- Chair Sensory Science and Eating Behaviour (5)
- HNE Sensory Science and Eating Behaviour (5)
- VLAG (4)
- AFSG Food Quality (1)
- Consumer Science & Intelligent Systems (1)
- N. Kuijk van (1)
- C.M.M. Lakemond (1)
- P.A. Luning (1)
- M. Mars (2)
- N.A. Martin (1)
- N. Martin (1)
- A. Stafleu (2)
- T. Thaler (1)
- R.A. Wijk de (2)
- H.H. Xu (1)
- N. Zijlstra (2)
Slow Food: Sustained Impact of Harder Foods on the Reduction in Energy Intake over the Course of the Day
Bolhuis, D.P. ; Forde, C.G. ; Cheng, Y.J. ; Xu, H.H. ; Martin, N. ; Graaf, C. de - \ 2014
PLoS One 9 (2014)4. - ISSN 1932-6203
bite size - young-adults - eating rate - weight - obesity - satiation - appetite - meal - men - viscosity
Background: Previous research has shown that oral processing characteristics like bite size and oral residence duration are related to the satiating efficiency of foods. Oral processing characteristics are influenced by food texture. Very little research has been done on the effect of food texture within solid foods on energy intake. Objectives: The first objective was to investigate the effect of hardness of food on energy intake at lunch, and to link this effect to differences in food oral processing characteristics. The second objective was to investigate whether the reduction in energy intake at lunch will be compensated for in the subsequent dinner. Design: Fifty subjects (11 male, BMI: 21 +/- 2 kg/m(2), age: 24 +/- 2 y) participated in a cross-over study in which they consumed ad libitum from a lunch with soft foods or hard foods on two separate days. Oral processing characteristics at lunch were assessed by coding video records. Later on the same days, subjects consumed dinner ad libitum. Results: Hard foods led to a similar to 13% lower energy intake at lunch compared to soft foods (P <0.001). Hard foods were consumed with smaller bites, longer oral duration per gram food, and more chewing per gram food compared to the soft foods (P <0.05). Energy intake at dinner did not differ after both lunches (P=0.16). Conclusions: Hard foods led to reduced energy intake compared to soft foods, and this reduction in energy intake was sustained over the next meal. We argue that the differences in oral processing characteristics produced by the hardness of the foods explain the effect on intake. The sustained reduction in energy intake suggests that changes in food texture can be a helpful tool in reducing the overall daily energy intake.
Both a higher number of sips and a longer oral transit time reduce ad libitum intake
Bolhuis, D.P. ; Lakemond, C.M.M. ; Wijk, R.A. de; Luning, P.A. ; Graaf, C. de - \ 2014
Food Quality and Preference 32 (2014)Part C. - ISSN 0950-3293 - p. 234 - 240.
food-intake - energy-intake - young-adults - eating rate - bite size - body-weight - appetite - consumption - satiety - meal
Background - A higher eating rate leads to a higher food intake, possibly through shorter orosensory exposure to food. The transit time in the oral cavity and the number of bites or sips per gram (inversely related to bite or sip size) are main contributors that affect eating rate. The separate role of these two aspects on satiation and on orosensory exposure needs further clarification. Objective - The objective of the first study was to investigate contributions of the number of sips per gram (sips/g) and oral transit time per gram (s/g) on ad libitum intake. The objective of the second study was to investigate both aspects on the total magnitude of orosensory exposure per gram food. Methods - In study 1, 56 healthy male subjects consumed soup where the number of sips and oral transit time differed by a factor three respectively: 6.7 vs. 20 sips/100 g, and 20 vs. 60 s/100 g (2 × 2 cross-over design). Eating rate of 60 g/min was kept constant. In study 2, the effects of number of sips and oral transit time (equal as in study 1) on the total magnitude of orosensory exposure per gram soup were measured by time intensity functions by 22 different healthy subjects. Results - Higher number of sips and longer oral transit time reduced ad libitum intake by respectively ~22% (F(1, 157) = 55.9, P <0.001) and ~8% (F(1, 157) = 7.4, P = 0.007). Higher number of sips led to faster increase in fullness per gram food (F(1, 157) = 24.1, P <0.001) (study 1). Higher number of sips and longer oral transit time both increased the orosensory exposure per gram food (F(1, 63) = 23.8, P <0.001) and (F(1, 63) = 19.0, P <0.001), respectively (study 2). Conclusion - Higher number of sips and longer oral transit time reduced food intake, possibly through the increased the orosensory exposure per gram food. Designing foods that will be consumed with small sips or bites and long oral transit time may be effective in reducing energy intake.
Oral processing characteristics of solid meal components and relationship with foord composition, sensory attributes and expected satiation.
Forde, R.M. ; Kuijk, N. van; Thaler, T. ; Graaf, C. de; Martin, N.A. - \ 2013
Appetite 60 (2013). - ISSN 0195-6663 - p. 208 - 219.
sugar-sweetened beverages - energy-intake - bite size - portion size - eating rate - dietary fiber - body-weight - satiety - women - humans
Background: The modern food supply is often dominated by a large variety of energy dense, softly textured foods that can be eaten quickly. Previous studies suggest that particular oral processing characteristics such as large bite size and lack of chewing activity contribute to the low satiating efficiency of these foods. To better design meals that promote greater feelings of satiation, we need an accurate picture of the oral processing characteristics of a range of solid food items that could be used to replace softer textures during a normal hot meal. Aim: The primary aim of this study was to establish an accurate picture of the oral processing characteristics of a set of solid savoury meal components. The secondary aim was to determine the associations between oral processing characteristics, food composition, sensory properties, and expected satiation. Methods: In a within subjects design, 15 subjects consumed 50 g of 35 different savoury food items over 5 sessions. The 35 foods represented various staples, vegetables and protein rich foods such a meat and fish. Subjects were video-recorded during consumption and measures included observed number of bites, number of chews, number of swallows and derived measures such as chewing rate, eating rate, bite size, and oral exposure time. Subjects rated expected satiation for a standard 200 g portion of each food using a 100 mm and the sensory differences between foods were quantified using descriptive analysis with a trained sensory panel. Statistical analysis focussed on the oral processing characteristics and associations between nutritional, sensory and expected satiation parameters of each food. Results: Average number of chews for 50 g of food varied from 27 for mashed potatoes to 488 for tortilla chips. Oral exposure time was highly correlated with the total number of chews, and varied from 27 s for canned tomatoes to 350 s for tortilla chips. Chewing rate was relatively constant with an overall average chewing rate of approximately 1 chew/s. Differences in oral processing were not correlated with any macronutrients specifically. Expected satiation was positively related to protein and the sensory attributes chewiness and saltiness. Foods that consumed in smaller bites, were chewed more and for longer and expected to impart a higher satiation. Discussion: This study shows a large and reliable variation in oral exposure time, number of required chews before swallowing and expected satiation across a wide variety of foods. We conclude that bite size and oral-sensory exposure time could contribute to higher satiation within a meal for equal calories.
The effect of texture differences on satiation in 3 pairs of solid foods
Zijlstra, N. ; Mars, M. ; Stafleu, A. ; Graaf, C. de - \ 2010
Appetite 55 (2010)3. - ISSN 0195-6663 - p. 490 - 497.
physical state - healthy women - energy-intake - body-weight - meal intake - eating rate - carbohydrate - viscosity - satiety - others
This study explored the effect of texture differences on satiation (ad libitum food intake) in 3 pairs of solid foods. Test products were specially developed luncheon meat, meat replacers and sweets. Each food consisted of a "hard" and "soft" version, expected to lead to different eating rates and consequently to differences in oral sensory exposure time. One hundred and six subjects participated in 7 sessions. During the first sessions, subjects consumed the products ad libitum while watching a movie in a cinema. During the last session, eating rate of all products was measured. Mean intake did not differ significantly between the hard and soft version for any of the products, but subjects who ate more of the soft luncheon meat significantly outnumbered subjects who ate more of the hard version. Eating rate was significantly slower for the hard than for the soft luncheon meat (21±10 vs. 25±13g/min); no differences were found for the other food types. Ad libitum intake was twice as high in the highest versus the lowest quartile of eating rate (p
Effect of bite size and oral processing time of a semisolid food on satiation
Zijlstra, N. ; Wijk, R.A. de; Mars, M. ; Stafleu, A. ; Graaf, C. de - \ 2009
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 90 (2009)2. - ISSN 0002-9165 - p. 269 - 275.
energy-intake - physical state - aroma release - body-weight - eating rate - satiety - carbohydrate - viscosity - appetite - women
Background: Food texture plays an important role in food intake regulation. In previous studies we showed a clear effect of viscosity on ad libitum food intake and found indications that eating rate, bite size, and oral processing time (OPT) could play a role. Objective: The objective was to determine the effect of bite size and OPT of a food on satiation, defined as ad libitum food intake. Design: Twenty-two healthy subjects participated in all 7 test conditions. Bite sizes were free or fixed to small bite sizes (˜5 g) or large bite sizes (˜15 g). OPT was free (only in combination with free bite size) or fixed to 3 or 9 s. Subjects consumed chocolate custard through a tube, which was connected to a peristaltic pump. Sound signals indicated OPT duration. Results: Subjects consumed significantly more when bite sizes were large than when they were small (bite size effect: P <0.0001) and when OPT was 3 s rather than 9 s (OPT effect: P = 0.008). Under small bite size conditions, mean (6SD) ad libitum intakes were 3826 197 g (3-s OPT) and 313 ± 170 g (9-s OPT). Under large bite size conditions, ad libitum intakes were much higher: 476 ± 176 g (3-s OPT) and 432 ± 163 g (9-s OPT). Intakes during the free bite size conditions were 462 ± 211 g (free OPT), 455 ± 197 g (3-s OPT), and 443 ± 202 g (9-s OPT). Conclusion: This study shows that greater oral sensory exposure to a product, by eating with small bite sizes rather than with large bite sizes and increasing OPT, significantly decreases food intake.