Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Perspective: regulation of pest and disease control strategies and why (many) economists are concerned
Wesseler, Justus - \ 2018
Pest Management Science (2018). - ISSN 1526-498X
approval - economics - pest management strategies - policy - regulation

Pests and diseases are a continuous challenge in agriculture production. A wide range of control strategies have been and will continue to be developed. New control strategies are in almost all countries around the world assessed prior to approval for use in farmers' fields. This is rightly so to avoid and even reduce negative effects for human health and the environment. Over the past decades the approval processes have become increasingly politicized resulting in an increase in the direct approval costs and the length in approval time without increasing the safety of the final product. This reduces the development of control strategies and often has negative human health and environmental effects. Possibilities exist for improvements. They include reducing approval costs and approval time by streamlining the approval process and substituting approval requirements by strengthening ex-post liability.

Liquidity Constraints and Willingness to Pay for Solar Lamps and Water Filters in Jakarta
Lensink, Robert ; Raster, Tom ; Timmer, Angelique - \ 2018
European Journal of Development Research 30 (2018)4. - ISSN 0957-8811 - p. 577 - 587.
BDM auction - economics - Indonesia - microfinance - solar lamps - water filters - willingness to pay

In this study, using the Becker–DeGroot–Marschak mechanism, we assess the Willingness to Pay for water filters and solar lamps in Indonesia. The study shows that credit constraints are important determinants of the low levels of WTP and low adoption rates of preventative health technologies. Providing women with an option to spread out the payments for these products over 50 weekly periods more than doubles the maximum WTP.

Delaying investments in sensor technology : The rationality of dairy farmers' investment decisions illustrated within the framework of real options theory
Rutten, C.J. ; Steeneveld, W. ; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M. ; Hogeveen, H. - \ 2018
Journal of Dairy Science 101 (2018)8. - ISSN 0022-0302 - p. 7650 - 7660.
adoption - dairy - economics - investment - sensor

The adoption rate of sensors on dairy farms varies widely. Whereas some sensors are hardly adopted, others are adopted by many farmers. A potential rational explanation for the difference in adoption may be the expected future technological progress in the sensor technology and expected future improved decision support possibilities. For some sensors not much progress can be expected because the technology has already made enormous progress in recent years, whereas for sensors that have only recently been introduced on the market, much progress can be expected. The adoption of sensors may thus be partly explained by uncertainty about the investment decision, in which uncertainty lays in the future performance of the sensors and uncertainty about whether improved informed decision support will become available. The overall aim was to offer a plausible example of why a sensor may not be adopted now. To explain this, the role of uncertainty about technological progress in the investment decision was illustrated for highly adopted sensors (automated estrus detection) and hardly adopted sensors (automated body condition score). This theoretical illustration uses the real options theory, which accounts for the role of uncertainty in the timing of investment decisions. A discrete event model, simulating a farm of 100 dairy cows, was developed to estimate the net present value (NPV) of investing now and investing in 5 yr in both sensor systems. The results show that investing now in automated estrus detection resulted in a higher NPV than investing 5 yr from now, whereas for the automated body condition score postponing the investment resulted in a higher NPV compared with investing now. These results are in line with the observation that farmers postpone investments in sensors. Also, the current high adoption of automated estrus detection sensors can be explained because the NPV of investing now is higher than the NPV of investing in 5 yr. The results confirm that uncertainty about future sensor performance and uncertainty about whether improved decision support will become available play a role in investment decisions.

Economic optimization of selective dry cow treatment
Scherpenzeel, C.G.M. ; Hogeveen, H. ; Maas, L. ; Lam, T.J.G.M. - \ 2018
Journal of Dairy Science 101 (2018)2. - ISSN 0022-0302 - p. 1530 - 1539.
antimicrobial reduction - dry cow treatment - economics - linear programming - mastitis
The objective of this study was to develop a mathematical model to identify a scenario with the lowest costs for mastitis associated with the dry period while restricting the percentage of cows to be dried off with dry cow antimicrobials. Costs of clinical and subclinical mastitis as well as antimicrobial use were quantified. Based on data from a large field trial, a linear programming model was built with the goal to minimize the costs associated with antimicrobial use at drying off. To enable calculations on minimizing costs of dry cow treatment on herd-level by drying-off decisions in an “average” herd, we created an example herd. Cows were projected on 3 different types of herds, based on bulk tank somatic cell count, and were categorized in groups based on parity and somatic cell count from the last test recording before drying-off. Economically optimal use of antimicrobials was determined while restricting the maximum percentage of cows dried off with antimicrobials from 100 to 0%. This restriction reveals the relationship between the maximum percentage of cows dried off with antibiotics and the economic consequences. A sensitivity analysis was performed to evaluate the effect of variation in the most important input variables, with the effect of dry cow antimicrobials resulting in a lower or higher percentage of clinical and subclinical mastitis depending on being dried off with or without dry cow antimicrobials, respectively, and the milk price. From an economic perspective, blanket dry cow treatment seems not to be the optimal approach of dry cow therapy, although differences between approaches were small. With lower bulk tank somatic cell counts, more dry cow antimicrobials can be omitted without economic consequences. The economic impact of reducing the percentage of clinical mastitis was found to be much larger than reducing the bulk tank somatic cell count. The optimal percentage of cows to be dried off with antimicrobials depends on the udder health situation, expressed as the bulk tank somatic cell count and the incidence of clinical mastitis. For all evaluated types of herds, selective dry cow treatment was economically more beneficial than blanket dry cow treatment. Economic profits of selective dry cow treatment are greater if bulk tank somatic cell count and clinical mastitis incidence are lower. Economics is not an argument against reduction of dry cow antimicrobials by applying selective dry cow treatment.
Samenhang van beleid versterkt
Marinissen, R. ; Linderhof, V. ; Witmer, M. ; Munaretto, S. - \ 2017
Milieu 23 (2017)7. - ISSN 0920-2234 - p. 16 - 18.
vervangbare hulpbronnen - hernieuwbare energie - grondstoffenindustrie - kringlopen - economie - renewable resources - renewable energy - input industries - cycling - economics
De thema’s water, energie, klimaatverandering, landgebruik en voedsel kennen vele raakvlakken. Een goede ontwikkeling in het ene thema kan meerwaarde opleveren voor het andere, maar ook een negatief effect hebben. Samenhangend beleid kan minnen voorkomen en plussen juist stimuleren. Dit geldt zeker voor een alles omvattend onderwerp als het realiseren van een koolstofarme economie.
The SEEA EEA carbon account for the Netherlands
Lof, Marjolein ; Schenau, Sjoerd ; Jong, Rixt de; Remme, Roy ; Graveland, Cor ; Hein, Lars - \ 2017
The Hague : Statistics Netherlands - 64
carbon dioxide - netherlands - carbon - economics - environment - biofuels - bioenergy - biogas - emission - kooldioxide - nederland - koolstof - economie - milieu - biobrandstoffen - bio-energie - emissie
The carbon account provides a comprehensive overview of all relevant carbon stocks and flows. The carbon account for the Netherlands was developed within the scope of the ‘System of Environmental Economic Accounts – Experimen tal Ecosystem Accounting’ (SEEA EEA) project for the Netherlands (Natuurlijk Kapitaalrekeningen Nederland: NKR_NL), which is currently c arried out jointly by Statistics Netherlands and Wageningen University. Funding and support was provided by the Ministries of Economic Affairs and Infrastructure and the Environment. Within the NKR_NL project, a number of accounts are currently under devel opment. The carbon account is described in detail in this report.
De energiesector als lichtend of verblindend voorbeeld?
Giezen, M. ; Brouwer, Stijn ; Roest, Kees ; Vliet, B.J.M. van - \ 2017
H2O online (2017). - 6 p.
energie - water - hernieuwbare energie - systemen - economie - energy - renewable energy - systems - economics
De energiesector wordt in de watersector veelvuldig genoemd als voorbeeld voor de transitie richting een circulaire economie. In hoeverre werkt dit verhelderend of juist verblindend? In deze literatuurstudie laten de auteurs hun licht schijnen op de energiesector als voorbeeld wanneer het gaat om de introductie van nieuwe decentrale technieken. Vanuit zowel een technologisch, economisch, sociaal-cultureel als een institutioneel perspectief brengen de auteurs de contextuele systeemveranderingen die van invloed kunnen zijn op toepassing van decentrale technieken in kaart. Hiermee worden de overeenkomsten en verschillen tussen energie- en watersectoren helder en ontstaat ruimte voor relativering en nuance.
Methodology for the case studies
Smits, M.J.W. ; Woltjer, G.B. - \ 2017
EU (Circular impacts ) - 19 p.
economics - cycling - projects - renewable energy - recycling - sustainability - durability - politics - policy - environment - economie - kringlopen - projecten - hernieuwbare energie - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - duurzaamheid (durability) - politiek - beleid - milieu
This document is about the methodology and selection of the case studies. It is meant as a guideline for the case studies, and together with the other reports in this work package can be a source of inform ation for policy officers, interest groups and researchers evaluating or performing impact assessments of circular economy policies or specific circular economy projects. The methodology was developed to ensure that the case studies focus on the overall im pacts of the circular economy. The frame of the methodology is a s tep - by - step approach, which will be described in section s 3 and 4 of this document. In section 2 we describe the selection of the case studies.
Efficient and economical way of operating a recirculation aquaculture system in an aquaponics farm
Karimanzira, Divas ; Keesman, Karel ; Kloas, Werner ; Baganz, Daniela ; Rauschenbach, Thomas - \ 2017
Aquaculture Economics & Management 21 (2017)4. - ISSN 1365-7305 - p. 470 - 486.
Aquaponics - dynamic modeling - economics - optimization
In this article, optimal control methods based on a metabolite-constrained fish growth model are applied to the operation of fish production in an aquaponic system. The system is formulated for the twin objective of fish growth and plant fertilization to maximize the benefits by optimal and efficient use of resources from aquaculture. The state equations, basically mass balances, required by the optimization algorithms are given in the form of differential equations for the number of fish in the stock, their average weight as mediated through metabolism and appetite, the water recirculation and waste treatment, hydroponic nutrient requirements and their loss functions. Six parameters, that is, water temperature, flow rate, stock density, feed ration size per fish, energy consumption rate and the quality of food (percentage of digestible proteins) are used to control the system under dynamic conditions. The time to harvest is treated as a static decision variable that is repeatedly adjusted to find the profit-maximizing solution. By modeling the complex interactions between the economic and biological systems, it is possible to obtain the most efficient decisions with respect to diet composition, feeding rates, harvesting time and nutrient releases. Some sample numerical results using data from a tilapia-tomato farm are presented and discussed.
Failure and preventive costs of mastitis on Dutch dairy farms
Soest, Felix J.S. van; Santman-Berends, Inge M.G.A. ; Lam, Theo J.G.M. ; Hogeveen, Henk - \ 2016
Journal of Dairy Science 99 (2016)10. - ISSN 0022-0302 - p. 8365 - 8374.
dairy - economics - management - mastitis

Mastitis is an important disease from an economic perspective, but most cost assessments of mastitis include only the direct costs associated with the disease (e.g., production losses, culling, and treatment), which we call failure costs (FC). However, farmers also invest time and money in controlling mastitis, and these preventive costs (PC) also need to be taken into account. To estimate the total costs of mastitis, we estimated both FC and PC. We combined multiple test-day milk records from 108 Dutch dairy farms with information on applied mastitis prevention measures and farmers’ registration of clinical mastitis for individual dairy cows. The aim was to estimate the total costs of mastitis and to give insight into variations between farms. We estimated the average total costs of mastitis to be 240/lactating cow per year, in which FC contributed 120/lactating cow per year and PC contributed another 120/lactating cow per year. Milk production losses, discarded milk, and culling were the main contributors to FC, at 32, 20, and 20/lactating cow per year, respectively. Labor costs were the main contributor to PC, next to consumables and investments, at 82, 34, and 4/lactating cow per year, respectively. The variation between farmers was substantial, and some farmers faced both high FC and PC. This variation may have been due to structural differences between farms, different mastitis-causing pathogens, the time at which preventive action is initiated, stockmanship, or missing measures in PC estimates. We estimated the minimum FC to be 34 per lactating cow per yr. All farmers initiated some preventive action to control or reduce mastitis, indicating that farmers will always have mastitis-related costs, because mastitis will never be fully eradicated from a farm. Insights into both the PC and FC of a specific farm will allow veterinary advisors and farmers to assess whether current udder health strategies are appropriate or whether there is room for improvement from an economic perspective.

Growth and Innovation in the Ocean Economy : North Sea Checkpoint : Data Adequacy Report – Oil Platform Leak Challenge
Wal, J.T. van der; Vries, P. de; Tamis, J.E. - \ 2016
Den Helder : IMARES Wageningen UR (IMARES rapport C095/16) - 67
oceans - economics - innovations - emergencies - pollution - case studies - oil spills - north sea - oceanen - economie - innovaties - noodgevallen - verontreiniging - gevalsanalyse - olieverontreinigingen - noordzee
Dutch Bioeconomy Barometer in 2013 : status of Dutch bioeconomy in 2013 and development of Bioeconomy Barometer
Smeets, E.M.W. ; Leeuwen, M.G.A. van; Verhoog, A.D. ; Meijl, J.C.M. van - \ 2016
Den Haag : LEI Wageningen UR (Factsheet / LEI Wageningen UR ) - 4 p.
biobased economy - economic analysis - monitoring - netherlands - economics - economische analyse - nederland - economie
The Bioeconomy Barometer presented in this document is based on a disaggregated version of the Input-Output table of the Dutch economy that is annually compiled by Statistics Netherlands. LEI-WUR further disaggregates the IO table provided by Statistics Netherlands into an Input-Output table with 19 primary sectors and 20 food and feed processing sectors. In this document the direct and indirect impacts of the bioenergy are evaluated for 9 aggregated sectors that together capture the bioeconomy according to the definition of the EC. The impacts considered include the turnover, value added and employment, but also energy use and greenhouse gas emis-sions.
Leegstand agrarisch vastgoed Noord-Brabant : aard, omvang en oplossingsrichtingen van huidige en toekomstige leegstand agrarisch vastgoed in provincie Noord-Brabant
Gies, T.J.A. ; Nieuwenhuizen, W. ; Naeff, H.S.D. ; Och, R.A.F. van - \ 2016
Wageningen : Alterra, Wageningen-UR (Alterra-rapport 2713) - 56 p.
bedrijfsbeëindiging in de landbouw - landbouwbedrijven - landbouwbedrijfsgebouwen - economie - noord-brabant - farm closures - farms - farm buildings - economics
Jaarlijks stoppen veel agrarische bedrijven. Afgelopen decennia werden deze boerderijen, vaak nog kleinschalig, via erftransities omgebouwd tot woonboerderijen of werden de bedrijfsgebouwen voor andere functies gebruikt. Sinds de jaren zeventig zijn er door schaalvergroting in de sector grote schuren en grote ligboxstallen bijgekomen die komende jaren vrij zullen komen. Voor die grote schuren die leeg komen te staan, wordt het moeilijk om een goede nieuwe economische bestemming te vinden. In de provincie Noord-Brabant staan momenteel ca. 2 miljoen m2 agrarische bedrijfsgebouwen leeg. Dit is 10% van de huidige omvang van agrarische gebouwen. De prognose voor de toekomst is dat de omvang nog groter wordt en er tot 2030 bijna 4 miljoen m2 lege agrarische bedrijfsgebouwen bijkomen in Noord-Brabant. De grote, te verwachten leegstand vraagt om indringende aandacht van beleidsmakers, bestuurders, ondernemers en gebruikers. Verslechtering van de vitaliteit en ruimtelijke kwaliteit in het landelijk gebied ligt op de loer. Innovatieve oplossingen voor zowel herbestemmen als sloop zijn naast de nu al gebruikelijke oplossingen hard nodig.
Water Delight: Kleurrijk debat over thema’s heen
Moors, E.J. ; Block, D. de; Bruin, K. de; Liebrand, J. - \ 2015
WageningenWorld (2015)4. - ISSN 2210-7908 - p. 50 - 51.
duurzaamheid (sustainability) - economie - positie van de vrouw - geslacht (gender) - vrouwenemancipatie - milieu - waterbeheer - sustainability - economics - woman - gender - emancipation of women - environment - water management

Hebben we meer vrouwen nodig in watermanagement, of gewoon meer diversiteit aan (sociale) competenties? En hoe brengen we mooie Nederlandse plannen naar implementatie elders? Techniek, milieu, genderproblematiek, economische duurzaamheid: alle kanten van internationaal watermanagement werden belicht tijdens het eerste grote interdisciplinaire debat van KLV op 20 oktober.
Economische prikkels voor vergroening in de landbouw
Brouwer, F.M. ; Smit, A.B. ; Verburg, R.W. - \ 2015
Wettelijke Onderzoekstaken Natuur & Milieu (WOt-technical report 37) - 92 p.
stimulansen - economie - melkveehouderij - akkerbouw - economie van natuurlijke hulpbronnen - natuurlijke hulpbronnen - hulpbronnenbehoud - agrarische economie - groene hart - flevoland - nederland - incentives - economics - dairy farming - arable farming - natural resource economics - natural resources - resource conservation - agricultural economics - netherlands
In dit rapport worden de mogelijkheden verkend om een duurzaam gebruik van natuurlijke hulpbronnen door economische prikkels te stimuleren. Het onderzoek betreft de economische prikkels en externe effecten in de melkveehouderij in het Groene Hart en de akkerbouw in Flevoland. Over het algemeen zal een lastenverzwaring in het gebruik van bijvoorbeeld kunstmest en gewasbeschermings-middelen relatief weinig effect hebben. Daarentegen zal het belasten van hoge emissies en het belonen van lage emissies naar verwachting meer stimuleren om negatieve externe effecten te verminderen.
Economische gevolgen ammoniakemissie reducerende maatregelen: scenariostudie van praktijkbedrijven in Overijssel
Evers, A.G. ; Haan, M.H.A. de; Vermeij, I. ; Schooten, H.A. van - \ 2015
Wageningen : Wageningen UR Livestock Research (Rapport 918) - 51
veehouderij - ammoniak - ammoniakemissie - emissiereductie - economie - overijssel - livestock farming - ammonia - ammonia emission - emission reduction - economics
Voor een aantal veehouders in het project “Proeftuin Natura 2000 in Overijssel” is in beeld gebracht welke economische gevolgen ammoniakemissie reducerende maatregelen hebben. De effecten van deze maatregelen zijn vergeleken met de ontwikkeling waarbij de bedrijven hun stal moeten aanpassen om ammoniakuitstoot te verminderen. De berekeningen laten zien dat bij alle bedrijven (een combinatie van) managementmaatregelen een beter inkomen tot gevolg heeft dan het aanpassen van de stal, bij een gelijkblijvende of grotere emissiereductie.
Destructive fishing and fisheries enforcement in eastern Indonesia
Bailey, M.L. ; Sumaila, U.R. - \ 2015
Marine Ecology Progress Series 530 (2015). - ISSN 0171-8630 - p. 195 - 211.
coral-reefs - management - economics - conservation - bioeconomics - population - illegal
A simple bioeconomic leader-follower model was constructed to simulate snapper (family Lutjanidae) and grouper (family Serranidae) fisheries in Raja Ampat, Indonesia, an area of significant coral and fish biodiversity. We developed a leader-follower game, wherein the Regency government as the leader chooses an enforcement model to discourage illegal fishing. Fishers are then given a choice to fish using legal gears, such as handlines, or to fish with illegal gears, e.g. dynamite (for snapper) or cyanide (for grouper). Given prices and costs of legal and illegal fishing, the status quo simulations with no Regency enforcement result in a large amount of illegal catch throughout the 50 yr simulation, which agrees with expert opinion that destructive illegal fishing is occurring in the region. In an attempt to include ecosystem-based management principles into Raja Ampat governance, we introduce an enforcement regime in the form of detecting and punishing illegal fishing. Results suggest that current fishing practices do not account for the disproportionate ecosystem effects of destructive fishing, and that elimination of dynamite fishing may be easier for the government due to the high profitability of the live fish trade connected with cyanide fishing.
Knowledge with impact
LEI Wageningen UR, - \ 2015
LEI Wageningen UR
onderzoeksinstituten - universiteiten - kennis - onderzoek - economie - landbouw - economisch beleid - agrarische economie - nederland - research institutes - universities - knowledge - research - economics - agriculture - economic policy - agricultural economics - netherlands
Kennis voor impact
LEI Wageningen UR, - \ 2015
LEI Wageningen UR
onderzoeksinstituten - universiteiten - kennis - economie - landbouw - economisch beleid - agrarische economie - nederland - onderzoek - research institutes - universities - knowledge - economics - agriculture - economic policy - agricultural economics - netherlands - research
Agriculture in the bioeconomy : economics and policies
Wesseler, J.H.H. - \ 2015
Wageningen : Wageningen University, Wageningen UR - ISBN 9789462571914 - 24
landbouw - economie - agrarische economie - duurzame ontwikkeling - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - levenswetenschappen - agriculture - economics - agricultural economics - sustainable development - sustainability - life sciences
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