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Effects of reduced intramammary antimicrobial use during the dry period on udder health in Dutch dairy herds
Vanhoudt, A. ; Hees-Huijps, K. van; Knegsel, A.T.M. van; Sampimon, O.C. ; Vernooij, J.C.M. ; Nielen, M. ; Werven, T. van - \ 2018
Journal of Dairy Science 101 (2018)4. - ISSN 0022-0302 - p. 3248 - 3260.
antimicrobial - dairy cow - dry period - selective dry cow therapy - udder health
Dry cow therapy (DCT) in the Netherlands changedfrom mainly blanket to selective antimicrobial DCT.This transition was supported by a national guideline,with the individual somatic cell count (SCC) at thelast milk recording before dry-off as the main selectioncriterion for antimicrobial DCT. The aim of this retrospectiveobservational study is to evaluate the SCCdynamics during the dry period at the herd and individualdry period level following the national transitionfrom mainly blanket to selective antimicrobial DCT.At the herd level, we used 2 data sets to evaluate theSCC dynamics during the dry period: (1) a nationaldata set containing 3,493 herds with data availablefrom 2011 through 2015 and (2) a veterinary practicedata set containing 280 herds with data available from2013 through 2015. The herd level analysis was carriedout using key performance indicators provided via milkrecording (CRV, Arnhem, the Netherlands): the percentageof cows that developed a new intramammaryinfection (IMI) during the dry period and the percentageof cows cured of an IMI during the dry period.The effect of DCT at individual dry period level wasanalyzed with a mixed-effects logistic regression modelbased on 4,404 dry periods from 2,638 cows in 20 herdswithin the veterinary practice data set. For these 20herds, individual SCC data from milk recordings andindividual cow DCT were available from 2013 through2015. No significant changes were observed to the SCCdynamics during the dry period at the herd level. Thepercentage of cows that developed a new IMI duringthe dry period ranged between 16 and 18%, and thepercentage of cows cured from an IMI during the dryperiod ranged between 74 and 76%. At the individual dry period level, a low SCC at the first milk recordingfollowing a dry period was associated with the use ofintramammary antimicrobial DCT with or without theconcurrent use of an intramammary teat sealer [oddsratio (OR) = 2.16 and OR = 2.07, respectively], the useof DCT with an intramammary teat sealer only (OR =1.35), and a low SCC at the last milk recording beforedry-off (OR = 1.78). This study demonstrates that theselection of cows for DCT without antimicrobials basedon SCC thresholds at the last milk recording is possiblewithout significant changes to udder health andreduced the use of antimicrobials.
Metabolic status, lactation persistency, and udder health of dairy cows after different dry period lengths
Hoeij, Renny van - \ 2017
University. Promotor(en): Bas Kemp; T.J.G.M. Lam, co-promotor(en): Ariette van Knegsel; Jan Dijkstra. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463438070 - 285
dairy cattle - animal health - animal behaviour - dry period - metabolism - energy balance - lactation - milk production - udders - cattle feeding - melkvee - diergezondheid - diergedrag - gustperiode - metabolisme - energiebalans - lactatie - melkproductie - uiers - rundveevoeding
Cows traditionally have a 6 to 8 week non-lactating –‘dry period’- before calving and the start of the next lactation in order to maximize milk production in the subsequent lactation. An omitted, compared with a shortened, dry period reduces milk yield and improves energy availability in cows postpartum, but effects on udder health and persistency were unclear. Cows without a dry period fattened and spontaneously dried off due to the improved energy availability. Reducing the energy availability in the feed for cows without a dry period did not affect fattening or lactation persistency in late lactation. Cows with a short or without a dry period did not receive dry cow antibiotics in this study and this did not affect udder health across the dry period or in early lactation, but seemed to impair udder health in late lactation for cows without a dry period.
Consequences of dry period length and dietary energy source on physiological health variables in dairy cows and calves
Mayasari, Nova - \ 2017
University. Promotor(en): Bas Kemp, co-promotor(en): Ariette van Knegsel; Henk Parmentier. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463431408 - 221
dairy cows - calves - dry period - feed rations - feeds - energy balance - animal health - inflammation - antibodies - adaptation physiology - immunology - melkkoeien - kalveren - gustperiode - voedingsrantsoenen - voer - energiebalans - diergezondheid - ontsteking - antilichamen - adaptatiefysiologie - immunologie
During the transition period, dairy cows experience a negative energy balance (NEB) caused by the high energy requirement for milk yield, while feed intake is limited. Severity of the NEB has been associated with an increased incidence of metabolic disorders and infectious diseases, inflammation, immunosuppression and oxidative stress. It is known that shortening or omitting the dry period or feeding a glucogenic ration improves the energy balance (EB) in dairy cows in early lactation. It can be expected that an improvement of the EB due to shortening or omitting the dry period results in reduced inflammation, immunosuppression and less oxidative stress in dairy cows in early lactation. The first objective of this thesis was to study the effects of dry period length and dietary energy source on immune competence, inflammatory biomarkers and oxidative stress in dairy cows over 2 subsequent lactations. The second objective was to study the consequences of maternal dry period length on colostrum immunoglobulin content and immune competence of calves in the first 12 weeks of life. In the current study, 167 cows were assigned to 3 dry period lengths (0, 30, or 60 d) and 2 early lactation rations (glucogenic or lipogenic). Cows were planned to have the same dry period length and ration over 2 subsequent lactations. Omitting the dry period reduced plasma bilirubin levels compared with a conventional dry period, which is line with the better EB in cows with a 0-d dry period. Effects of dry period length on inflammatory biomarkers, oxidative stress variables and natural antibodies (NAb) titers were, however, less consistent. Omitting the dry period increased not only negative acute phase proteins (APP) in plasma, but also positive APP, oxidative stress variables in plasma, and NAb in milk. Shortening the dry period to 30-d did not influence inflammatory biomarkers and oxidative stress compared with a conventional dry period of 60-d. Occurrence of clinical health problems did not differ between cows with different dry period lengths. In the current study, changes in positive APP and oxidative stress variables in plasma and NAb in milk could be explained by the occurrence of clinical health problems related to inflammation (clinical mastitis, fever, metritis and retained placenta), rather than a better EB due to a shorter or no dry period. Moreover, a higher titer of IgG binding lipopolysaccharide in plasma was associated with decreased odds of high somatic cell count and occurrence of clinical mastitis. In the first lactation after implementation of dry period length and dietary treatments, feeding a glucogenic ration in early lactation increased NAb titers in milk compared with a lipogenic ration, which could be explained partly by a better EB. In the second lactation after implementation of dry period length and dietary treatments, feeding a lipogenic ration in early lactation increased cholesterol levels in plasma compared with a glucogenic ration, which could be related to the high fat content in this ration. Cows with a 0-d dry period had a lower colostrum production and less immunoglobulins in colostrum compared with cows with a 30-d or 60-d dry period. After colostrum uptake, NAb titers in plasma of calves from cows with a 0-d dry period were lower during the first week of life compared with calves from cows with a 30-d or 60-d dry period. Levels of specific antibodies in calves, after immunization in week 6 and 10, in calves were not affected by the maternal dry period length. Birth weight of calves from cows with a 0-d dry period was lower compared with calves from cows with a 30-d dry period, but not compared with calves from cows with a 60-d dry period. Growth of calves until 12 weeks of life was not affected by dry period length. In conclusion, although shortening and omitting the dry period improved the EB in early lactation, this did not result in clear consistent effects of dry period length on inflammation or oxidative stress. Changes in inflammation biomarkers, oxidative stress variables and NAb in milk were a reflection of the occurrence of health problems related to inflammation in particular clinical mastitis and compromised uterine health. Furthermore, albeit omitting the dry period compared with shortening or conventional dry period cows resulted in a reduced immunoglobulin content in colostrum and reduced NAb titers in plasma of their calves in the first week of life, but did not affect specific immune response of the calves in the first 12 weeks of life.
Aspects of rumen adaptation in dairy cattle : morphological, functional, and gene expression changes of the rumen papillae and changes of the rumen microbiota during the transition period
Dieho, Kasper - \ 2017
University. Promotor(en): Wouter Hendriks, co-promotor(en): Jan Dijkstra; Andre Bannink; J.Th. Schonewille. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463430258 - 248
dairy cattle - rumen - rumen microorganisms - morphology - gene expression - animal nutrition - dry period - lactation - melkvee - pens - pensmicro-organismen - morfologie - genexpressie - diervoeding - gustperiode - lactatie
In dairy cattle the nutrient requirements change rapidly around calving. During the dry period nutrients are required for maintenance, recovery from the previous lactation, and fetal growth. After calving, milk production commences and the energy requirements can increase by a factor 3 to ~184 MJ net energy for lactation during the first weeks of lactation, compared with the dry period, whereas feed intake doubles to ~24 kg dry matter (DM)/d compared with the dry period. In addition, high quality lactation rations are fed, usually containing a sizable portion of concentrate, thereby increasing fermentable organic matter (FOM) intake to ~14 kg/d. As a result, daily volatile fatty acid (VFA) production by the rumen microbiota increases from ~60 mol/d during the dry period to ~132 mol/d during early lactation. To maintain rumen pH at levels favorable for microbial fermentation, and prevent a negative impact on production and health, clearance of the produced VFA is essential. This mainly occurs through absorption over the rumen wall. The increase in capacity of the rumen for absorption of VFA is associated with morphological and functional changes of the rumen papillae which cover the rumen wall. However, current knowledge of these changes as they occur around calving is scarce (Chapter 1). Increasing our understanding of the adaptation of the rumen can provide new insights to optimize dairy cattle nutrition and thereby health, welfare, and production.
The objective of this thesis was to study the adaptation of the rumen to ration changes during the dry period and early lactation. Changes in rumen papillae morphology, fractional absorption rate of VFA (kaVFA), and changes in the composition of the rumen microbiota were the primary targets for study. In addition, the expression of genes and proteins associated with absorption and metabolism of VFA by the rumen epithelium were studied to better understand the relationship between functional changes and morphological changes of the papillae. Uniquely, all these aspects were studied in parallel in the same dairy cows during the dry period and early lactation using a repeated measurement setup. Two experiments were conducted. In the lactation experiment, the effect of transition from the dry period to the subsequent lactation, and the effect of early lactation concentrate build-up strategy on the adaptation of the rumen were studied. In the dry period experiment, the effect of feeding supplemental concentrate during the late dry period in order to ‘prepare’ the rumen for the lactation was studied. Treatments of both experiments were aimed at creating a difference in FOM intake (kg/d) and thereby VFA production (mol/d), as VFA production was hypothesized to affect rumen papillae development and thereby the capacity for VFA absorption.
During the lactation experiment, intake of FOM did not change during the dry period (5.7 kg/d), but increased during the subsequent lactation to 15.0 kg/d at 80 d postpartum (pp). In addition, the rapid increase in concentrate allowance resulted in a temporarily 22% greater FOM intake compared with a gradual increase at 16 d pp (Chapter 2). The total production rate of VFA, measured using an isotope dilution technique (Chapter 3), was affected by these changes in FOM intake and increased 2.3 fold to 123 mol/d after calving, compared with the dry period (53 mol/d). The temporarily greater FOM intake with the rapid increase in concentrate allowance at 16 d pp coincided with a 54% greater propionate production (34 mol/d) compared with a gradual increase in concentrate allowance, whereas acetate (66 mol/d) and butyrate (10 mol/d) production were not affected. Papillae surface area (Chapter 2) decreased by 19% between 50 d antepartum (ap) and 3 d pp to 28.0 mm2, but increased during early lactation to 63.0 mm2. Papillae surface area increased faster with the rapid increase in concentrate allowance and surface area was 38, 34 and 22% larger at 16, 30, and 44 d postpartum respectively, than with a gradual rate of increase of concentrate allowance. Histology (Chapter 2) revealed that rumen papillae and epithelium thickness decreased slightly after calving, but were not affected by the concentrate treatment. Feeding concentrate during the dry period did not affect daily FOM intake (6.0 kg/d) but did increase VFA concentration in the rumen fluid by 21 mM to 121 mM, and increased papillae surface by 29% (Chapter 4). However, the increased papillae surface area in the dry period was not maintained to the subsequent lactation period. After calving, papillae surface area increased by 50% to 58.0 mm2 at 45 d pp. The postpartum development of the rumen papillae was not affected by the treatment during the dry period. These results indicate that rumen papillae respond to changes in FOM and VFA production intake during the dry period and early lactation, and that the magnitude of this response depends on the rate of change in FOM intake.
During both experiments, kaVFA was measured using a buffer incubation technique in an empty washed rumen. During the lactation experiment (Chapter 3), in accordance with the developments in papillae surface area, the kaVFA decreased during the dry period from 0.48/h at 50 d ap to 0.34/h at 3 d pp. During the subsequent lactation, it increased rapidly to 0.56/h at 16 d pp and further to 0.72/h at 80 d pp. However, the greater papillae surface area due to the rapid increase in concentrate did not coincide with a greater kaVFA. During the dry period experiment (Chapter 4), kaVFA increased after calving by 50% to 0.48/h at 45 d pp, but the increase in papillae surface area due to supplemental concentrate during the dry period did not affect the kaVFA during the dry period (0.36/h) or the subsequent lactation. These results indicate that papillae surface area is not the limiting factor for kaVFA.
Changes in the expression of genes were studied at the mRNA level in papillae tissue from both experiments (Chapter 5). The expression of apoptosis related genes was not affected by sampling day or its interaction with treatment for both experiments, suggesting papillae proliferation during the transition period was mainly the result of an increased mitosis rate. The limited changes in the expression of genes associated with rumen epithelial transport and metabolism of VFA in dairy cows during the transition period do not suggest that these capacities of the epithelium increased per unit of surface area. Thus the major response to the increase in daily VFA production after calving was tissue proliferation. In addition, papillae from the lactation experiment were used to study expression at the protein level using immunoblotting. Results showed that expression of several proteins changed during early lactation indicating modulation of intracellular pH regulation and sodium homeostasis, and VFA metabolism. Only for one gene, a significant but weak correlation between the examined mRNA and protein expression levels was observed, indicating that care must be taken when interpreting results obtained at either level.
Ration changes associated with the transition from the dry period to lactation affected the rumen microbiota during the lactation experiment (Chapter 6). The rapid increase in concentrate allowance postpartum temporarily decreased bacterial community richness by as much as 30% compared with a gradual increase in concentrate. This transient depression in bacterial community richness with a rapid, but not a gradual, rate of increase of concentrate allowance pp indicates that the rate of change in ration composition and feed intake has a greater effect than the change in ration composition and feed intake level as such. The relative abundances of most major bacterial taxa were affected by the transition to lactation, but few were affected by the rate of increase of the concentrate allowance. The relative abundances of rumen protozoal taxa changed after calving, and were affected by the concentrate treatment. However, differences between treatments groups disappeared again when concentrate intake became similar. The archaeal community was likewise affected by both the transition to lactation and the treatment. The observed changes in rumen microbiota composition, including changes in bacterial community richness, did not appear to affect the fractional degradation rate of NDF, starch, CP, and OM measured in situ using a nylon bag technique.
The results in the present thesis show that morphologically and functionally the rumen papillae can adapt rapidly to the changes in FOM intake and daily VFA production associated with the transition from the dry period into the subsequent lactation. However, the contrast in response of rumen papillae surface area development and the fractional absorption rate of VFA to the concentrate treatments indicates that papillae surface area is not the limiting factor for VFA absorption. This proposition is further supported by the limited histological changes of the rumen epithelium and limited changes in gene expression. Considering that the capacity for absorption and metabolism of VFA per unit of papillae surface area remains similar, an extra-epithelial factor, likely visceral blood flow, limits VFA absorption. The capacity of the rumen to adapt after calving and the limited beneficial effect of supplementing concentrate during the dry period indicate that dry period feeding strategies can best be optimized for the prevention of periparturient diseases.
Dry period length of dairy cows : milk composition and quality
Vries, Ruben de - \ 2017
University. Promotor(en): Toon van Hooijdonk; K. Holtenius, co-promotor(en): Kasper Hettinga; H.L.M. Lindmark-Månsson. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463430463 - 141
dairy cows - dry period - milk composition - milk quality - milk - casein - micelles - melkkoeien - gustperiode - melksamenstelling - melkkwaliteit - melk - caseïne - micellen
A dry period of dairy cows is historically seen as a period during which the cow can restore its body condition and regenerate its mammary epithelium in order to be high yielding in the successive lactation. Recent work has indicated that high yielding cows generally experience a severe negative energy balance in early lactation. Dry period reduction is a strategy to improve the energy balance of dairy cows in early lactation. This thesis aimed at evaluating the influence of dry period length on milk composition and milk quality. Milk composition parameters indicate the processing quality of milk for the dairy plant, and may also reflect the physiological condition and energy status of the cow.
In this work, omission of the dry period was related to a reduced β-casein fraction in early lactation milk. Applying a short (4 weeks) instead of a conventional (8 weeks) dry period resulted in increased plasmin activity in milk, but did not affect the β-casein fraction. Increased plasmin activity in relation to a shortened dry period was particularly found in milk of cows of third or higher parity, that generally had relatively high somatic cell count. At low somatic cell counts, dry period reduction or omission only tended to result in an increased plasmin activity due a higher casein concentration in milk. From increased concentrations of a number of low abundant proteins in colostrum of cows with a short dry period it was hypothesized that a short dry period was related to increased proliferation of mammary epithelial cells during the first days in lactation.
Although the casein composition of milk was related to both plasmin activity in milk and the metabolic status of cows, which are both influenced by dry period length, quantitative differences in casein composition of cows with different dry period length were small. It was concluded that shortening or omitting the dry period of cows with good mammary health obtains milk with a higher protein content with little differences in protein composition.
Shortening or omitting the dry period in dairy cows : effects on milk yield, energy balance, metabolic status, and fertility
Chen, Juncai - \ 2016
University. Promotor(en): Bas Kemp, co-promotor(en): Ariette van Knegsel. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462579088 - 205
dairy cows - dairy cattle - dry period - milk yield - energy balance - metabolism - lactation - melkkoeien - melkvee - gustperiode - melkopbrengst - energiebalans - metabolisme - lactatie
During early lactation, dairy cows typically experience negative energy balance (EB) caused by the high energy requirement for milk yield, which cannot be met by feed intake. Severity of negative EB has been associated with an increased incidence of metabolic disorders and infectious diseases, subfertility, and increased culling rates. Shortening or omitting the dry period (DP) and feeding glucogenic diet could possibly improve EB in dairy cows. The objective of this thesis was to study the effects of shortening or omitting the DP on milk yield, energy balance, metabolism, and fertility over two subsequent lactations in dairy cows fed a lipogenic or glucogenic diet during early lactation. In the current study, 167 cows were assigned to three DP lengths (0, 30, or 60 days) and two early lactation diets (glucogenic or lipogenic diet), and cows were planned to have same DP length and diet over two subsequent lactations. In the first lactation after DP length and dietary treatments, shortening or omitting the DP improved EB due to a decreased milk yield in the early lactation compared with a conventional DP of 60 days. Omitting the DP or feeding a glucogenic diet improved metabolic status in early lactation. Moreover, omitting the DP increased the percentage of cows with normal resumption of ovarian cyclicity. Shortening the DP to 30 d did not influence metabolic status and fertility compared with conventional DP in dairy cows. In the first lactation, the cows with a 0-d DP had less milk but similar energy intake, leading to excessive weight gain and, therefore, high body condition score (BCS) at onset of the second lactation after DP length and dietary treatments. In the second lactation, improvement of EB in cows with a 0-d DP was less pronounced than the first lactation, which could be related to the high BCS at onset of lactation and reduced milk yield losses. Shortening or omitting the DP did not influence uterine health status, ovarian activity, and reproductive performance in the second lactation. In second lactation, feeding a glucogenic diet improved metabolic status and shortened the interval from calving to first ovulation compared with a lipogenic diet without affecting EB independent of DP length. Furthermore, shortening or omitting the DP decreased peak yield but did not influence lactation persistency in both lactations after implementation of DP treatment. In conclusion, omitting the DP improved metabolic status and resumption of ovarian activity, which was related to an improved EB in early lactation. Shortening the DP for two subsequent lactations could be achieved for most cows with limited milk yield losses. Independent of DP length, glucogenic diet improved EB and metabolic status compared with lipogenic diet in early lactation.
Eindrapportage Veerkracht van Melkvee I : verandering van dynamiek, voorspellende kracht
Dixhoorn, Ingrid van; Mol, Rudi de; Werf, Joop van der; Reenen, Kees van - \ 2016
Wageningen : Wageningen UR Livestock Research (Livestock Research rapport 956) - 94
melkkoeien - melkvee - gustperiode - lactatie - rundveeziekten - diergezondheid - diergedrag - dierfysiologie - gegevens verzamelen - voorspelling - rundveeteelt - dairy cows - dairy cattle - dry period - lactation - cattle diseases - animal health - animal behaviour - animal physiology - data collection - prediction - cattle farming
The transition period is a critical phase in the life of dairy cows. Early identification of cows at risk for disease would allow for early intervention and optimization of the transition period. Based on the theory of resilience of biological systems we hypothesize that the level of vulnerability of an individual cow can be quantified by describing dynamical aspects of continuously measured physiological and behavioural variables. To examine the relationship between the risk to develop diseases early in lactation and dynamic patterns of high-resolution, physiological and behavioural data, were continuously recorded in individual cows before calving. Dynamic, quantitative parameters for high-resolution physiological and behavioural measures, continuously acquired during the dry period have predictive value for the risk of cows to develop diseases during the early lactation period. Our results suggest that quantitative parameters derived from sensor data may reflect the level of resilience of individual cows.
Nieuwe maat voor melkproductie : vergelĳking melkgift koeien met verschillende droogstandslengte mogelijk met effectieve lactatie
Kok, A. ; Knegsel, A.T.M. van; Middelaar, C.E. van - \ 2016
Veeteelt 33 (2016)7. - ISSN 0168-7565 - p. 44 - 45.
dairy cattle - dairy farming - milk production - lactation - dry period - calving interval - agricultural research - melkvee - melkveehouderij - melkproductie - lactatie - gustperiode - tussenkalftijd - landbouwkundig onderzoek
De gebruikelĳke maat voor lactatieproductie, de 305 dagenproductie, houdt geen rekening met de lengte van de droogstand of tussenkalftĳd van de koe. Onderzoekers van Wageningen UR stellen daarom een nieuwe maat voor lactatieproductie voor
Effect of dry period length and dietary energy source in dairy cows on natural antibody titers and somatic cell count in milk.
Mayasari, N. ; Rijks, W. ; Vries Reilingh, G. de; Remmelink, G.J. ; Kemp, B. ; Parmentier, H.K. ; Knegsel, A.T.M. van - \ 2015
dry period - somatic cell count - antibodies
Omission of the dry period of cows improved energy balance (EB) and showed variable effects on somatic cell counts (SCC) and natural antibodies (NAb) in milk. A glucogenic diet compared with lipogenic diet enhanced plasma NAb binding keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH). NAb in milk were associated with SCC. It was hypothesized that during negative energy balance, NAb either have a role or reflect in inflammatory processes and are associated with SCC. The objective was to study effects of dry period length and dietary energy source on titers of NAb binding KLH and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in milk, SCC and mastitis. In total, 167 Holstein-Friesian dairy cows were randomly assigned to treatments. Treatments consisted of 3 dry period lengths: 0-, 30- or 60-d and 2 early lactation diets (glucogenic or lipogenic), in a 3 × 2 factorial design. Cows enrolled in this study were clinically healthy and had SCC in milk < 250,000 cell/mL. Milk samples for NAb and SCC measurement were sampled weekly and 4 times per week, respectively, from wk 1 until 14 postpartum. The data collected were statistically analyzed using ANOVA and logistic regression. Cows with a 0-d dry period had higher titers of IgG and IgM binding KLH and LPS and higher SCC in milk compared with cows with a 30- or 60-d dry period (P < 0.01). Mastitis incidence was 17% and did not differ between dry period lengths or lactation diets. A glucogenic diet showed higher titers of IgM binding LPS and tended to have higher titers of IgG binding LPS in milk compared with a lipogenic diet (P < 0.01 and P = 0.08, respectively). Higher titers of IgG and IgM binding KLH and IgG binding LPS were associated with increased risk of high SCC (P < 0.05). Higher IgG and IgM binding KLH and LPS were also associated with increased risk of mastitis (P < 0.05). The results demonstrate that cows with a 0-d dry period and fed a glucogenic diet showed high titers of IgG binding LPS in milk. Moreover, we can conclude that IgG and IgM binding KLH or LPS in milk might be additional valuable tools to detect increased risks for mastitis in dairy cows.
Milk fatty acids as possible biomarkers to diagnose hyperketonemia in early lactation
Jorjong, S. ; Knegsel, A.T.M. van; Verwaeren, J. ; Bruckmaier, R.M. ; Baets, B. De; Kemp, B. ; Fievez, V. - \ 2015
Journal of Dairy Science 98 (2015)8. - ISSN 0022-0302 - p. 5211 - 5221.
detect subclinical ketosis - beta-hydroxybutyrate concentrations - dairy-cows - energy-balance - reproductive-performance - dry period - elevated concentrations - transition period - cattle - chain
The aim of this study was to assess the potential of milk fatty acids as diagnostic tool for hyperketonemia of 93 dairy cows in a 3 × 2 factorial arrangement. Cows were fed a glucogenic or lipogenic diet and originally were intended to be subjected to a 0-, 30-, or 60-d dry period. Nevertheless, some of the cows, which were intended for inclusion in the 0-d dry period group, dried off spontaneously. Milk was collected in wk 2, 3, 4, and 8 of lactation for milk fat analysis. Blood was sampled from wk 2 to 8 after parturition for ß-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) analysis. Cases were classified into 2 groups: hyperketonemia (BHBA =1.2 mmol/L) and nonhyperketonemia (BHBA
Dertig dagen droog voldoende
Drie, I. van; Knegsel, A. van; Lam, T.G.J.M. ; Koopmans, A. - \ 2015
Veeteelt 32 (2015)1. - ISSN 0168-7565 - p. 54 - 55.
melkveehouderij - melkkoeien - lactatie - gustperiode - strategisch management - mastitis - dairy farming - dairy cows - lactation - dry period - strategic management
De afronding van het project Why Dry van Wageningen Universiteit is aanleiding om stil te staan bij de droogstand. Wat is de ideale droogstandslengte? Is doormelken of het weglaten van de droogstand aan te raden en zorgt selectief droogzetten voor meer mastitisgevallen? Veeteelt zet aan de hand van zeven vragen de onderzoeksresultaten op een rij.
WHYDRY; Verkorten van de droogstand van melkvee: effecten op de melkproductie, energiebalans en koe- en kalfgezondheid
Knegsel, A.T.M. van - \ 2014
Wageningen : Wageningen University, leerstoelgroep Adaptatiefysiologie - 156
melkproductie - energiebalans - diergezondheid - koeien - kalveren - experimenten - melkopbrengst - lactatie - melkinterval - melkveehouderij - gustperiode - milk production - energy balance - animal health - cows - calves - experiments - milk yield - lactation - milking interval - dairy farming - dry period
Van Knegsel, A.T.M. (Editor), 2014. WHYDRY: Verkorten van de droogstand van melkvee: effecten op de melkproductie, energiebalans en koe- en kalf-gezondheid. Wageningen University, Wageningen, Nederland. 156 blz. Sinds het begin van de 20ste eeuw worden melkkoeien enkele weken voor de verwachte kalfdatum drooggezet, d.w.z. niet meer gemolken. Het doel van deze droogstand is om de melkproductie in de daaropvolgende lactatie te maximaliseren. Daarnaast kunnen koeien met subklinische mastitis tijderns de droogstand behandeld worden met antibiotica. Recent is er discussie ontstaan of een droogstand van 6 tot 8 weken nog wel optimaal is vanwege een aantal redenen. Ten eerste is de vraag of een maximale melkproductie nog steeds wenselijk is, omdat een hoge melkproductie in begin lactatie wordt geassocieerd met een hoge ziekte-incidentie. Ten tweede is het droogzetten van hoogproductief melkvee met nog een hoge dagproductie bij droogzetten een risico voor uiergezondheid. Ten derde is sinds 2013 in Nederland het gebruik van antibiotica in de veehouderij sterk gelimiteerd. Dit geldt ook voor de antibiotica gebruikt in de droogstand, zgn. droogzetters. Deze antibiotica bepalen mede de lengte van de toegepaste droogstand, vanwege de wachttijd na gebruik van droogzetters voor de levering van melk. Het doel van WHYDRY was om via een integrale aanpak te onderzoeken wat de consequenties zijn van het verkorten van de droogstand voor melkproductie, melksamenstelling, energiebalans en koe- en kalfgezondheid. Het onderzoeksproject WHYDRY bestond hoofdzakelijk uit een groot dierexperiment waarin koeien 2 lactaties zijn gevolgd onder gecontroleerde omstandigheden. Binnen dit experiment zijn 168 Holstein-Friesian koeien random toegewezen aan een van de drie droogstandslengtes (0, 30 of 60 dagen) en een van twee lactatierantsoenen (glucogeen of lipogeen). Daarnaast is er een separaat experiment uitgevoerd naar pensontwikkeling van koeien met verschillende droogstandslengtes en zijn de melkcontrolegegevens geanalyseerd van 11 praktijkbedrijven die al een verkorte droogstand toepasten. De resultaten van WHYDRY laten zien dat het verkorten of weglaten van de droogstand resulteert in een verschuiving van de melkproductie van de kritische periode na afkalven naar de periode vóór afkalven wanneer de koe makkelijk in haar energiebehoefte kan voorzien. De verschillen in melkproductie en energiebalans tussen koeien met verschillende droogstandslengtes waren aanzienlijk. Verkorten van de droogstand resulteerde in beperkte reductie in melkproductie en melkopbrengst, maar met een duidelijke verbetering van de energiebalans in de daaropvolgende lactatie. Verkort droog zetten had geen gevolgen voor het celgetal in de melk, biestkwaliteit, antistofconcentratie in het bloed van de kalveren of groei van de kalveren. Een tweede lactatie opnieuw verkort droogzetten was goed mogelijk. Daarmee kan het verkorten van de droogstand naar 30 dagen een interessante strategie zijn om de energiebalans in vroege lactatie te verbeteren zonder dat het gevolgen heeft voor de totale lactatieproductie. Dit geldt zeker wanneer geen rekening gehouden hoeft te worden met de wachttijd van eventuele droogzetters en het gewenst is de melkproductie van koeien met een hoge dagproductie op 60 dagen voor afkalven de lactatieperiode te verlengen. Weglaten van de droogstand resulteerde in een sterke reductie in melkproductie en melkopbrengst, maar de energiebalans (qua duur en diepte) en metabole gezondheid werden sterk positief beïnvloed. Biestkwaliteit was significant minder, wat ook resulteerde in een lagere concentratie antistoffen in het bloed van de kalveren tot 6 weken leeftijd, maar daarna niet meer. Verder bestond het risico dat koeien vervetten en niet persistent genoeg waren om een tweede lactatie tot 4 aan afkalven gemolken te worden. Voor bepaalde koeien leek deze strategie echter wel succesvol. Koeien met een hoge dagproductie enkele maanden voor afkalven kenden geen negatieve gevolgen voor de melkproductie in de totale volgende lactatie wanneer zij gemolken werden tot aan afkalven. Onafhankelijk van droogstandslengte was ook het voeren van een glucogeen rantsoen in vroege lactatie gunstig voor de energiebalans en metabole gezondheid, in vergelijking met een meer lipogeen rantsoen.
Voorspellen van de voeropname van droogstaande melkkoeien
Zom, R.L.G. ; Riel, J.W. van - \ 2014
Wageningen : Wageningen UR Livestock Research (Rapport / Wageningen UR Livestock Research 794) - 17
melkkoeien - melkveevoeding - melkveehouderij - voeropname - drachtigheidsperiode - modellen - gustperiode - dairy cows - dairy cattle nutrition - dairy farming - feed intake - gestation period - models - dry period
The feed intake module of the Dairy Cow Model is extended with an adjustment factor to predict the feed intake capacity of dairy cows in the dry period. This adjustment factor is described as a function of day before calving (t) using an exponential model. This model is derived from a dataset with data on the feed intake of dairy cows in the dry period. The feed intake capacity of dry dairy cows (VOCDROOGSTAND) is estimated by multiplication of the uncorrected feed intake capacity (VOC0), as predicted by the Dairy Cow Model) with the adjustment factor. In addition to that, the t model includes a fixed discount factor “correction factor”, to account for the depression in feed intake 1 and 0 days before parturition.
Peripartal calcium homoeostasis of multiparous dairy cows fed rumen-protected rice bran or a lowered dietary cation/anion balance diet before calving
Martin-Tereso, J. ; Wijlen, H. ter; Laar, H. van; Verstegen, M.W.A. - \ 2014
Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition 98 (2014)4. - ISSN 0931-2439 - p. 775 - 784.
anion difference - milk fever - dry period - hypocalcemia - metaanalysis - absorption - disorders - nutrition - health - cattle
Milk fever is one of the most important metabolic diseases in dairy cattle. Reducing the dietary cation/anion balance (DCAD) with anionic salts is a common prevention strategy. However, many small European farms cannot use total mixed rations (TMR) in the close-up period. Including anionic salts in compound feeds can result in feed refusals and moderate inclusions to preserve feed palatability results in insufficient DCAD reduction. Rumen-protected rice bran induces the adaptation of Ca metabolism in dairy cows by a reduction of Ca intake and by a reduction of the availability of dietary Ca. In the presence of a negative control, rumen-protected rice bran (2.8 kg/day) was compared with a lowered DCAD diet (from 269 to 4 meq/kg DM) in their effect to prevent milk fever. In a randomized block design, 45 multiparous Holstein cows joined the trial sequentially from 21 days before the expected calving date and were observed until the 8th week of lactation. Feed and nutrient intakes were recorded, and Ca, P, Mg in serum and urine, urine pH, serum NEFA and milk production in early lactation were compared. Feeding rumen-protected rice bran before calving improved the recovery of calcaemia after calving and had a positive effect on DMI after calving. The moderately low DCAD diet did not positively influence serum Ca at calving. Calcaemia recovered even later than in control, and cows showed reduced DMI post-calving and higher NEFA levels in the first 36 h after calving. This moderate reduction of DCAD did not provide an intermediate prevention level indicating that DCAD needs to be reduced to the recommended levels to prevent milk fever. Rumen-protected rice bran may be a suitable feed to reduce hypocalcaemia post-partum and can be included in pre-calving compound feeds representing a palatable alternative to anionic salts.
Milk fatty acids as possible biomarkers to early diagnose elevated concentrations of blood plasma nonesterified fatty acids in dairy cows
Jorjong, S. ; Knegsel, A. van; Verwaeren, J. ; Val Lahoz, M. ; Bruckmaier, R.M. ; Baets, B. De; Kemp, B. ; Fievez, V. - \ 2014
Journal of Dairy Science 97 (2014)11. - ISSN 0022-0302 - p. 7054 - 7064.
northeastern united-states - propylene-glycol - early-lactation - energy-balance - beta-hydroxybutyrate - metabolic predictors - displaced abomasum - culling risk - dry period - cattle
Most cows encounter a state of negative energy balance during the periparturient period, which may lead to metabolic disorders and impaired fertility. The aim of this study was to assess the potential of milk fatty acids as diagnostic tools of detrimental levels of blood plasma nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), defined as NEFA concentrations beyond 0.6 mmol/L, in a data set of 92 early lactating cows fed a glucogenic or lipogenic diet and subjected to 0-, 30-, or 60-d dry period before parturition. Milk was collected in wk 2, 3, 4, and 8 (n = 368) and blood was sampled weekly from wk 2 to 8 after parturition. Milk was analyzed for milk fatty acids and blood plasma for NEFA. Data were classified as “at risk of detrimental blood plasma NEFA” (NEFA =0.6 mmol/L) and “not at risk of detrimental blood plasma NEFA” (NEFA
Droogstand in beweging : effect van beweging in de droogstand op gezondheid van melkkoeien
Goselink, R.M.A. ; Lenssinck, F.A.J. ; Bree, M.G.M. de; Bleumer, E.J.B. - \ 2014
Wageningen : Wageningen UR Livestock Research (Rapport / Wageningen UR Livestock Research 795) - 28
melkkoeien - melkveehouderij - melkproductie - gustperiode - metabolisme - dierenwelzijn - rundveehouderij - dairy cows - dairy farming - milk production - dry period - metabolism - animal welfare - cattle husbandry
Increasing daily activity of dairy cattle during the dry period by physical exercise can induce fat metabolism in an early stage before calving. This metabolic stimulation contributes to the adaptation of dairy cow metabolism to the high level of activity needed for milk production postpartum. Physical exercise during the dry period does not result in a higher milk yield after calving, but can reduce the risk for metabolic disorders like ketosis and fatty liver disease, especially in dairy cows that have a high body condition score at dry-off.
Research delves into effects of shorter dry periods on health and fertility; Short and sweet?
Porter, R. ; Knegsel, A.T.M. van; Drysdale, R. - \ 2013
Cow Management 11 (2013)8. - p. 34 - 35.
melkveehouderij - melkkoeien - gustperiode - diergezondheid - uiers - vrouwelijke vruchtbaarheid - dairy farming - dairy cows - dry period - animal health - udders - female fertility
Shortening the dry period could have positive health, fertility and milk production benefits, but more research is needed to ensure that science and husbandry keep pace with the modern dairy cow. We spoke to a leading dairy research scientist and a vet to find out more.
Lagere vervanging succesformule doormelken
Heeren, J.A.H. ; Berentsen, P.B.M. ; Steeneveld, W. - \ 2013
Veeteelt 2013 (2013)12. - ISSN 0168-7565 - p. 12 - 14.
melkveehouderij - melkkoeien - melkproductie - gustperiode - lactatie - agrarische bedrijfsvoering - vervangingspercentage - efficiëntie - dairy farming - dairy cows - milk production - dry period - lactation - farm management - replacement rate - efficiency
Doormelken blijkt onder andere in het Why dry-project een mogelijke oplossing om de koegezondheid in het begin van de lactatie te verbeteren. Maar is doormelken ook economisch interessant? Wageningen-student Johan Heeren deed een modelstudie naar de economische gevolgen van doormelken. Dit blijkt alleen interessant als het vervangingspercentage ook echt lager is.
Pilot selectief droogzetten op Dairy Campus
Wemmenhove, H. - \ 2013
V-focus 10 (2013)5. - ISSN 1574-1575 - p. 42 - 44.
melkveehouderij - melkkoeien - gustperiode - antibiotica - dosering - celgetal - dairy farming - dairy cows - dry period - antibiotics - dosage - somatic cell count
Op Dairy Campus in Leeuwarden is onderzoek gedaan naar het selectief droogzetten van koeien. Alleen koeien waarbij de laatste drie uitslagen van de MPR beneden 150.000 cellen/ml lagen kwamen in aanmerking om selectief te worden drooggezet.
Droogzetten op kwartierniveau bespaart antibiotica
Wemmenhove, H. ; Kuijt, A. ; Hamming, F. - \ 2013
V-focus 10 (2013)5. - ISSN 1574-1575 - p. 46 - 47.
melkveehouderij - melkkoeien - gustperiode - antibiotica - dosering - celgetal - melkklieren - uiers - dairy farming - dairy cows - dry period - antibiotics - dosage - somatic cell count - mammary glands - udders
Naast het selectief droogzetten op koeniveau is er ook onderzoek gedaan naar selectief droogzetten op kwartierniveau. Door alleen kwartieren met een laag celgetal droog te zetten zonder antibiotica, is in deze pilot een besparing van 30 procent op droogzetpreperaten gerealiseerd zonder dat dit leidde tot het ontstaan van nieuwe mastitisgevallen tijdens de droogstand en in de eerste twee weken na afkalven. Voorwaarde is wel dat het koecelgetal op kwartierniveau kan worden gevolgd.