Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Dunes, above and beyond : The interactions between ecological and geomorphological processes during early dune development
Puijenbroek, Marinka E.B. - \ 2017
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Frank Berendse, co-promotor(en): Juul Limpens. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463432146 - 183
dunes - geomorphology - ecology - vegetation - duneland plants - beaches - duinen - geomorfologie - ecologie - vegetatie - duinplanten - stranden

Coastal dunes occur along the sandy shores of most continents where they serve as coastal defence against flooding, provide areas for recreation, store drinking water and harbour unique biodiversity. Coastal dunes and the services they provide are threatened by climate-induced sea-level rise. This threat may be mitigated by the spontaneous formation of new dunes, for example in combination with mega-nourishments aimed at increasing beach width. Coastal dunes form by the interaction between vegetation, wind and wave action. Persistent dune development begins with the establishment of vegetation on the beach: the vegetation traps the wind-blown sand, forming an embryo dune. Over time an embryo dune can develop into a bigger foredune, increasing coastal safety. The formation and development of embryo dunes into foredunes depend on the vegetation establishment on the beach, dune growth over summer and dune erosion during winter. Although vegetation succession and geomorphological processes are each well described, the interaction between ecological and geomorphological processes during embryo dune development are not well known. The thesis aimed at further exploring these interactions, using a combination of experiments and high-resolution dune monitoring to study the mechanisms underlying early dune development and their implications for mega-nourishment design.

To explore whether soil salinity, salt spray or storms determine the vegetation limit of dune building plant species on the beach, we performed a field transplantation experiment and a glasshouse experiment with two dune building grasses Ammophila arenaria and Elytrigia juncea. In the field growth of grasses transplanted into four vegetation zones from sea to dune was monitored for over a year and the response of these species to salt spray and soil salinity was tested in a glasshouse experiment. In the field, the vegetation zones were associated with differences in summer soil salinity: zones with both species present were significantly less saline than zones with only E. juncea or the zones without any vegetation. However, in our experiments the transplanted A. arenaria performed equal or better than E. juncea in all vegetation zones, suggesting soil salinity did not limit species performance at the studied site. Both species showed severe winter mortality. In the glasshouse experiment, A. arenaria biomass decreased linearly with soil salinity, presumably as a result of osmotic stress. Elytrigia juncea showed a nonlinear response to soil salinity with an optimum at 0.75% soil salinity and a decrease in biomass at higher salt concentrations. Our findings suggest that soil salinity stress either takes place in winter during storm inundation, or that development of vegetated dunes is less sensitive to soil salinity than hitherto expected.

To understand the boundary conditions for embryo dune development over a longer time period we explored the effects of beach morphology, meteorological conditions and sand nourishment on early dune development using a 30 year time series of aerial photographs and beach profile monitoring data. We concluded that 1) beach morphology is highly influential in determining the potential for new dune development, with wide beaches enabling development of larger embryo dune fields, 2) sand nourishments stimulate early dune development by increasing beach width, and 3) weather conditions and non-interrupted sequences of years without high-intensity storms determine whether progressive dune development will take place.

Dune development is the result of the interaction between vegetation development and sedimentation and erosion processes. To disentangle the effects of vegetation characteristics and that of dune size we monitored a natural dune field of 8 hectares for one year using an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) with a camera. By constructing a digital surface model and a geometrical corrected image (an orthomosaic) for each flight campaign we calculated changes in dune volume over summer and winter and related these changes to vegetation, dune size and degree of shelter. The dune growth over summer was mainly determined by dune size, whereas dune growth over winter was determined by vegetation characteristics. Degree of shelter determined whether dune growth was limited by storm erosion (exposed dunes) or sand supply (sheltered dunes). These results suggest that vegetation characteristic may be particularly important for resisting storm erosion and speeding up recovery after erosion.

Embryo dunes have been hypothesised to facilitate development of species rich green beach vegetation in the sheltered location between the embryo dunes and the primary foredunes. To test this hypothesis we explored the relative impacts of abiotic soil conditions as affected by the geomorphological setting on the species richness and species turn-over of green beach vegetation. To this end we characterised the geomorphology and measured abiotic conditions and species composition of green beach vegetation along transects from beach to foredune. We found that the geomorphological setting influenced plant species composition indirectly by affecting soil salinity and rate of sand burial. We found that plant species richness declined less at sheltered conditions, where there was a build-up of organic matter and no sand burial. Our results further suggest a non-linear relationship between embryo dune volume and number of green beach species: embryo dunes can be a source of shelter, thus stimulating green beach development, but can also compete for space, reducing green beach development. The net effect of embryo dunes most likely depends on the sediment budget of the beach and storm intensity.

Mega-nourishments are single large sand nourishments that are applied locally, and are expected to exist for about 20 years, providing opportunities for the development of embryo dunes and rare pioneer plant communities (green beach vegetation). We explored this potential by comparing growth and development of dune building species on natural beaches with the results of plant transplantation and monitoring data of two mega-nourishments: the low-elevated Hondsbossche Duinen and the high-elevated Sandmotor. Our results suggest that establishment of dune building species on high-elevated mega-nourishment proceed slower than on natural beaches due to dispersal limitation. Once vegetation has established however, embryo dune development on high-elevated mega-nourishments may proceed faster than natural beaches due to low salinity and protection against storm erosion. Development of dune-building vegetation on the low-elevated mega-nourishment Hondsbossche Duinen showed the same rate and pattern as that on a natural beach. The potential for embryo dune development on mega-nourishments is far bigger than the potential for green beach development, since green beach vegetation develops under a narrower range of abiotic conditions. Such abiotic conditions can develop behind the shelter of embryo dunes or foredunes at low beach elevations.

In conclusion this thesis shows that, 1) the potential of embryo dune development depends on a large beach width and low storm erosion which determines the vegetation limit. 2) Embryo dune growth over summer is mainly determined by existing dune volume and sand supply. 3) Heavy storms limit embryo dune development during winter, although dune erosion can be mitigated by vegetation composition. 4) On accreting beaches which continuously provide area for the development of new embryo dunes green beach vegetation can develop. 5) The design of a mega-nourishment determines the potential for the development of embryo dunes and green beach vegetation. Our findings provide insights in the interaction between ecological and geomorphological processes that determine embryo dune development. This knowledge can help to obtain better predictions of embryo dune development under the threat of sea-level rise.

Ontwikkelen van een Remote Sensing monitoringssystematiek voor vegetatiestructuur : pilotstudie: detectie verruiging Grijze Duinen (H2130) voor het Natura 2000-gebied Meijendel-Berkheide
Mücher, Sander ; Kramer, Henk ; Wijngaart, Raymond van der; Huiskes, Rik - \ 2017
Wageningen : Wageningen Environmental Research (Wageningen Environmental Research rapport 2838) - 45
remote sensing - vegetatiemonitoring - duinen - nederland - vegetation monitoring - dunes - netherlands
Ontwikkeling van de Zandmotor : samenvattende rapportage over de eerste vier jaar van het Monitoring- en Evaluatie Programma (MEP)
Taal, M.D. ; Löffler, M.A.M. ; Vertegaal, C.T.M. ; Wijsman, J.W.M. ; Valk, L. van der; Tonnon, P.K. - \ 2016
IJmuiden : IMARES Wageningen UR - 62
zandsuppletie - kustbeheer - veiligheid - natuurontwikkeling - duinen - monitoring - sand suppletion - coastal management - safety - nature development - dunes
Dit rapport is als volgt opgebouwd: Hoofdstuk 2 behandelt de achtergrond van de Zandmotor. Hoofdstuk 3 bevat informatie over de betekenis van de Zandmotor voor kustveiligheid. In hoofdstuk 4 is te lezen wat de Zandmotor tot op heden betekent voor natuur en recreatie. Hoofdstuk 5 gaat in op het beheer van de Zandmotor. Ook de invloed van de Zandmotor op het bestaande duingebied Solleveld vormt hiervan een onderdeel. In hoofdstuk 6 staat de betekenis van de Zandmotor voor kennis en innovatie centraal.
Modelling foredune dynamics in response to climate change
Keijsers, J.G.S. - \ 2015
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Coen Ritsema, co-promotor(en): Michel Riksen; Alma de Groot. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462575844 - 186
klimaatverandering - duinen - kustgebieden - vegetatie - sedimentatie - hoogwaterbeheersing - modelleren - nederland - climatic change - dunes - coastal areas - vegetation - sedimentation - flood control - modeling - netherlands

Coastal dunes are prominent features along many of the world’s sandy shorelines. They are valued for their contributions to flood protection, biodiversity, fresh water supply and recreation. The most seaward dune ridge or foredune is the most dynamic part, showing fluctuations in size and morphology in response to erosion by the sea and subsequent recovery by interactions between wind-blown sand and vegetation. Given their dependency on multiple natural processes, coastal dunes may be particularly sensitive to the effects of climate change, including sea-level rise (SLR) and changes in temperature and precipitation.

To mitigate anticipated coastal erosion in the next decades, the Dutch sand nourishment regime will be intensified to raise the beach profile proportionally to the SLR. However, it is not clear how the added sand is distributed within the foredune system and whether this enables foredunes to keep up with sea-level rise. In addition, possibilities for dune re-mobilisation are investigated to enhance landward transport and biodiversity. However, effects of this intervention on foredune dynamics and the dune landscape are not entirely clear.

This thesis has examined yearly to decadal scale foredune dynamics and the impacts of climate change and management options on these dynamics.

Which factors control year-to-year variations in dune growth on the Dutch coast?

Dunes depend on aeolian transport for sand supply. While measurements of aeolian transport show complex spatio-temporal variations, we find that the yearly sand supply to dunes along the Dutch coast is relatively constant, between 10-20 m3/m irrespective of the beach width (Chapter 2). This means that a wider beach does not necessarily provide more sand to dunes and beach width is not a limiting factor in sand supply to the dunes.

In contrast to the sand input, the amount of sand lost during a storm surge does depend on the beach width. Wider beaches are able to dissipate more of the incoming wave energy and thus protect the dune better than narrow beaches. On a term of decades, this gives rise to steady dune growth on wider beaches and irregular, frequently interrupted growth on narrow ones.

How do biogeomorphic interactions control foredune shape?

The distribution of sand over the foredune, and therefore the morphological evolution, is strongly tied to vegetation patterns (Chapter 3). It was found that deposition patterns across foredunes show a characteristic distribution, starting with a sharp increase upon crossing the seaward vegetation limit, reaching a maximum between 5-20 m further landward and then gradually decreasing inland of the crest. The deposition pattern is further modified by the general vegetation pattern. On a timescale of years, there is no correlation between density of vegetation cover and the amount of accretion. However, by accounting for the gradual depletion of the sand load over the foredune, an empirical relationship can be defined between vegetation cover and its sand trapping efficiency. For fully covered surfaces, sand trapping efficiency is around 50%, indicating that sediment can pass densely covered foredunes.

Although literature suggests a relation between the level of plant burial and plant growth, we found no evidence for enhanced vegetation growth in high-deposition zones. A gain in vegetation cover was found to occur for burial between 0 m/year and 1 m/year, which indicates that lower and upper tolerance limits of burial have not been exceeded. Other growth limiting factors are likely to be of similar importance, masking any possible dependency of vegetation growth on sand accretion.

What are the effects of climate change on meso-scale evolution of coastal dunes?

The results on yearly erosion/accretion and sedimentation patterns were implemented in a computer for dune evolution called DUBEVEG, developed in Wageningen (Chapter 4). Algorithms for aeolian transport and vegetation growth were taken from existing models and combined with a new module for wave action and dune erosion. The model was calibrated and validated against field measurements. The good agreement between observations and predictions indicates that the model successfully incorporates the suite of biogeomorphic and marine processes involved in dune building.

Model simulations show that the evolution of a dune strongly depends on the sequence of storms and quiet periods. During quiet periods, dunes are able to build seaward at several metres per year as vegetation colonises the area near the dune foot, leading to dune accretion. Following the dune-foot position through time, we find an irregular pattern of seaward advance and regression. However, the average of a large number of runs with varying storm sequences reveals a clear trend. For a given wave climate and beach profile, we find that the model predicts a certain seaward limit to which the foredunes may build, or equilibrium position at which erosion and accretion are balanced. If the momentary position of the dune foot is seaward of this limit, seaward movement can be rapid. If, in contrast, the momentary position is at or seaward of the limit, periods of minor seaward growth are followed by periods of landward retreat, resulting in an oscillation around the equilibrium.

Climate scenarios, consisting of SLR and a gradual change in vegetation growth, were developed to examine climate-change effects on dune dynamics. Sea-level rise largely determines the direction of dune evolution by forcing the dune-foot landwards. The rate of rising controls whether dunes are able to preserve their height or sand volume while migrating landwards. The effect of changing vegetation growth rates, resulting from climate change, is most manifest in dune response to large disturbances. If vegetation is removed halfway into the simulation, vegetation growth rate determines whether a foredune will re-vegetate and re-stabilise: a value below the threshold will preclude complete recovery and the dune remains bare.

What management options are available to mitigate climate-change effects on coastal dune evolution?

Sand nourishments are effective to mitigate the effect of SLR on coastal dunes. Model results show that by raising the beach proportionally to SLR, dunes are able to preserve their dunefoot position, height and volume. sHowever, the associated landward retreat is often not feasible.

A reduction in vegetation cover, related to either (1) artificial remobilisation, (2) dunefoot erosion or (3) climate change promotes landwards transport and therefore contributes to the long-term preservation of a wider dune zone. If vegetation growth is reduced as a consequence of increasing summer drought, re-mobilisation becomes more effective, with high rates of landwards transport persisting for several decades.

On the long term, it is recommended to use a combination of sand nourishments and remobilisation efforts to preserve the coastline, promote landwards transport and make benefit of a dune’s natural self-regenerating capacity. Under the precondition that safety requirements are met, these natural processes enable long-term preservation of flood protection, biodiversity and dynamic landscapes.

Het oude continent : beschouwingen over de natuur in Europa
Schaminee, J.H.J. ; Janssen, J.A.M. - \ 2014
Zeist : KNNV uitgeverij (Vegetatiekundige Monografieën 6) - ISBN 9789050115148 - 184
natuur - landschap - vegetatie - flora - biodiversiteit - graslanden - duinen - moerassen - zoetwaterecologie - europa - fritillaria meleagris - nature - landscape - vegetation - biodiversity - grasslands - dunes - marshes - freshwater ecology - europe
Een verzameling essays over de grote verscheidenheid aan natuur in Europa: wildernis, natuurlijke en oude cultuurlandschappen. Hoe staat het met de bescherming van deze uiteenlopende natuurtypen? Van de Europese laaglandrivieren en hun begeleidende hooilanden tot kalkmoerassen in de bergen: tal van bijzondere landschappen en hun verhalen komen aan bod. flora, fauna, biodiversiteit, natuurbeheer, halfnatuurlijke graslanden, plantengemeenschappen, vegetatiekunde, ecologie, duinen, kalkmoerassen, wateren, bevloeiingssystemen, wildernis, natuur in Europa
Soft engineering vs. a dynamic approach in coastal dune management: a case study on the North Sea barrier island of Ameland, the Netherlands
Jong, B. de; Keijsers, J.G.S. ; Riksen, M.J.P.M. ; Krol, J. ; Slim, P.A. - \ 2014
Journal of Coastal Research 30 (2014)4. - ISSN 0749-0208 - p. 670 - 684.
hoogwaterbeheersing - kustbeheer - duinen - eolische processen - geologische sedimentatie - nederlandse waddeneilanden - flood control - coastal management - dunes - aeolian processes - geological sedimentation - dutch wadden islands - dutch coast - beach - foredunes - erosion - storms
Dunes act as flood defences in coastal zones, protecting low-lying interior lands from flooding. To ensure coastal safety, insight is needed on how dunes develop under different types of management. The current study focuses on two types of coastal dune management: (1) a “soft engineering” approach, in which sand fences are placed on the seaward side of foredunes, and (2) “dynamic coastal management,” with minimal or no dune maintenance. The effects of these management styles on dune formation are examined for two adjacent coastal sections of the North Sea barrier island of Ameland, The Netherlands, where dynamic coastal management was introduced in 1995 and 1999, respectively.
Dunes act as flood defenses in coastal zones, protecting low-lying interior lands from flooding. To ensure coastal safety, insight is needed on how dunes develop under different types of management. The current study focuses on two types of coastal dune management: (1) a "soft engineering" approach, in which sand fences are placed on the seaward side of foredunes, and (2) "dynamic coastal management," with minimal or no dune maintenance. The effects of these management styles on dune formation are examined for two adjacent coastal sections of the North Sea barrier island of Ameland, The Netherlands, where dynamic coastal management was introduced in 1995 and 1999, respectively. For each section, we analyzed cross-shore profile data from 1980 until 2010, deriving dune foot position, crest position, crest height, and foredune volume for each year and analyzing the situation before and after the change in management. We further assessed the effect of the management regime on dune vegetation. Other factors that could influence dune development were also taken into account, such as beach width and shape, water levels, wave heights, and nourishments. Results show that implementation of dynamic coastal management did not directly affect the volume of the foredune. Growth was occasionally interrupted, coinciding with high-water events. In periods between erosive storms, dune growth rates did not show a significant difference between management types (p = 0.09 and 0.32 for sections 1 and 2, respectively). The main effect of the change was on vegetation development. Dynamic coastal management, therefore, did not reduce coastal safety.
De Zandmotor - Gepassioneerde Wetenschap
Baptist, M.J. - \ 2014
IMARES
kustbeheer - zandsuppletie - natuurontwikkeling - openluchtrecreatie - duinen - kustgebieden - waterbouwkunde - zuid-holland - coastal management - sand suppletion - nature development - outdoor recreation - dunes - coastal areas - hydraulic engineering
De Zandmotor is een groot pilotproject voor natuurlijke kustbescherming, waarmee tegelijk ruimte voor natuur en recreatie ontststaat. Onderzoekers van verschillende universiteiten volgen de ontwikkelingen op de voet. De Zandmotor ontwikkelt zich zoals verwacht; de kust wordt versterkt,voor kitesurfers is de Zandmotor één van de beste plekken in Nederland en de natuur ontwikkelt zich op verschillende fronten. In deze korte documentaire zie je hoe dat werkt. Selecteer HD bij instellingen voor optimale weergave)
Developing an interactive Tool for evaluating sand nourishment strategies along the Holland coast in perspective of benthos, fish nursery and dune quality
Baptist, M.J. ; Wolfshaar, K.E. van de; Huisman, B.J.A. ; Groot, A.V. de; Boer, W. de; Ye, Q. - \ 2012
Den Burg : IMARES (Rapport / IMARES Wageningen UR C083/12) - 38
kustbeheer - zandsuppletie - versterking - duinen - nadelige gevolgen - geologische sedimentatie - vissen - aquatische ecologie - noordzee - coastal management - sand suppletion - reinforcement - dunes - adverse effects - geological sedimentation - fishes - aquatic ecology - north sea
Sand nourishments can affect the coastal ecosystem in various ways. Direct effects are the burial of benthic species under a layer of sand. In the direct vicinity, suffocation of benthos can occur due to the settling of a plume of suspended sediment particles. A plume of fine particles may also increase turbidity and thereby affect primary production and the foraging success of filter-feeding benthos and fish. Indirect effects are habitat change, such as altered morphology and sedimentology. It was tested by investigating whether it is possible to optimise nourishment configuration, location and timing, to: - minimise the impact on benthos, - increase nursery area and/or quality, and - enhance dune quality.
TO-rapportage Monitoring en Evaluatie pilot Zandmotor
Tonnon, P.K. ; Baptist, M.J. - \ 2011
Den Burg : IMARES (Rapport / IMARES C016/11) - 198
geomorfologie - duinen - kustgebieden - versterking - bescherming - ecologie - vogels - zandsuppletie - geomorphology - dunes - coastal areas - reinforcement - protection - ecology - birds - sand suppletion
Met het concept van de Zandmotor, een megasuppletie voor de kust waarmee de kustveiligheid voor de lange termijn wordt gecombineerd met de realisatie van ruimte voor natuur en recreatie, is nog geen ervaring opgedaan. Ten behoeve van uitbestedingen van monitoringpakketten is het monitoringplan in het Uitvoeringsprogramma thematisch geordend op basis van expertisegebieden. De volgende thema’s worden onderscheiden: - Meteo- en hydrodynamiek - Strand en Vooroever, morfologie en sedimentsamenstelling - Strand en Vooroever, ecologie - Natuur/duinen, geomorfologie en ecologie
Reducing the impact of wave attack: dunes as natural buffers
Stroosnijder, L. - \ 2010
Kennis voor Klimaat
duinen - kustbeheer - klimaatadaptatie - sediment - nederland - dunes - coastal management - climate adaptation - netherlands
Coastal dune systems, with their self-regenerating capacity after storm erosion, represent natural defense zones against flooding of the hinterland. Condition: the total dune volume exceeds a certain minimum value related to the safety standard. As such, coastal dune systems represent natural buffers to climate change. To maintain the functions of the dune system at a certain level under conditions of sea level rise, the dunes require an input of sand proportional to the rate of sea level rise. Focus of the research is on the problem of how sediment supply and dune management may be optimized under conditions of climate change in order to sustainably preserve the safety function of the dunes in harmony with other functions of the system. The aim of this project is to derive a model of dune development and apply it together with other models and expert judgment, to develop and evaluate a set of potential dune management strategies, aimed at improvement of the climate buffer function of dunes. This text is an extract of the full project proposal.
Historisch cultuurlandschap in Nederland; Vijf bijdragen
Baas, H. ; Braaksma, P.J. ; Keunen, L.J. ; Lachaert, P.J. ; Marrewijk, D. van; Renes, H. ; Spek, T. ; Weijschede, T.J. - \ 2010
Utrecht : Uitgeverij Matrijs - ISBN 9789053454145 - 96
cultuurlandschap - historische geografie - nederland - duinen - noord-brabant - zuid-holland - zeeland - zandgronden - cultural landscape - historical geography - netherlands - dunes - sandy soils
In 2006 werd het Netwerk Historisch Cultuurlandschap (NHC) opgericht. Dit netwerk heeft als doel het onderlinge contact, het overleg en de samenwerking tussen al deze onderzoekers, beleidsmakers, belangenorganisaties en liefhebbers op het gebied van het Nederlandse cultuurlandschap te versterken. Deze bundel is een initiatief van het NHC en bevat bijdragen die een overzicht bieden en het onderzoek van de laatste jaren samenvatten.
Aardkastanje, onopvallend en te weinig om te eten
Spruijt, T. - \ 2010
Nature Today 2010 (2010)05-07.
bunium bulbocastanum - apiaceae - wilde planten - karakteristieken - identificatie - duinen - noord-holland - wild plants - characteristics - identification - dunes
Hij staat vanaf half juni volop in bloei, maar wordt door weinigen gezien. Hoewel een zoektocht op Google anders doet vermoeden, wordt hij niet meer gegeten. De Aardkastanje is daarvoor te onopvallend en te zeldzaam in Nederland. Toch is het een bijzondere schermbloem.
Monitoringsonderzoek recreatie duingebied Meijendel - deel XX; Analyse van het recreatieverkeer en het recreatiebezoek in de periode maart 2007 - februari 2008
Webster, M.J. ; Beunen, R. ; Jaarsma, C.F. - \ 2008
Wageningen : WUR, Leerstoelgroep Landgebruiksplanning (Nota / Vakgroep Ruimtelijke Planvorming nr. 106) - ISBN 9789085854814 - 102
recreatie - bezoeken - verkeer - monitoring - duinen - openluchtrecreatie - tellen - nederland - zuid-holland - recreation - visits - traffic - dunes - outdoor recreation - counting - netherlands
Ten behoeve van het Duinwaterbedrijf Zuid-Holland voert Wageningen UR een meerjarig momitoringsonderzoek uit naar het recreatief gebruik van het duingebied Meijendel. Doel van het onderzoek is het verkrijgen van inzicht in aard en omvang van het gebruik van dit gebied en hiermee samenhangende variabelen. Daartoe worden vanaf maart 1992 veldwaarnemingen verricht in het gebied. Dit is deel 20 in het kader van Monitoringsonderzoek recreatie duingebied Meijendel
Interacties tussen plantparasitaire nematoden en hun natuurlijke vijanden in buitenduinen
Piskiewicz, A.M. - \ 2008
Gewasbescherming 39 (2008)2. - ISSN 0166-6495 - p. 67 - 69.
ammophila arenaria - duinen - tylenchorhynchus - plantenparasitaire nematoden - natuurlijke vijanden - gastheer parasiet relaties - verdedigingsmechanismen - microbiële flora - ecosystemen - duingebieden - dunes - plant parasitic nematodes - natural enemies - host parasite relationships - defence mechanisms - microbial flora - ecosystems - duneland
De resultaten van de experimenten van dit promotieonderzoek samen met de beschikbare gegevens van het EcoTrain-project over nematodenonderdrukking in buitenduinen laat zien dat de regulatie van nematoden veel complexer is dan tevoren werd verondersteld. Het regulatiemechanisme hangt niet alleen af van het voedseltype, maar ook van de soort nematode. De conclusie is dat vaak meer dan één factorbetrokken is bij de succesvolle onderdrukking van nematoden. Hoewel nematodenpopulaties succesvol onderdrukt kunnen worden in natuurlijke ecosystemen, is nematode-onderdrukking in de landbouw niet altijd succesvol. De resultaten van het EcoTrain-project doen sterk vermoeden dat een scala aan controlemechanismen nodig zou kunnen zijn voor nematode-onderdrukking in de landbouw en in andere productiesystemen
Dendrogeomorphology - a new tool to study drift-sand dynamics Netherlands Journal of Geosciences
Ouden, J. den; Sass-Klaassen, U. ; Copini, P. - \ 2007
Netherlands journal of geosciences 86 (2007)4. - ISSN 0016-7746 - p. 355 - 363.
houtteeltkenmerken - eolische afzettingen - geomorfologie - duinen - bomen - historische ecologie - silvicultural characters - aeolian deposits - geomorphology - dunes - trees - historical ecology - white spruce - tree roots - quebec
dendrogeomorphological approach is presented, using wood characteristics of native oak (Quercus robur L.) to infer dynamics of aeolian sediment transport in drift-sand areas. Wood samples, taken from oaks in two drift-sand areas, were analysed to study changes in tree-ring pattern and wood anatomy as a consequence of burying or exposure from drift sand. In all cases, the wood of the sampled oaks showed sudden changes in anatomy and tree-ring width due to burial by drift sand or subsequent exposure after erosion of the new soil surface. After aerial stems became covered by drift sand, the wood lost its characteristic ring-porous features, and tree rings became strongly reduced in width with less distinct ring boundaries. Buried stems that became exposed after erosion showed an abrupt increase in ring width and turned distinctly ring porous again. Roots that were exposed also adopted clear ring-porous features, increased in ring width and anatomically resembled aerial stem wood. Using tree-ring analysis, it is possible to precisely date sand deposition and erosion events by detecting the concurrent changes in anatomy of woody structures. This study indicates the high potential of dendrogeomorphology as a tool to study drift-sand dynamics with a high temporal, i.e. annual, resolution for a period going back as long as the maximum age of the trees present (in this study at least 250 years). Since the signals of past deposition and erosion events are conserved in the wood, this is the only method that can be used to reconstruct drift-sand dynamics when the actual landforms are no longer present.
Interactions of plant parasitic nematodes and their natural enemies in coastal foredunes
Piskiewicz, A.M. - \ 2007
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Wim van der Putten. - [S.l.] : S.n. - ISBN 9789085047988 - 139
ammophila arenaria - duinen - tylenchorhynchus - plantenparasitaire nematoden - natuurlijke vijanden - gastheer parasiet relaties - verdedigingsmechanismen - microbiële flora - bodemflora - ecosystemen - duingebieden - natuurgebieden - dunes - plant parasitic nematodes - natural enemies - host parasite relationships - defence mechanisms - microbial flora - soil flora - ecosystems - duneland - natural areas
Plant-ectoparasitaire nematoden zijn belangrijke bodembewonende planteneters. Het doel van dit proefschrift was de interacties tussen de ectoparasiet Tylenchorhynchus ventralis, de gastheerplant Ammophila arenaria (helmgras) en de natuurlijke vijanden van de nematode op te helderen. Deze studie was bedoeld om een meer compleet overzicht te krijgen van nematodeonderdrukkingmechanismen in buitenduinen.
Damherten in de Amsterdamse waterleidingduinen; effecten van beleid
Groot Bruinderink, G.W.T.A. ; Lammertsma, D.R. ; Prins, H.H.T. - \ 2007
Wageningen : Alterra (Alterra-rapport 1553) - 31
damherten - cervus - predatoren - introductie - populatiedichtheid - duinen - natuurbescherming - noord-holland - kennemerland - fallow deer - predators - introduction - population density - dunes - nature conservation
De damherten levend in het omrasterd gebied van de Amsterdamse Waterleidingduinen, bevinden zich in een gebied kleiner dan 5000 ha. De damherten zijn daarmee in de zin der wet gehouden dieren. Beheer middels afschot is dan niet toegestaan (via de flora- en faunawet). De habitat zou kunnen verbeteren door aanleg van een ecologische verbindingszone met het Nationaal Park Zuid-Kennemerland. Dit onderzoek toont aan, dat het inperken van het aantal herten en reeën op basis van de huidige kennis van de interacties tussen predatoren en hun prooidieren op voorhand niet aan te geven is. Interacties met recreanten worden wel verwacht en er zal predatie van landbouwhuisdieren optreden.
Goeree voor 1970: het land waar het leven goed was
Sykora, K.V. - \ 2007
Zuid-Hollands Landschap 3 (2007). - p. 12 - 13.
landgebruik - natuurbescherming - graslandbeheer - duinen - vegetatie - plantenecologie - maaien - hooiland - begrazing - vegetatiebeheer - vegetatietypen - soortenrijkdom - zuidhollandse eilanden - zuid-holland - land use - nature conservation - grassland management - dunes - vegetation - plant ecology - mowing - meadows - grazing - vegetation management - vegetation types - species richness
Wie door de duinen van Goeree wandelt, ziet grotendeels de duindoorn overwoekerd landschap. Diezelfde duinen bestonden voor 1970 vrijwel uitsluitend uit lage, soortenrijke duingraslanden, zoals nu nog in Westduinen, een terrein van Zuid Hollands Landschap, te zien is. Ook het landschap achter de zeereep zag er anders uit. Landschap en landgebruik hangen nauw samen. Professor Karlè Sýkora sprak met Henk Mastenbroek, hovenier te Ouddorp, die zich nog veel belangrijke details van het boerenleven op Goeree voor 1970 herinnert. Een samenleving waar hij met weemoed op terugkijkt
Organische stof en bodemweerbaarheid
Reuler, H. van - \ 2006
Wageningen : Wageningen UR (Informatieblad Topsoil+ / Wageningen UR 7) - 2
ziekteresistentie - bodembiologie - weerstand - bodemchemie - duinen - droge stof - zandgronden - pathogenen - meloidogyne hapla - biotesten - bodemvruchtbaarheid - bodemkwaliteit - bodemweerbaarheid - disease resistance - soil biology - resistance - soil chemistry - dunes - dry matter - sandy soils - pathogens - bioassays - soil fertility - soil quality - soil suppressiveness
Om de invloed van het organisch stof gehalte op de bodemweerbaarheid te meten zijn in het innovatieproject Topsoil+ drie teeltsystemen aangelegd met een verschillend organisch stof gehalte (0,7; 1,4 en 4,0%). Met behulp van biotoetsen wordt bekeken of het organische stofgehalte van invloed is op de bodemweerbaarheid.
Organische stof dynamiek
Pronk, A.A. ; Reuler, H. van - \ 2006
Wageningen : Wageningen UR (Informatieblad Topsoil+ / Wageningen UR 5)
bodemvruchtbaarheid - organische stof - degradatie - duinen - zandgronden - soil fertility - organic matter - degradation - dunes - sandy soils
In dit informatieblad van het innovatieproject Topsoil+ wordt de dynamiek van organische stof op duinzandgrond beschreven. Organische stof speelt een belangrijke rol bij de fysische-, chemische- en biologische bodemvruchtbaarheid. Het gehalte aan organische stof in de bodem is de resultante van aan- en afvoer processen. Gemeten en berekende hoeveelheden afgebroken organische stof voor en na toediening van aanvulgrond op duinzandgronden van Topsoil+ werden met elkaar vergeleken
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