Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Socio-economic assessment of Algae-based PUFA production : The value chain from microalgae to PUFA ('PUFACHAIN')
Voort, M.P.J. van der; Spruijt, J. ; Potters, J.I. ; Elissen, H.J.H. - \ 2017
Göttingen : PUFAChain - 84 p.
biobased economy - biomass - bioenergy - biofuels - algae - plant oils - omega-3 fatty acids - economic analysis
Economic analysis of technological innovations to improve sustainability of pangasius production in Vietnam
Ngoc, Pham Thi Anh - \ 2016
University. Promotor(en): Alfons Oude Lansink; Johan Verreth, co-promotor(en): Miranda Meuwissen. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462579880 - 141
fish production - fishes - innovations - economic analysis - sustainability - fish culture - vietnam - visproductie - vissen - innovaties - economische analyse - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - visteelt

In response to increasing concerns about sustainable production, a growing number of European customers expect seafood products to be certified, for example by the Aquaculture Stewardship Council (ASC) certification. Water purification technologies such as Recirculating Aquaculture Systems (RAS) could be a potential solution to reduce waste discharge and to improve water quality in fish ponds as a response to environmental regulations. In order to provide useful insights to consider investments in RAS, the overall objective of this thesis was to perform an economic analysis of technological innovations such as RAS to improve the sustainability of pangasius production in Vietnam.

This thesis first uses Data Envelopment Analysis to measure input- and output-specific technical and scale inefficiency of pangasius farmers in the traditional system and uses a bootstrap truncated regression to assess the impact of farmers’ demographics and farm characteristics on these technical inefficiencies. Second, the economic feasibility of RAS in pangasius farming is analysed using a capital budgeting approach and stochastic simulation accounting for uncertainty in key parameters. Next, key determinants influencing the adoption of RAS by pangasius farmers are investigated using a choice experiment. Finally, price transmission along the international supply chain of pangasius, from the Vietnamese farm to the Polish retail stage is analysed using a vector autoregressive error correction model framework.

The results show that inadequate management skills in using capital assets and improper methods for producing fish are the main challenges for enhancing the performance of Vietnamese pangasius production. Location of the farm in a saltwater intrusion area is positively associated with inefficiency of producing fish. The results suggest further that when shifting from the traditional system to RAS, the Net Present Value (NPV) of the investment in RAS is expected to substantially increase, for both medium (1-3 ha) and large (equal or greater than 3 ha) farms. Lack of trust in receiving a price premium, inadequate access to finance and uncertainty about the actual performance of RAS systems are constraints for the adoption of RAS. Finally, our study provides evidence that price signals at the Polish-Vietnamese retail stage were transmitted back to wholesale, export and Vietnamese pangasius farms stages.

Dutch Bioeconomy Barometer in 2013 : status of Dutch bioeconomy in 2013 and development of Bioeconomy Barometer
Smeets, E.M.W. ; Leeuwen, M.G.A. van; Verhoog, A.D. ; Meijl, J.C.M. van - \ 2016
Den Haag : LEI Wageningen UR (Factsheet / LEI Wageningen UR ) - 4 p.
biobased economy - economic analysis - monitoring - netherlands - economics - economische analyse - nederland - economie
The Bioeconomy Barometer presented in this document is based on a disaggregated version of the Input-Output table of the Dutch economy that is annually compiled by Statistics Netherlands. LEI-WUR further disaggregates the IO table provided by Statistics Netherlands into an Input-Output table with 19 primary sectors and 20 food and feed processing sectors. In this document the direct and indirect impacts of the bioenergy are evaluated for 9 aggregated sectors that together capture the bioeconomy according to the definition of the EC. The impacts considered include the turnover, value added and employment, but also energy use and greenhouse gas emis-sions.
Macroeconomic outlook of sustainable energy and biorenewables innovations (MEV II)
Meijl, J.C.M. van; Tsiropoulos, I. ; Bartelings, H. ; Broek, M. van den; Hoefnagels, R. ; Leeuwen, M.G.A. van; Smeets, E.M.W. ; Tabeau, A.A. ; Faaij, A. - \ 2016
LEI Wageningen UR (LEI report 2016-001) - ISBN 9789462577374 - 167 p.
economic development - biobased economy - economic analysis - macroeconomic analysis - netherlands - environmental economics - scenario analysis - economic models - economische ontwikkeling - economische analyse - macro-economische analyse - nederland - milieueconomie - scenario-analyse - economische modellen
De Nederlandse overheid verwacht dat een grootschalige toepassing van biomassa nodig is om aan de emissiedoelstellingen te voldoen, maar de macro-economische effecten hiervan op de Nederlandse economie zijn onbekend. Deze studie onderzoekt de effecten van een bio-economie op zowel systeemals macro-economisch niveau en toont aan dat de bio-economie positief kan bijdragen aan de Nederlandse economie, het behalen van broeikasgasreductiedoelstellingen en aan het reduceren van de kosten van het terugdringen van broeikasgasemissies. Om deze effecten te realiseren zijn grootschalige technologische veranderingen en wereldwijde markten belangrijk, maar lage prijzen van fossiele energie leiden tot minder macro-economische voordelen. Om de positieve macro-economische effecten en CO2-reductie te realiseren is een stimuleringsbeleid noodzakelijk.
Batch and repeated-batch oil production by microalgae
Benvenuti, G. - \ 2016
University. Promotor(en): Rene Wijffels, co-promotor(en): Rouke Bosma; Maria Barbosa. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462576582 - 149 p.
algae - chlorella - arthrospira - dunaliella - nostoc - triacylglycerols - light - lipogenesis - photosynthesis - oil products - productivity - biomass conversion - economic analysis - algen - triacylglycerolen - licht - lipogenese - fotosynthese - olieproducten - productiviteit - biomassaconversie - economische analyse

Microalgal triglycerides (TAGs) are promising feedstocks for the commodity markets (i.e. food, chemical and biofuel). Nevertheless, microalgal TAGs are not yet economically feasible due to the high production costs. To reduce these costs, TAG productivity needs to be maximized.

The aim of this thesis was to increase microalgal TAG productivity by investigating the effects of biological and engineering parameters (i.e. production strain and operational strategy).

We first screened seven marine species on their TAG productivity under nitrogen (N) starvation. Nannochloropsis sp. was identified as the most suitable species as it retained its photosynthetic activity while accumulating large amounts of TAGs ensuring the highest TAG productivity. Therefore, Nannochloropsis sp. was used in all following studies.

Next, we aimed at optimizing TAG productivity by investigating the effect of initial-biomass-specific (IBS) light availability (i.e. ratio of light impinging on reactor ground area divided by initial biomass concentration per ground area) in batch outdoor cultivations carried out in horizontal and vertically stacked tubular reactors at different initial biomass concentrations at the start of the TAG accumulation phase, over different seasons. Based on the observed trends of TAG productivity for the Dutch climate, optimal initial biomass concentrations were suggested to achieve high areal TAG productivities for each reactor configuration and season.

Subsequently, repeated-batch processes were investigated to further increase TAG productivity compared to batch processes. For this, repeated-batch cultivations were tested and compared to batch cultivations both at lab-scale under day/night cycles and in two identical, simultaneously operated, outdoor vertically stacked tubular reactors over different seasons. Although at lab-scale, batch and repeated-batch cultivations led to similar TAG productivities, outdoor repeated-batch processes were always outcompeted by the batch. It was concluded that repeated-batch processes require further optimization.

For this, the physiological responses of Nannochloropsis sp. to N-starvation and N-replenishment were determined under continuous light in lab-scale batch and repeated-batch cultivations and condensed into a mechanistic model describing both cultivation strategies. Scenarios for improved TAG yields on light were simulated and, based on the optimized yields, a comparison of the two processes was performed. It was concluded that under continuous light, an optimized batch process will always result in higher TAG productivities than an optimized repeated-batch process.

Finally, a techno-economic analysis for a two-step-continuous TAG production process (i.e. growth reactors are operated in continuous mode such that multiple batch-operated stress reactors are inoculated and sequentially harvested) is performed for a hypothetical 100 ha-scale plant in southern Spain using vertically stacked tubular reactors. Photosynthetic efficiencies based on outdoor pilot data were used as model input. By optimizing both photosynthetic efficiency and process technology, the production cost could be decreased from 7.4 to 3.0 €·kg-1 of TAG-enriched biomass. We believe to be on the right track to achieve an economically feasible TAG production platform provided that photosynthetic efficiency is further improved, the whole biomass is valorized and cheaper reactors are designed.

Economische analyse van de zoetwatervoorziening in Nederland : ontwikkeling van een economisch instrumentarium om de risico’s van watertekorten te bepalen : syntheserapport
[Unknown], - \ 2015
Netherlands : Deltares (Deltares rapport 1220104004) - 240
zoet water - watervoorziening - drinkwater - natuur - landbouw - economische analyse - transport over water - watertekort - kosten-batenanalyse - fresh water - water supply - drinking water - nature - agriculture - economic analysis - water transport - water deficit - cost benefit analysis
Dit rapport beschrijft de resultaten van het project ‘Economische analyse van de zoetwatervoorziening in Nederland’ uitgevoerd door Deltares, Stratelligence en het LEI in het kader van het Deltaprogramma Zoetwater in opdracht van het Programmabureau Zoetwater en begeleid door RWS-WVL. Het rapport bestaat uit verschillende onderdelen: Ontwikkeling van een algemene methodiek - Historische analyses (Scheepvaart, Drinkwatervoorziening, Natuur) - Toolontwikkeling welvaartseffecten Landbouw - Casestudie Rijnland.
Economische kengetallen garnalenvisserij : Aanvulling op ‘Expert judgement garnalenvisserij’
Turenhout, M.N.J. ; Oostenbrugge, J.A.E. van; Beukers, R. - \ 2015
Wageningen : LEI Wageningen UR (Nota / LEI Wageningen UR 2015-138) - 25 p.
schaal- en schelpdierenvisserij - garnalen - economische analyse - waddenzee - nederland - landbouwstatistieken - shellfish fisheries - shrimps - economic analysis - wadden sea - netherlands - agricultural statistics
Landbouw als gemeen probleem
Poppe, K.J. - \ 2015
Vork 2 (2015)3. - ISSN 2352-2925 - p. 10 - 15.
humane voeding - voedselproductie - landbouw als bedrijfstak - agrarische structuur - landbouwbeleid - landbouwprijzen - economische analyse - arbeidskosten - inkomen van landbouwers - human feeding - food production - agriculture as branch of economy - agricultural structure - agricultural policy - agricultural prices - economic analysis - labour costs - farmers' income

In het vorige nummer riep de Vlaamse landbouw-ethicus Stef Aerts op tot openbare afspraken in de keten over prijzen en tot een meer interventionistisch Europees landbouwbeleid, omdat de inkomsten van boeren te veel onder druk staan. Daarmee onderschat hij de rol van prijzen in de samenleving, stelt Krijn Poppe. Op verzoek van de redactie schreef hij bijgaand artikel over de toekomst van de landbouw als wicked (gemeen) probleem.
Opbrengsten en kosten in de kottersector : product van Kenniskringen visserij
Turenhout, M.N.J. ; Klok, A.J. ; Zaalmink, W. - \ 2015
visserij - vissersschepen - economische analyse - kosten - opbrengsten - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - fisheries - fishing vessels - economic analysis - costs - yields - sustainability
Als kottereigenaar is het van belang om economisch duurzaam te ondernemen. De kosten mogen gemiddeld niet hoger liggen dan de verkregen opbrengsten. Maar waar bestaan de kosten en opbrengsten in de kottersector daadwerkelijk uit? In deze factsheet van Kenniskringen Visserij wordt een overzicht gegeven van de belangrijkste kosten en opbrengsten.
Omvang van het Nederlandse bos- en houtcomplex : Productiewaarde, toegevoegde waarde en werkgelegenheid in 2010-2012
Silvis, H.J. ; Verhoog, A.D. ; Voskuilen, M.J. - \ 2015
Wageningen : LEI Wageningen UR (Nota / LEI 2015-060) - 28
bosbouw - houthandel - houtteelt - economische analyse - werkgelegenheid - nederland - forestry - timber trade - silviculture - economic analysis - employment - netherlands
Deze notitie raamt de economische betekenis van en werkgelegenheid in het Nederlandse bos- en houtcomplex in de periode 2010-2012. Inzicht hierin is van belang om maatschappelijk gerichte initiatieven van het complex te kunnen beoordelen op hun economische effecten
Een perfecte roos energiezuinig geteelt
Gelder, A. de; Warmenhoven, M.G. ; Knaap, E. van der; Baar, P.H. van; Grootscholten, M. ; Aelst, N. - \ 2015
Bleiswijk : Wageningen UR Glastuinbouw (Rapport GTB 1369) - 96
rozen - teelt onder bescherming - glastuinbouw - gewaskwaliteit - energiebesparing - kooldioxide - verwarming - diffuus glas - koelen - led lampen - ventilatie - meeldauw - botrytis - vaasleven - economische analyse - bloementeelt - roses - protected cultivation - greenhouse horticulture - crop quality - energy saving - carbon dioxide - heating - diffused glass - cooling - led lamps - ventilation - mildews - vase life - economic analysis - floriculture
Within a greenhouse equipped with diffuse glass, cooling from above the crop, LED interlighting, active ventilation with tubes below the gutters and three screens an experiment was conducted to produce good quality roses in an energy effi cient way. After two years research the roses cv Red Naomi! fulfi lled the desired quality marks. This was achieved with less energy for heating compared to a defi ned virtual reference compartment. Combined with heat harvested during cooling there was no need for additional heating energy. The crop management was a key factor in the way to quality. For control of mildew and Botrytis it was necessary to keep the air humidity below 85 %. This is hard to achieve in an energy saving cropping system.
Climate change, uncertainty and investment in flood risk reduction
Pol, T.D. van der - \ 2015
University. Promotor(en): Ekko van Ierland, co-promotor(en): Hans-Peter Weikard; Silke Gabbert; Eligius Hendrix. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462574373 - 147
klimaatverandering - hoogwaterbeheersing - overstromingen - risicovermindering - waterbeheer - economische analyse - economische modellen - investering - climatic change - flood control - floods - risk reduction - water management - economic analysis - economic models - investment

Economic analysis of flood risk management strategies has become more complex due to climate change. This thesis investigates the impact of climate change on investment in flood risk reduction, and applies optimisation methods to support identification of optimal flood risk management strategies. Chapter 2 provides an overview of cost-benefit analysis (CBA) of flood risk management strategies under climate change uncertainty and new information. CBA is applied to determine optimal dike heights under climate change uncertainty and new information in Chapter 3. Chapter 4 studies impacts of rainfall variability and changing return periods of rainfall extremes on cost-effective adaptation of water systems to climate change given a flood protection standard. Chapter 5 departs from expected cost minimisation, and applies the minimax regret decision criterion to identify maximum regret minimising flood risk management strategies under the arrival of new climate impact information. The thesis concludes that the modelling of new climate-related information may improve an economic analysis of flood risk management strategies

Bepaling van economische effecten van droogte voor de landbouwland; Baten van maatregelen om effecten te verminderen
Reinhard, A.J. ; Polman, N.B.P. ; Helming, J.F.M. ; Michels, R. - \ 2015
Den Haag : LEI Wageningen UR (LEI report 2015-012 ) - 42
economische analyse - kosten-batenanalyse - droogte - klimaatverandering - agrarische economie - landbouw - economic analysis - cost benefit analysis - drought - climatic change - agricultural economics - agriculture
Om de kosten en de baten te bepalen van maatregelen, die de gevolgen van droogte door klimaatverandering verminderen, zijn in opdracht van het deelprogramma Zoetwater (DPZW) van het deltaprogramma maatschappelijke kosten-batenanalyses (MKBA) uitgevoerd (onder andere Stratelligence, 2014). Op basis van deze analyses is uit de kansrijke maatregelen een voorkeursstrategie geselecteerd. De landbouw is een grote gebruiker van water, vandaar dat de kosten en baten van maatregelen voor deze sector een belangrijk deel van de MKBA zijn. Een goede bepaling van de baten voor de landbouw is daarom essentieel voor betrouwbare MKBA-resultaten. In dit rapport werken we de baten uit van maatregelen om de effecten van droogte tegen te gaan. Dezelfde aanpak kan worden gebruikt voor andere weersextremen (zoals extreme neerslag).
De Nederlandse visverwerkende industrie en visgroothandel : economische analyse van de sector, ontwikkelingen en trends
Beukers, R. - \ 2015
Den Haag : LEI Wageningen UR (Report LEI 2014-026) - ISBN 9789086157099 - 87
visverwerkende industrie - handel - vis - economische analyse - tendensen - werkgelegenheid - omzet - import - export - fish industry - trade - fish - economic analysis - trends - employment - turnover - imports - exports
Dit onderzoek geeft inzicht in de economische situatie van de visverwerkende industrie en visgroothandel in Nederland door een analyse van de economische structuur van de sector en de belangrijkste ontwikkelingen. De bedrijven in de visverwerkende industrie en visgroothandel hadden in 2013 een gezamenlijke omzet van 3.6 miljard euro; een groei van 7% ten opzichte van de omzet in 2009. 70% van de totale omzet van Nederlandse visverwerkende bedrijven en visgroothandels werd behaald uit export; 30% werd gerealiseerd op de binnenlandse markt.
Economisch nut volstaat niet als basis natuurbeheer
Kleis, R. ; Kleijn, D. - \ 2015
Resource: weekblad voor Wageningen UR 9 (2015)20. - ISSN 1874-3625
wilde bijenvolken - apidae - honingbijen - natuurbeheer - bestuivers (dieren) - economische analyse - akkerranden - biodiversiteit - wild honey bee colonies - honey bees - nature management - pollinators - economic analysis - field margins - biodiversity
De bestuiving van landbouwgewassen is het werk van slechts een handjevol soorten bijen. De rest is economisch gezien nutteloos. Als argument voor natuurbeheer is dus meer nodig dan economisch nut.
Economic analysis of Dutch agricultural land use in a changing policy environment
Boere, E.J.M. - \ 2015
University. Promotor(en): Wim Heijman, co-promotor(en): Jack Peerlings; Stijn Reinhard. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462573352 - 207
regionale economie - landgebruik - economische analyse - landbouwgrond - landbouwbeleid - financieel landbouwbeleid - gemeenschappelijk landbouwbeleid - quota's - grondprijzen - besluitvorming - landbouwprijzen - landbouwverzekering - regional economics - land use - economic analysis - agricultural land - agricultural policy - agricultural financial policy - cap - quotas - land prices - decision making - agricultural prices - agricultural insurance

Abstract

This study empirically investigates farmers’ decision-making on agricultural land use change in the Netherlands. Five driving factors influencing decision making on both on-farm land adjustments and changes to the size of the farm are selected: increased price volatility, milk quota, land prices, direct payments and insurance possibilities. By analysing the influence of increased output price volatility and risk on land use change, it is first shown that opposite effects between complementing and substituting land uses are present, leading to competition within the dairy sector and within crop production. Second, by employing a duration model over the period before, during and towards milk quota abolition, it is empirically shown that quota hamper the pace of change in land used for milk production on dairy farms. Third, the price of agricultural land is analysed by taking into account four categories that all influence the price of land: the direct influence via the returns from land, institutional regulations, the spatial environment and local market conditions. It is shown that the financial crisis leads to a decline in the effects of local market conditions, but the announcement of milk quota abolition in 2008 has led to an increase in the effects of the spatial environment. The last two driving factors analyse policy measures using a mathematical programming model. Fourth, it is found that the 2013 Common Agricultural Policy reforms will cause farmers to shift away from crops previously eligible for payments, with the initial shift of the direct payment reform enhanced by the move towards direct payments combined with a green payment. Fifth, small changes in land allocation towards more volatile crops are observed when the possibility of whole farm and crop-specific insurance is offered. In general it is found that when production risk is decreased, this opens the possibility to increase risk in other areas, such as farm expansion. When the total amount of farmland is treated as variable, changes to land cannot be explained by changes in revenues and risk alone. Land use change is now also influenced by long-term decision making based on expectations on future costs and revenues, and other factors such as farm characteristics, institutional and transaction characteristics and the influence of location and economic conjecture.

De kracht van het agrocluster : het belang van de primaire landbouw voor het totale agrocomplex
Berkhout, P. ; Asseldonk, M.A.P.M. van; Benninga, J. ; Ge, L. ; Hoste, R. ; Smit, A.B. - \ 2015
Wageningen : LEI Wageningen UR (LEI rapport 2015-032) - ISBN 9789086157082 - 56
landbouwsector - economische analyse - economische ontwikkeling - agro-industriële ketens - varkenshouderij - sierteelt - aardappelen - akkerbouw - werkgelegenheid - gevalsanalyse - agricultural sector - economic analysis - economic development - agro-industrial chains - pig farming - ornamental horticulture - potatoes - arable farming - employment - case studies
Nederland kent een sterke en innovatieve agrosector, die met een aandeel van zo’n 8% in het nationaal inkomen en de werkgelegenheid een belangrijke pijler is onder de nationale economie. De kracht van de Nederlandse agrosector is sterk verbonden met een historisch gegroeid cluster van bedrijven in de keten. Bij dit cluster behoren spelers in de toelevering en verwerking van diensten. De vraag is wat er overblijft van de kracht van het agrocluster als bijvoorbeeld door regelgeving de primaire schakel belangrijk in omvang zou afnemen. Dit rapport poogt in opdracht van het ministerie van EZ op deze vraag een antwoord te geven.
Shocks, preferences, and institutions: experimental evidence from Sub-Saharan Africa
Cecchi, F. - \ 2015
University. Promotor(en): Erwin Bulte. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462572621 - 198
ontwikkelingseconomie - afrika ten zuiden van de sahara - institutionele economie - experimenten - veldwerk - keuzegedrag - verandering - shock - conflict - economische analyse - development economics - africa south of sahara - institutional economics - experiments - field work - choice behaviour - change - economic analysis

Both preferences and institutions are central to economic theory. Insofar as they cannot be taken as given, it is important to understand how they are formed, and how they “respond” to shocks. This thesis investigates the endogenous formation of preferences and institutions. It presents field-experimental evidence from Sub-Saharan Africa – specifically Uganda, Sierra Leone, and Ethiopia – gradually zooming out through different levels of responses to shocks. It starts by looking at the formation of individual preferences in utero and during childhood. Next, it explores the endogeneity of rational choice among adults. Finally, it looks at the cumulative outcome of these responses in terms of changes in local norms and informal institutions. Shocks are thought of in their broadest possible definition. Conflict is a shock, but so is the introduction of exogenously planned and implemented institutions, or the penetration of statutory law into predominantly customary settings.

Chapter 2 investigates the fetal origins of preferences for cooperation. I study the effect of prenatal trauma on the cooperation of those born during the Lord’s Resistance Army insurgency in northern Uganda. I find that a rise in the relative length of the index finger with respect to the ring finger – a marker for prenatal hormonal shock – reduces the child’s probability of contribution to the public good. I interpret this as evidence that prenatal trauma may affect later-life individual preferences, and that the nine months in utero may be more important than previously thought.

Chapter 3 looks at the preferences for competition towards in- and out-groups, in relation to conflict exposure. I study aggressiveness and willingness to compete among youth in Sierra Leone, using the group dynamics generated by a local football tournament to separate in- and out-group behavior. I find that football players that experienced more intense exposure to violence are more likely to get a foul card during a game. Also, I isolate competitiveness from aggressiveness in the lab, and find that conflict exposure increases the willingness to compete towards the out-group—not the in-group. I conjecture that violent conflict is not only a destructive process, but that it may also trigger autonomous transformations in believes and preferences.

Chapter 4 explores the endogeneity of rational choice among adults. I study the relationship between market exposure and rationality in rural Ethiopia, through a laboratory experiment involving sesame brokers and farmers. Following a randomly assigned trading session in a competitive auction, I find that farmers and brokers selected for the treatment behave more rationally than their peers in the control group. Markets are thus not only neutral institutions; they change the way people make decisions. I speculate that, in the presence of endogenous rationality, a rapid market expansion may offer dynamic efficiency gains, but that it may also affect the distribution of rents and wealth at the local and regional levels.

Chapter 5 investigates the relationship between formal and informal institutions. I study the dynamics of social capital – proxied by contributions to a public goods game – in response to the introduction of a formal insurance scheme in southwestern Uganda. I find that formal insurance crowds-out social capital, but that it is not those adopting the formal insurance who reduce their contributions (as predicted by theory). Instead, social capital erodes because of the uninsured. I argue that this is consistent with “weapons of the weak” theories, emphasizing social embeddedness. Those who fear to lose from this inequality-increasing innovation respond with the only “weapons” at hand—by reducing cooperation in other domains.

Chapter 6 looks at how the penetration of formal law affects customary legal institutions. I study the effects of introducing a formal legal alternative on the arbitration decisions of real customary judges in Ethiopia. I find that introducing a legal fallback reduces arbitration biases and draws the decisions of customary judges significantly closer to the formal law. At the same time, agents disfavored by the custom do not take advantage of their increased bargaining power. I argue that most effects of increased competition between formal law and customary legal institutions may rise from changes in the latter, rather than from plaintiffs seeking justice under the rule of law.

While each chapter is envisioned as a self-standing contribution to economic literature, the crosscutting thread is equally crucial. Not always do endogenous responses to shocks fit existing economic theory. Rather, the evidence presented sometimes highlights unforeseen dynamics. It moreover strongly rejects the notion of passive acceptance of shocks; individuals and institutions “respond” to shifting circumstances through “rational” – although not necessarily conscious – behavioral changes. These findings contribute to the understanding of the micro-foundations of preferences and institutions, and emphasize the need to continuously underpin theoretical predictions with empirical evidence.

Natuurbeleid en gedragseconomie. Een verkenning
Dagevos, H. ; Broek, E.H.L. van den; Bakker, E. de; Vader, J. - \ 2015
Den Haag : LEI Wageningen UR
natuurbeleid - gedragseconomie - maatschappelijk draagvlak - regionale verkenningen - economische analyse - nature conservation policy - behavioural economics - public support - regional surveys - economic analysis
Een karakteristiek van de beleidsvernieuwing in de Rijksnatuurvisie "Natuurlijk verder" is dat nadrukkelijk wordt gerekend op de energieke inzet en coöperatieve initiatieven van de zijde van burgers en bedrijven bij de uitvoering van het beleid. Effectief en efficient natuurbeleid is hiermee medeafhankelijk van het gedrag van deze actoren. Dit maakt de beleidsrelevantie van menselijk gedrag direct duidelijk. In het onderstaande zoeken we verkennenderwijs naar mogelijke relevante inzichten in de gedrags-economie die toepasbaar kunnen zijn voor een effectief en doelmatig natuurbeleid.
Beoordeling Programmatische Aanpak Stikstof. De verwachte effecten voor natuur en vergunningverlening : Beleidsstudie
Sanders, Marlies - \ 2014
natural areas - emission reduction - nitrogen - ammonia emission - intensive livestock farming - economic analysis - permits
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