Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Verkenning naar een grondgebonden melkveehouderij : minder koeien om binnen milieugrenzen te komen
Wit, Jan de; Veluw, Kees van - \ 2017
Driebergen : Louis Bolk Instituut (Publicatie / Louis Bolk Instituut nummer: 2017-015 VG) - 26
melkveehouderij - milieueffect - agrarische bedrijfsvoering - melkveestapel - duurzame veehouderij - melkproductie - emissiereductie - biologische landbouw - dairy farming - environmental impact - farm management - dairy herds - sustainable animal husbandry - milk production - emission reduction - organic farming
De Nederlandse melkveehouderij staat voor een enorme transitie. Met het beëindigen van de melkquotering is een grote dynamiek ontstaan die de intensivering, specialisatie en groei van de sector verder heeft versterkt. In voorliggende studie wordt duidelijk dat niet alleen vanwege waterkwaliteitsdoelstellingen maar ook voor ammoniak- en klimaat-doelstellingen een ombuiging van deze dynamiek noodzakelijk is. In deze studie is berekend hoe groot de melkveestapel moet zijn om aan deze doelen te voldoen en wat dit voor gevolgen heeft voor economie en externe maatschappelijke kosten. Rekening houdend met redelijke efficiëntieverbeteringen wordt ingeschat dat de Nederlandse melkveestapel van 1,6 miljoen melkkoeien in 2015 terug zal moeten gaan naar ongeveer 1,4 miljoen (vanwege de ammoniak-doelstelling voor 2030). Vanwege klimaat-doelstellingen zou de melkveestapel verder terug moeten (naar ongeveer 1,1 miljoen) maar de onzekerheden, over zowel de verwachte emissie per kg melk als de doelstelling, zijn te groot om hierover stellige uitspraken te doen. Met het dalend aantal dieren zullen de externe maatschappelijke kosten dalen, met circa €300-800 miljoen per jaar. Tegelijkertijd zal het een forse verlaging geven van de Netto Toegevoegde Waarde (jaarlijkse beloning voor arbeid en kapitaal), en daarmee de inkomens op de melkveebedrijven en zuivelverwerking, van €250 miljoen. Naar grove schatting kan de reductie van het aantal dieren middels opkoop tot 2030 jaarlijks maximaal €65 miljoen kosten. Aantrekkelijker lijkt het, indien mogelijk, om een harde sanering te voorkomen en tegelijkertijd het produceren binnen strenge milieugrenzen (via het verkleinen van de veestapel of anderszins) te waarderen door: Het stimuleren van brede duurzame zuivel-concepten, zoals biologische zuivel. Het stimuleren en faciliteren van alternatieve inkomstenbronnen (verbrede landbouw). Directe ondersteuning van bedrijven die binnen de milieugrenzen produceren, gefinancierd. Door bijvoorbeeld een CO2-equivalenten-belasting op (rund-)vlees en melk (waardoor tegelijkertijd het gebruik/consumptie wordt verminderd) en/of via het toestaan van ‘offsets’ in de agrarische sector bij verwerving van broeikasgasemissie-rechten binnen het ETS.
Breeding strategies for sustainable intensification of developing smallholder dairy cattle production systems
Kariuki, Charles Mbogo - \ 2017
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Hans Komen, co-promotor(en): Johan van Arendonk; A.K. Kahi. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463430951 - 134
dairy cattle - small businesses - sustainable animal husbandry - intensification - breeding programmes - progeny testing - genetic improvement - dairy performance - developing countries - melkvee - kleine bedrijven - duurzame veehouderij - intensivering - veredelingsprogramma's - nakomelingenonderzoek - genetische verbetering - melkresultaten - ontwikkelingslanden

Smallholder dairy cattle production systems in Africa are intensifying production through importation of germplasm from breeding programs conducted in temperate regions to improve commercial cow populations. Presence of genotype by environment interaction results in unfavorable correlated responses. The aim this thesis was to develop strategies for breeding programs in developing countries that can support sustainable intensification of these systems. Specific objectives were (a) to determine desired gains for breeding objective traits, (b) compare progeny testing (PT) and genomic selection (GS) selection strategies, (c) evaluate the economic performance of PT and GS selection strategies and (d) compare genetic gains for economic and non-economic breeding objectives; the Kenya dairy cattle sector was used as a working example. To account for the limited pedigree and performance recording, a five-trait breeding objective and small-sized breeding program were studied. Breeding objective traits, determined based on producer preferences, were milk yield (MY), production lifetime (PLT), calving interval (CI), fat yield (FY) and mature body weight (MBW). Producers were categorized into high intensive group, who placed highest preference on PLT and MY, and low intensity group that placed highest preferences on CI and PLT. MY and FY were the most important traits for processors. Consensus desired gains, based on weighted goal programming, were 2.51, 2.42, 0.22, 0.87 and 0.15% for PLT, MY, CI, FY and MBW, respectively. Comparison of breeding schemes shows that GS schemes had lower accuracies but gave higher responses per year due to shorter generation intervals. Besides genetic gains, economic performance underpins the adoption of selection strategies. GS schemes had between 3.2 and 5.2-fold higher cumulated genetic gain in the commercial cow population and higher gross margins compared to PT schemes. Semen storage made PT schemes more profitable but less so than GS schemes. Functional traits can increase the sustainability of resource poor smallholder systems under harsh environments. Economic breeding objectives yielded undesirable responses in functional traits. Breeding objectives based on desired gains or non-market objectives improved response in functional traits but at a monetary cost. It is concluded that sustainable productivity of smallholder systems can be improved by implementation of local breeding program based on GS, but this requires more emphasis on functional traits, which can be achieved by use of non-economic objectives.

Sustainability of livestock production systems : a comparing conventional and organic livestock husbandry
Wagenberg, C.P.A. van; Haas, Y. de; Hogeveen, H. ; Krimpen, M.M. van; Meuwissen, M.P.M. ; Middelaar, C.E. van; Rodenburg, T.B. - \ 2016
Wageningen : Wageningen University & Research (Wageningen Economic Research report 2016-035) - ISBN 9789462577480 - 121
livestock - livestock farming - organic farming - europe - literature reviews - sustainable animal husbandry - farming systems - sustainability indicators - vee - veehouderij - biologische landbouw - europa - literatuuroverzichten - duurzame veehouderij - bedrijfssystemen - duurzaamheidsindicatoren
Sustainable livestock production systems are needed to feed the larger, more urban, richer and older world population in 2050. Quantitative information about the sustainability performance of existing livestock production systems can aid the debate of which actions could be developed and implemented. Strong points of conventional and organic dairy cattle, beef cattle, pig, laying hen, and broiler production systems were identified in peer-reviewed literature for a limited number of sustainability indicators within the subjects of economy, productivity, environment, animal welfare, and public health. This study aims to identify lessons learned for sustainable livestock production.
Sustainable intensification pathways for dairy farming in Kenya : A case study for PROIntensAfrica WP2, Deliverable 2.3
Lee, Jan van der; Omedo Bebe, Bockline ; Oosting, Simon - \ 2016
Wageningen : Wageningen Livestock Research (Livestock Research report 997) - 53
dairy farming - intensification - sustainable animal husbandry - kenya - melkveehouderij - intensivering - duurzame veehouderij
Monitoring integraal duurzame stallen : peildatum 1 januari 2016
Peet, G.F.V. van der; Meer, R.W. van der; Docters van Leeuwen, H. ; Wageningen-Lucardi, S.R.M. van - \ 2016
Wageningen : Wageningen UR Livestock Research (Livestock Research rapport 953) - 23 p.
animal welfare - animal production - animal housing - poultry - cattle - pigs - dairy cattle - sustainability - stalls - sustainable animal husbandry - organic farming - dierenwelzijn - dierlijke productie - huisvesting, dieren - pluimvee - rundvee - varkens - melkvee - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - stallen - duurzame veehouderij - biologische landbouw
Feed sources for livestock : recycling towards a green planet
Zanten, H.H.E. van - \ 2016
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Imke de Boer, co-promotor(en): Paul Bikker; Bastiaan Meerburg. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462578050 - 251 p.
cum laude - livestock - livestock feeding - feeds - resources - food wastes - leftovers - recycling - greenhouse gases - environmental impact - innovations - sustainable animal husbandry - animal production - vee - veevoeding - voer - hulpbronnen - voedselafval - etensresten - broeikasgassen - milieueffect - innovaties - duurzame veehouderij - dierlijke productie

Production of food has re-emerged at the top of the global political agenda, driven by two contemporary challenges: the challenge to produce enough nutritious food to feed a growing and more prosperous human population, and the challenge to produce this food in an environmentally sustainable way. Current levels of production of especially animal-source food (ASF), pose severe pressure on the environment via their emissions to air, water, and soil; and their use of scarce resources, such as land, water, and fossil energy. The livestock sector, for example, is responsible for about 15% of the global anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases and uses about 70% of global agricultural land.

Many proposed mitigation strategies to feed the world sustainably, therefore, focus primarily on reducing the environmental impact of the livestock sector, so-called production-side strategies. Other strategies focus on changing consumption patterns by reducing consumption of ASF, or on shifting from ASF with a higher environmental impact (e.g. beef) to ASF with a lower environmental impact (e.g. pork or chicken), so called consumption-side strategies.

Most of the environmental impact of production of ASF is related to production of feed. One production-side strategy to reduce the environmental impact is the use of products that humans cannot or do not want to eat, such as co-products, food-waste, and biomass from marginal lands for livestock feed (referred to as ‘leftover streams’ in this thesis). This strategy is effective, because feeding leftover streams to livestock transforms an inedible food stream into high-quality food products, such as meat, milk, and eggs.

Two production-side strategies that use leftover streams as livestock feed were explored in this thesis: replacing soybean meal (SBM) in diets of growing pigs with either rapeseed meal (RSM) or with waste-fed larvae meal. Replacing SBM with RSM in growing-pig diets was assessed because RSM became increasingly available following an increase in bio-energy production in the EU. In this strategy, therefore, the RSM content in pig diets increased at the expense of SBM. SBM is an ingredient associated with a high environmental impact. It was expected, therefore, that replacing SBM with RSM in pig diets would lead to a decrease in the environmental impact of pork production. Replacing SBM with waste-fed larvae meal was assessed because recent developments show the environmental benefits of rearing insects as livestock feed. Insects have a low feed conversion ratio (kg feed/kg product) and can be consumed completely, without residual materials, such as bones or feathers. The nutritional value of insects is high, especially as a protein source for livestock. Insect-based feed products, therefore, can replace conventional feed ingredients, such as SBM. Altogether this strategy suggests that waste-fed larvae meal might become an important alternative feed source in the future.

To gain insight into the status quo of the environmental impact of both mitigation strategies, replacing SBM with RSM or with waste-fed insects, we first used the attributional life cycle assessment (ALCA) method. Based on the ALCA method, results showed that each mitigation strategy was promising. Replacing SBM with RSM in growing pig diets hardly changed either global warming potential (GWP) or energy use (EU), but decreased land use (LU) up to 16% per kg body weight gain. As expected, feed production had the largest environmental impact, responsible for about 50% of the GWP, 60% of the EU, and 77% of the total LU. Feed production in combination with feed intake, were the most sensitive parameters; a small change in both these two parameters changed the results. Replacing SBM with waste-fed larvae meal in growing-pig diets showed that EU hardly changed, but GWP (29%) and LU (54%) decreased per kg body weight gain. Based on ALCA results, each mitigation strategy, therefore, seems to offer potential to reduce the environmental impact of pork production. An ALCA, however, has two disadvantages: it does not account for product-packages and it does not consider feed-food competition.

The first disadvantage of ALCA was that the complexity of dealing with product-packages is not fully considered. ‘Product-package’ refers to a multiple-output situation. During the processing of sugar beet, for example, beet-pulp and molasses are produced in addition to sugar. Sugar, beet-pulp, and molasses together form a ‘package of products’ because they cannot be produced independently from each other. An ALCA does not account for the fact that the production volume of the co-product(s) depends on the demand for the determining product (e.g. sugar), which results in the limited availability of co-products. Increasing the use of co-products in animal feed, consequently, results in reducing use of a co-product in another sector, requiring them to be replaced with a different product. The environmental impact of increasing the use of a co-product or food-waste, therefore, depends on the net environmental impact. The net environmental impact refers to the environmental benefits of using the product in its new application minus the environmental cost of replacing the product in its old application.

A consequential theoretical framework was developed to account for product-packages. The results, based on the consequential framework, contradicted standard ALCA results. The consequential LCA (CLCA) method we used for replacing SBM with RSM showed an increased GWP (up to 15%), EU (up to 12%), and LU (up to 10%) per kg body weight gain. Moreover, this CLCA method showed that replacing SBM with waste-fed larvae meal increased GWP (60%) and EU (90%), but decreased LU (73%) per kg body weight gain.

Accounting for product-packages increased the net environmental impact of each strategy, replacing SBM with RSM or with waste-fed larvae meal. The difference in results between ALCA and CLCA was especially large in the strategy with waste-fed larvae meal. The difference was caused mainly by the use of food-waste. Food-waste fed to larvae was used initially to produce bio-energy via anaerobic digestion. In CLCA, the environmental impact related to replacing the bio-energy function of food-waste with fossil-energy was included. The net environmental impact became negative, because environmental benefits of replacing SBM with waste-fed larvae meal were less than environmental costs related to the marginal energy source, i.e. fossil energy, replacing the bio-energy. Results of the indirect environmental impact, however, are situation specific: if the marginal energy source were wind or solar energy, the net environmental impact of using waste-fed larvae meal might be positive. Waste-fed larvae meal, therefore, appears to be an interesting mitigation strategy only when energy from wind and solar energy are used more dominantly than energy from fossil sources.

If results were based solely on ALCA, then these potentially negative impacts would have been overlooked. Consideration of the environmental consequences of product-packaging, therefore, is essential to determine total environmental costs. If policy makers or the feed industry want to assess the net environmental impact of a potential mitigation strategy, then we recommend to perform a CLCA instead of an ALCA. The framework developed in this thesis can be used to perform such an assessment.

The second disadvantage of an LCA was that it does not take into account feed-food competition, e.g. competition for land between humans and animals. Most LCA studies focus on the total amount of land required to produce one kg ASF. LCA studies do not account for competition for land between humans and animals, or so-called feed-food competition. In other words, they do not include, differences in the consumption of human-edible products by various livestock species or differences in the suitability of land used for feed production as land to cultivate food-crops directly. Given the global constraints on land, it is more efficient to grow food directly for human consumption rather than for livestock. To address the contribution of livestock to a future sustainable food supply, a measure for land use efficiency was developed, called the land use ratio (LUR). The LUR accounts for plant productivity, efficiency of converting human-inedible feed into ASF, and suitability of land for crop cultivation. The LUR also has a life-cycle perspective.

Results of the LUR illustrated that dairy cows on sandy soil, laying hens, and pig production systems in the Netherlands have a LUR >1.0. In terms of protein produced per m2, therefore, it is more efficient to use these soils for livestock production to produce crops for direct human consumption than to produce feed for livestock. Only dairy cows on peat soil produce human digestible protein (HDP) more efficiently than crops do, because peat is not suitable for crop production. The LUR allows identification of livestock production systems that are able to produce HDP more efficiently than crops do. Livestock systems with a LUR<1.0, such as dairy on peat, have an important role to play in future sustainable nutrition supply.

Results of the LUR showed that livestock production systems using mainly co-products, food-waste, and biomass from marginal land, can produce human digestible protein more efficiently than crop production systems do. The availability of those leftover streams, however, is limited and, therefore, the amount of ASF produced based only on leftover streams is also limited. Because LUR is a ratio, LUR results do not give an indication of how much ASF can be produced based on livestock systems that feed mainly on leftover streams.

The third, and last, mitigation strategy, therefore, focused on the amount of ASF that can be consumed by humans, when livestock are fed only on leftover steams, also referred to as “default livestock”. The calculation of the amount of ASF was based on the assumption that a vegan diet was consumed in principle. The resulting co-products and food-waste were fed to pigs and, biomass from grazing land was fed to ruminants. Results showed that in total 21 g animal source protein per person per day could be produced by feeding livestock entirely on leftovers.

Considering feed-food crops and feeding food-waste made an important contribution to the 21 g of protein that could be produced from default livestock. Considering feed-food crops implies that choices have to be made between different crops, based on their contribution to feed and food production. Oil production from soy cultivation, for example, resulted in the co-product SBM. Results showed that considering feed-food crops can affect the final protein production from pork. The practice of feeding food-waste to livestock is currently prohibited due to problems of food safety but the practice shows potential in extensively reducing the environmental impact of livestock production. Considering feed-food crops and feeding food-waste are examples of mitigation strategies that currently can be implemented to reduce further the environmental impact of the livestock sector.

On average, it is recommended to consume about 57 g of protein from ASF or plant-origin per person per day. Only ASF from default livestock does not fulfil the current global protein consumption of 32 g per person per day, but about one third of the protein each person needs can be produced without any competition for land between feed and food production. To feed the world more sustainably, by requiring livestock production systems with a LUR <1.0, however, a paradigm shift is needed. Global average consumption of ASF should decrease to about 21 g of protein per person per day. Innovations are needed, moreover, to overcome problems of food safety and technical concerns related to collecting the leftover streams. This applies, in particular to food-waste, which is currently unused in livestock production but which presents a valuable strategy in mitigating environmental impacts caused by livestock production. Livestock systems should change their focus, furthermore, from increasing productivity per animal towards increasing protein production for humans per ha. By using leftover streams optimally, the livestock sector is able to produce a crucial amount of protein, while still avoiding competition for land between feed and food crops. Livestock, therefore, can make an important contribution to the future nutrition supply.

Inpassen van maatregelen ter reductie van gasvormige emissies in de bedrijfsvoering van melkveebedrijven : Koeien & Kansen resultaten 2010-2013
Goselink, R.M.A. ; Sebek, L.B. ; Hilhorst, G.J. ; Evers, A.G. ; Haan, M.H.A. de - \ 2016
Wageningen : Wageningen UR Livestock Research (Rapport / Koeien &amp; Kansen nr. 76) - 33 p.
broeikasgassen - emissie - maatregelen - ammoniakemissie - emissiereductie - luchtkwaliteit - agrarische bedrijfsvoering - melkveebedrijven - duurzame veehouderij - melkveehouderij - greenhouse gases - emission - measures - ammonia emission - emission reduction - air quality - farm management - dairy farms - sustainable animal husbandry - dairy farming
In 2010 the dairy farmers of Cows & Opportunities have started working on a new project goal: gaseous emissions. To continue their role as pilot farm within the future developments in the dairy sector new goals have been added to their original goals on optimizing the nitrogen en phosphorus cycle: reducing greenhouse gas emissions and ammonia. The ultimate goal for 2013 was a 30% reduction of the average greenhouse gas emission of nitrous oxide (N2O) and methane (CH4) together, relative to the average Dutch dairy farm in 1990. In addition to the reduction of greenhouse gases, a second aim was to further reduce ammonia (NH3) emissions with 10% relative to the individual farm level in 2009. In 2009 the autonomously achieved reduction on greenhouse gas emissions turned out to be 29%, and this was further improved to 31% in 2013, reaching the project goal. This improvement was reached by both a reduction of N2O and CH4. The reduction of the N2O emission reached already 56% in 2009, but unexpectedly grew to 62% in 2013, partly by an increase in production intensity (kg FPCM per ha). The reduction of CH4 emission was less substantial, starting at 12% in 2009 and fluctuating around 13% in 2010-2013. The second aim was to further reduce NH3 emissions to an average of 3.2 kg NH3 per 1000 kg FPCM (10% reduction relative to the individual farm level in 2009). This was reached in 2013, showing that this goal was realistic even while working on other project goals like CH4 reduction in parallel. The decline in the NH3 emission is mainly achieved at the project farms situated on sandy soils and peat, while the emission of project farms on clay soils stayed relatively constant. Farm-specific circumstances such as the weather and roughage quality will influence the effect of measurements, thereby causing fluctuations in the emissions over the years. Working on the reduction of gaseous emissions is however possible on the average Dutch dairy farm and may lead to a reduction of 25% relative to 1990, looking at the autonomous reduction already reach in Cows & Opportunities in 2009. Further reduction of greenhouse gas emissions will cost more effort. If 50% of the Dutch dairy farmers also reaches a decrease in NH3 emission in 2020 comparable to the farmers in Cows & Opportunities have reached in 2013, the emission of the dairy sector wil be 3.6 kg NH3 per 1000 kg FPCM. Dairy farmers will however need high management skills, as they have to run a complex farming system and work simultaneously on a variety of financial, social and environmental objectives all-year.
Het Nieuwe Veehouden mogelijk maken : zoeken naar ruimte voor verduurzaming in de veehouderij
Bremmer, B. ; Kortstee, H.J.M. ; Vierstra, J. ; Wichen, Yvette ; Veen, Kristel ; Boezem, E. van den - \ 2016
Wageningen : LEI Wageningen UR (LEI rapport 2016-002) - 51 p.
duurzame veehouderij - veehouderij - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - marktconcurrentie - fondsgelden - vergunningen - innovaties - agrarische bedrijfsvoering - ondernemerschap - dierenwelzijn - nederland - sustainable animal husbandry - livestock farming - sustainability - market competition - funding - permits - innovations - farm management - entrepreneurship - animal welfare - netherlands
The Uitvoeringsagenda Duurzame Veehouderij (Implementation agenda for sustainable livestock farming, UDV) aims to achieve a Dutch livestock sector that is leading the way by 2023, while maintaining its competitiveness and ensuring that its production duly respects people, animals and the environment. Project implementers are asked to examine why and where innovative entrepreneurs are faced with structural barriers when they try to put an innovative concept into practice. This report also sets out the experiences and insights of the innovative livestock farmers. The project implementers translate these into recommendations in the analysis and conclusions. In order to be able to examine the obstacles faced by livestock farmers in achieving innovation in the thematic areas of the market, funding or permits, it was decided to select two or three entrepreneurs for each theme who appear to have run into difficulties in practice.
Naar 100% regionaal eiwit : kansen en knelpunten voor eiwitrijke veevoergrondstoffen
Zanders, R. ; Cormont, A. ; Krimpen, M.M. van; Prins, Udo ; Ridder, A. de; Kessel, Hans van; Hartog, H. den; Krajenbrink, Wim ; Pluimers, Jacomijn ; Haren, Rob ; Gankema, P. - \ 2016
Raad voor Regionaal Veevoer - 18 p.
veevoeder - eiwit - veevoederindustrie - veevoeding - eiwitwaarde - streekgebonden producten - duurzame veehouderij - fodder - protein - feed industry - livestock feeding - protein value - regional specialty products - sustainable animal husbandry
Ongeveer de helft van het eiwitrijke veevoer in Nederland wordt geïmporteerd van buiten Europa. Het overgrote deel van deze grondstoffen bestaat uit soja- en palmproducten. Op Europees niveau zijn we voor 96% van onze sojabehoefte en voor 70% van onze totale eiwitbehoefte afhankelijk van import van buiten Europa. In de teeltgebieden, met name in Zuid-Amerika, leidt de grootschalige teelt van deze gewassen tot grote ecologische en sociale schade; door ontbossing van natuurgebieden en daarmee gepaard gaande CO2- uitstoot en biodiversiteitsverlies, door uitputting van de bodem, vervuiling van drinkwater, bedreiging van de lokale voedselvoorziening en gedwongen landonteigening. Regionale eiwitteelt biedt een enorme kans voor de Nederlandse landbouw door het sluiten van kringlopen en het verminderen van milieuschade en sociaal onrechtvaardige omstandigheden. Om knelpunten en kennisvragen te identificeren die een (snelle) transitie naar het gebruik van meer regionaal eiwitrijk veevoer in de weg staan, richtte Milieudefensie in 2015 de Raad voor Regionaal Veevoer op. Dit rapport geeft de bevindingen weer van de Raad voor Regionaal Veevoer, inclusief haar aanbevelingen richting overheid, bedrijfsleven en maatschappelijke organisaties.
Rekenregels van de KringloopWijzer : achtergronden van BEX, BEA, BEN, BEP en BEC: actualisatie van de 4 maart 2014 versie
Schroder, J.J. ; Šebek, L.B. ; Reijs, J.W. ; Oenema, J. ; Goselink, R.M.A. ; Conijn, J.G. ; Boer, J. - \ 2016
Wageningen UR (PRI-rapport 640) - 103 p.
dierhouderij - duurzame veehouderij - melkproducerende dieren - melkveehouderij - landbouw - mestbeleid - modules - berekening - dierlijke meststoffen - excretie - emissiereductie - nutriëntengebruiksefficiëntie - kringlopen - animal husbandry - sustainable animal husbandry - milk yielding animals - dairy farming - agriculture - manure policy - calculation - animal manures - excretion - emission reduction - nutrient use efficiency - cycling
Bijgaand rapport beschrijft de rekenregels van de KringloopWijzer. De KringloopWijzer is een model waarmee agrarische ondernemers op basis van hun eigen bedrijfsgegevens een schatting kunnen maken van de benutting van aangevoerde nutriënten, met name stikstof (N) en fosfor (P), en van de omvang en aard van verliezen aan N, P en koolstof (C). Die schatters kunnen gebruikt worden voor het benoemen van verbeterpunten binnen het bedrijf en als verantwoording naar overheden en verwerkers. Voor de overheid biedt de KringloopWijzer mogelijkheden om generieke wetgeving te vervangen door maatwerk. Voor de verwerkende industrie is het bovendien mogelijk om het streven naar duurzaamheid meetbaar te maken ten behoeve van consumenten. De hier beschreven rapportversie bevat een aantal verbeteringen en aanvullingen ten opzichte van de versie uit 2014. Ze heeft bovendien niet langer betrekking op alleen melkvee en ruwvoergewassen, maar is ook geschikt voor bedrijven met een neventak akkerbouw en/of een neventak hokdieren. De rekenregels zijn waar mogelijk voorzien van onderbouwende referenties. Aan een verdere toetsing van deze rekenregels wordt nog voortdurend onderzoek verricht.
De kunst van het doorzetten : Leerervaringen uit Het Nieuwe Veehouden
Bremmer, B. ; Oosterhoff, Wiggele ; Kortstee, H.J.M. ; Boezem, Ernest van den - \ 2015
CAH Vilentum, Kenniscentrum Agrofood en Ondernemen - 21 p.
veehouderijbedrijven - veehouderij - innovaties - agrarische bedrijfsvoering - duurzame veehouderij - bedrijfsontwikkeling in de landbouw - landbouwontwikkeling - economie van de veehouderij - livestock enterprises - livestock farming - innovations - farm management - sustainable animal husbandry - farm development - agricultural development - livestock economics
Deze publicatie is een verslag van ondernemers, onderzoekers, medewerkers van maatschappelijke instellingen en belangenbehartigers en studenten van een reis naar Het Nieuwe Veehouden. Naar de toekomst van de veehouderij in Nederland, zonder precies te weten hoe die er uitziet. De reisbagage bestaat vooral uit innoverend vermogen en doorzettingsvermogen. In drie projecten (Het Nieuwe Veehouden 1, 2 en 3) is deze reis gemaakt, die bestond uit workshops, interviews, studies, bijeenkomsten, enz. De drie projecten “Het Nieuwe Veehouden” laten zien hoe moeilijk het echte innoveren soms is en hoeveel doorzettingsvermogen ervoor nodig is. Tegelijkertijd is duidelijk geworden dat er aan de basis van de veehouderij in Nederland voldoende innovatief vermogen is voor een toekomst van diezelfde veehouderij in Nederland.
De Nederlandse veehouderij sector & internationale netwerken
Andeweg, K. ; Leenstra, F.R. - \ 2015
Wageningen UR Livestock Research (Livestock Research rapport 935) - 28 p.
veehouderij - dierlijke productie - duurzame veehouderij - internationale samenwerking - landbouwsector - multi-stakeholder processen - nederland - livestock farming - animal production - sustainable animal husbandry - international cooperation - agricultural sector - multi-stakeholder processes - netherlands
The Dutch government aims to link her support to international multi-stakeholder platforms, like the Global Agenda for Sustainable Livestock, to the needs of Dutch companies that are active in animal production in developing countries. This should contribute to the policy goals for realising food security and sustainable animal production systems worldwide. Interviews with tine Dutch companies and organisations indicate that the Dutch companies mainly see a position for the multi-stakeholder platforms in developing a regional or thematic dialogue on priorities and possible solutions. The aims of the different multi-stakeholder networks and other instruments that the government supports must be concrete and results should be evaluated on a regular basis. There are possibilities for networks operating on a global and on a regional level to strengthen each other.
Het percentage regionaal eiwit in het Nederlands veevoerrantsoen : update voor 2014
Cormont, A. ; Krimpen, M.M. van - \ 2015
Milieudefensie - 14
voedergewassen - diervoedering - streekgebonden producten - europese unie - eiwitten - nederland - duurzame veehouderij - fodder crops - animal feeding - regional specialty products - european union - proteins - netherlands - sustainable animal husbandry
Milieudefensie heeft Alterra en Livestock Research, beide onderdeel van Wageningen University and Research centre, eerder gevraagd in meer detail het aandeel regionaal eiwit in het totale veevoergebruik in de Nederlandse veehouderij in beeld te brengen voor de jaren 2011 en 2013. Wij hebben destijds daarbij twee aspecten onderscheiden: het percentage regionaal geproduceerd eiwit in (1) het totale Nederlandse veevoer en (2) in het eiwitrijke veevoer met een ruw eiwitgehalte van meer dan 157 g/kg per grondstof. Voor 2014 hebben we het tweede aspect, het aandeel van regionaal geteeld eiwitrijk veevoer in het Nederlandse veevoerrantsoen, opnieuw onderzocht. Hierbij definiëren we ‘regionaal eiwit’ als die ingrediënten die het veevoerrantsoen van eiwit voorzien en die afkomstig zijn van gewassen die geteeld zijn in geografisch Europa.
Vrijheid & blijheid voor de leghen : inspirerende alternatieven voor de buitenuitloop
Niekerk, T.G.C.M. van; Mul, M.F. ; Hommes, M. - \ 2015
Wageningen UR Livestock Research
hennen - pluimveehouderij - uitloop - duurzame veehouderij - huisvesting van kippen - innovaties - dierenwelzijn - dierlijke productie - pluimvee - diergedrag - hens - poultry farming - outdoor run - sustainable animal husbandry - chicken housing - innovations - animal welfare - animal production - poultry - animal behaviour
Binnen het project ‘Inrichting Buitenuitloop Pluimvee’ is gezocht naar nieuwe, vermarktbare concepten voor de legpluimveehouderij op basis van een uitloop zonder de huidige milieu en diergezondheidsnadelen. Tijdens een workshop hebben ketenpartijen, pluimveehouders, glastuinders, ontwerpers en onderzoekers gezamenlijk gebrainstormd over de mogelijkheden. De ontwerpen in deze brochure zijn het resultaat van die workshop.
GLAMUR case-study report: The comparison of three Dutch pork cases (Tasks 3.5)
Oostindië, H.A. ; Horlings, L.G. ; Broekhuizen, R.E. van; Hees, E. - \ 2015
Wageningen : Wageningen UR - 72
pig farming - case studies - netherlands - supply chain management - performance - animal production - intensive livestock farming - sustainable animal husbandry - regional food chains - animal welfare - pigs - animal housing - varkenshouderij - gevalsanalyse - nederland - ketenmanagement - prestatieniveau - dierlijke productie - intensieve veehouderij - duurzame veehouderij - regionale voedselketens - dierenwelzijn - varkens - huisvesting, dieren
This report presents the case study results of local-global pork chain performances in The Netherlands. As part of Work Package 3, this case study was carried out in cooperation with our Italian GLAMUR partner. The Dutch pork production sector came up after World War 2 and developed into a highly intensified and specialized sector, with emphasis in the southern part of the country. As it became possible and economically attractive to transport fodder ingredients over great distances, pig husbandry became a booming sector, with high technology and knowledge input, and a major exporting sector. In the last decade, the number of pig farms reduced sharply, whereas the number of pigs per farm rose constantly. As a consequence of a combination of factors as pig disease outbreaks in the late 90-s, environmental externalities, growing national opposition against animal welfare conditions ánd growing international competition, the pig sector came to a standstill. In this study three chains are compared: first the Good Farming Global pork chain, to be considered Dutch most typical bulk pork chain, oriented towards more anonymous far-from-home markets with basic requirements in terms of low-priced, food safe and mainstream qualified. The second is the Sustainable Pork Chain, developed some 10 years ago on the Environmental certification schema (MK) as a transparent pork chain towards specialized butchers and more critical retailers. Third, the so-called Lupine Pig project has been analyzed, an early-life cycle initiative that responds to national growing demand for more locally sourced pork production.
Borging uren weidegang van melkvee (runderen) : een verkenning van de mogelijkheden
Gaag, M.A. van der; Migchels, G. - \ 2015
Wageningen : Wageningen UR Livestock Research (Rapport / Wageningen UR Livestock Research 854) - 46
melkvee - begrazing - ammoniakemissie - duurzame veehouderij - dierenwelzijn - rundvee - dairy cattle - grazing - ammonia emission - sustainable animal husbandry - animal welfare - cattle
In the project ‘Proeftuin Natura 2000 Overijssel’, additional grazing is identified as one of the possibilities to reduce ammonia emissions since manure and urine are separated in the pasture. This report focuses on the possible methods of control and enforcement.
KringloopWijzer, goed geborgd! = Annual Nutrient Cycling Assessment (ANCA), adequately assured!?
Holster, H.C. ; Haan, M.H.A. de; Plomp, M. ; Timmerman, M. - \ 2015
Lelystad : Wageningen UR Livestock Research (Livestock Research report 839) - 34
melkveehouderij - kringlopen - duurzame veehouderij - landbouw en milieu - bereikt resultaat - transparantie - rundveehouderij - dairy farming - cycling - sustainable animal husbandry - agriculture and environment - achievement - transparency - cattle husbandry
This report is an update of the formal report towards ANCA revision 2014.06. The Annual Nutrient Cycle Assessment (ANCA) model requires assurance for use as a dairy farmspecific environmental performance tool. Assurance can be given due to the fact that the electronic data it generates is produced using traceable and reliable input data.
Ontwikkeling van de N-balans, het N-verlies en de beddingsamenstelling van vrijloopstal Hartman in 2013/2014
Boer, H.C. de - \ 2015
Wageningen : Wageningen UR Livestock Research (Livestock Research rapport 885) - 43
stikstofbalans - stikstofverliezen - stallen - landbouwschuren - huisvesting van koeien - stikstofkringloop - melkveehouderij - duurzame veehouderij - mest - landbouw en milieu - rundveehouderij - dierenwelzijn - loopstallen - nitrogen balance - nitrogen losses - stalls - barns - cow housing - nitrogen cycle - dairy farming - sustainable animal husbandry - manures - agriculture and environment - cattle husbandry - animal welfare - loose housing
Een aantal Nederlandse melkveehouders stapt de laatste jaren over van een ligboxenstal met een roostervloer naar een vrijloopstal met een organische bedding. Deze overstap heeft meerdere effecten, waaronder op de stikstofkringloop op het melkveebedrijf. Stikstof (N) verdwijnt uit deze kringloop onder andere door vervluchtiging uit de stal, uit de mestopslag en na het uitrijden van mest op het land. N-vervluchtiging kan negatieve effecten hebben op de milieukwaliteit en leiden tot verlies van productiviteit. Daarom is het wenselijk om het N-verlies door vervluchtiging op het melkveebedrijf zo laag mogelijk te houden. Het onderzoek in dit rapport richtte zich op het vaststellen van het totale N-verlies door vervluchtiging uit de vrijloopstal van de familie Hartman in Heibloem (Limburg).
Meer voortgang nodig in Duurzame Zuivelketen
Doornewaard, G.J. ; Reijs, J.W. - \ 2015
V-focus 12 (2015)3. - ISSN 1574-1575 - p. 21 - 23.
melkveehouderij - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - duurzame veehouderij - melkproductie - energiebehoud - dairy farming - sustainability - sustainable animal husbandry - milk production - energy conservation
Jaarlijks wordt de voortgang binnen de verduurzaming van de zuivelketen in beeld gebracht door LEI Wageningen UR. Onlangs verschenen de resultaten van het jaar 2013. Naar aanleiding van dit rapport concludeert de Duurzame Zuivelketen dat er meer beweging nodig is om de doelen te realiseren.
Sustainability aspects of ten bedded pack dairy barns in The Netherlands
Galama, P.J. ; Boer, H.C. de; Dooren, H.J.C. van; Ouweltjes, W. ; Driehuis, K. - \ 2015
Wageningen : Wageningen UR Livestock Research (Livestock Research report 873) - 80
landbouwschuren - melkveehouderij - duurzame veehouderij - huisvesting van koeien - economie van de veehouderij - dierenwelzijn - melkkwaliteit - rundveemest - landbouw en milieu - rundveehouderij - barns - dairy farming - sustainable animal husbandry - cow housing - livestock economics - animal welfare - milk quality - cattle manure - agriculture and environment - cattle husbandry
A bedded pack barn is a different type of housing for dairy cows compared to the common free stall barns with cubicles and slatted concrete floors with slurry storage underneath (reference system). A bedded pack barn presumably has a different impact on the sustainability aspects economics, animal welfare, milk quality, manure quality and environment. In the present study we have investigated these sustainability aspects on 10 bedded pack barns in the Netherlands.
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