoré for 79% of the farmers (N=49), 21% planting them for their seeds and their timber. Three quarters of Makoré farmers were men. Makoré is mainly planted intimately mixed with tree cash crops to optimize the labour factor. Land tenure and land and tree property rights did not seem to hamper domestication. Due to the very long germination period of Attia, it has not been possible to obtain enough seedlings to study the farmers' response to domestication. But the farmers' attitude towards propagation of this species has changed: they have seen germinated <em>C. edulis</em> seeds and they know now that generative propagation is possible.</p><p>Growth and development of Makoré seedlings on the farm were analysed in relation to the cultural system in which Makoré was introduced, and to light and mycorrhizae levels. Growth of Makoré seedlings was found to be positively correlated with the quantity of available light. The species is thus clearly a non-pioneer, but tolerant to full sunlight. In the cultural system 'fallow with <em>Chromolaena odorata</em> after rice culture', Makoré seedlings and saplings found the best ecological conditions during the first stages of development. All soils on which Makoré grew in the Taï region, contained mycorrhizal spores, the closed forest soils most of them. However, no correlation was found between spore density and seedling growth rate.</p><p>All the results were taken together in order to formulate the perspective of domestication by farmers of local forest fruit tree species. In general the cultural blockage against planting indigenous tree species has been dissolved amongst the farmers of the Taï region. The process of domestication thus has started to the west of Taï National Park. Thanks to this process agroforestry systems allowing the conservation or restoration of forest biodiversity in the rural landscape are now being developed in the region. The extension of the agroforestry techniques used by the farmers in this study is advised.</p>
Plant domestication and evolution : a monovular twin or not?
Raamsdonk, L.W.D. van - \ 1996
Wageningen : CPRO-DLO - 101
oorsprong - distributie - vestiging - wilde planten - genetica - genetische variatie - evolutie - soortvorming - immunogenetica - fylogenie - fylogenetica - relaties - gewassen - acclimatisatie - domesticatie - plantkunde - nieuwe cultuurgewassen - economische botanie - origin - distribution - establishment - wild plants - genetics - genetic variation - evolution - speciation - immunogenetics - phylogeny - phylogenetics - relationships - crops - acclimatization - domestication - botany - new crops - economic botany
Overzicht van begrazing met gedomesticeerde dieren in Nederland
Beije, H.M. ; Boer, W.J. den; Wijnhoven, A.L.J. - \ 1996
Bosbouwvoorlichting 35 (1996)7. - ISSN 0166-8986 - p. 84 - 85.
rundvee - domesticatie - geiten - begrazing - paarden - bedrijfsvoering - natuurbescherming - nederland - oorsprong - beleid - schapen - cattle - domestication - goats - grazing - horses - management - nature conservation - netherlands - origin - policy - sheep
Overzicht van beherende organisaties, begraasde oppervlakten, soorten grazers en aantallen grazers
Efforts to accelerate domestication of winged bean (Psophocarpus tetragonolobus (L.) DC.) by means of induced mutations and tissue culture
Klu, G.Y.P. - \ 1996
Agricultural University. Promotor(en): Evert Jacobsen; A.M. van Harten. - S.l. : Klu - ISBN 9789054856047 - 110
oorsprong - distributie - vestiging - psophocarpus tetragonolobus - plantenveredeling - straling - geïnduceerde mutaties - weefselkweek - embryokweek - wilde planten - gewassen - acclimatisatie - domesticatie - plantkunde - nieuwe cultuurgewassen - economische botanie - origin - distribution - establishment - plant breeding - radiation - induced mutations - tissue culture - embryo culture - wild plants - crops - acclimatization - domestication - botany - new crops - economic botany
This thesis describes mutation breeding and tissue culture techniques developed for accelerated domestication of winged bean ( <em>Psophocarpus</em><em>tetragonolobus</em> (L.) DC.). The tissue culture techniques, which are the first steps towards genetic transformation of the crop, include: (1) direct adventitious shoot formation from the axes of cotyledon explants; (2) direct simultaneous regeneration of adventitious shoots and somatic embryos; and (3) direct somatic embryogenesis on the wounds of cotyledon explants. An optimised mutation breeding technique for economic significance, based on the early selection of chlorophyll mutations generated from gamma-radiated seeds, has been developed. The use of this scheme has resulted in the recovery of seed coat colour mutants which have succesfully served as an indirect method for selecting changes in tannin content and nodulation. A desired mutant with reduced tannin content and improved nodulation was selected.
12.000 Jaar zaaien en oogsten, het resultaat : een handleiding bij de demonstratietuin
Peulen, A.P.C. ; Soest, L.J.M. van - \ 1995
Wageningen : CPRO-DLO - 16
genenbanken - genetische bronnen - germplasm - hulpbronnenbehoud - genetische bronnen van plantensoorten - gewassen - acclimatisatie - domesticatie - wilde planten - nederland - nieuwe cultuurgewassen - gene banks - genetic resources - resource conservation - plant genetic resources - crops - acclimatization - domestication - wild plants - netherlands - new crops
Nationaal olieprogramma : eindrapport 1990 - 1994
Mulder, F. - \ 1995
Wageningen : CPRO-DLO - 107
olieleverende planten - plantaardige oliën - plantaardige vetten - gewassen - acclimatisatie - domesticatie - nederland - oil plants - plant oils - plant fats - crops - acclimatization - domestication - netherlands
Check title to add to marked list
<< previous | next >>

Show 20 50 100 records per page

 
Please log in to use this service. Login as Wageningen University & Research user or guest user in upper right hand corner of this page.