Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Zieleń: nie tylko piękna i korzystna dla zdrowia : Wartość dodana zieleni w środowisku miejskim
Hiemstra, J.A. ; Vries, S. de; Spijker, J.H. ; Zbiorowa, P. - \ 2018
Wageningen : Wageningen University & Research - 6 p.
huisvesting - beplantingen - onderwijs - welzijn - gezondheid - bewoning - openbaar groen - arbeid (werk) - tuinen - tuinen bij het huis - publieke tuinen - stadslandbouw - housing - plantations - education - well-being - health - tenancy - public green areas - labour - gardens - domestic gardens - public gardens - urban agriculture

Affirmative biopolitics: Social and vocational education for Quechua girls in the postcolonial “affectsphere” of Cusco, Peru
Lin, Trista C.C. ; Minca, C. ; Ormond, M.E. - \ 2018
Environment and Planning D-Society and Space (2018). - ISSN 0263-7758
biopolitics - domestic work - Latin America - education - youth - affect
This paper draws on an affirmative biopolitical framework to analyze the governing of young lives in education and social spaces in Cusco, Peru. We engage with Berlant’s theorization of affect and spatialization of biopolitics in order to discuss youth’s embodied experiences of alternative forms of biopolitical governance. With a case study of a grassroots, non-profit center for residential care and social and educational programs for Quechua-speaking girls, we investigate how the girls sense and respond to the center’s mediation of rural-to-urban projects of “getting ahead,” domestic work, and the tourism and hospitality sector. We reveal the center’s biopoliticization of their lives in an affective manner within the processes of postcolonial educational marginalization, precarity in urban economies, professionalization, and tourism in and beyond Cusco. Our study intends to contribute to an expanded understanding of the production of education, aid, social care, and protection spaces, and to highlight the utility of affective inquiry in examining the contested terrains of (alternative) childhoods/youth.
Greenery and Education : A summary of the positive effects of greenery on well-being in educational environments
Hiemstra, J.A. ; Vries, S. de; Spijker, J.H. - \ 2017
Wageningen : Wageningen University & Research - 7 p.
learning - children - universities - climate - educational institutions - education - social welfare - well-being - health - pupils - students - schools - leren - kinderen - universiteiten - klimaat - onderwijsinstellingen - onderwijs - sociaal welzijn - welzijn - gezondheid - leerlingen - studenten - scholen
Greenery in and around schools, childcare centres and on campuses is good for the climate at education institutions, both inside and out. It has a positive effect on the health and general well-being of students and staff alike, improving student performance and their ability to concentrate, as well as fostering the social climate. This document provides information on the benefits of greenery in relation to education and well-being, including references to scientific literature. It concludes with some tips on how to ensure the successful and beneficial inclusion of greenery.
Groen: meer dan mooi en gezond : de meerwaarde van groen op gezondheid, productiviteit, prestatie en welbevinden samengevat
Hiemstra, J.A. ; Vries, S. de; Spijker, J.H. - \ 2017
Wageningen : Wageningen University & Research - 6 p.
huisvesting - beplantingen - onderwijs - welzijn - gezondheid - bewoning - openbaar groen - arbeid (werk) - tuinen - tuinen bij het huis - publieke tuinen - stadslandbouw - housing - plantations - education - well-being - health - tenancy - public green areas - labour - gardens - domestic gardens - public gardens - urban agriculture
De Groene Agenda is een programma van Royal FloraHolland, De Groene Stad en Wageningen University & Research. De Groene Agenda wordt mogelijk gemaakt door Productschap Tuinbouw en Topsector Tuinbouw & Uitgangsmaterialen.
Groen en leren : de meerwaarde van groen voor het welbevinden in de leeromgeving samengevat
Spijker, J.H. - \ 2017
- 7 p.
beplantingen - onderwijs - leren - schoolterrein - leerprestaties - openbaar groen - klimaat - temperatuur - gezondheid - sociaal welzijn - luchtkwaliteit - lichamelijke activiteit - lichamelijke fitheid - stressfactoren - kinderen - plantations - education - learning - school site - educational performance - public green areas - climate - temperature - health - social welfare - air quality - physical activity - physical fitness - stress factors - children
de meerwaarde van groen voor het welbevinden in de leeromgeving samengevat
Grotere slagkracht CBBE
Vilsteren, G.E.T. van - \ 2017
Agro & chemie (2017)1. - p. 27 - 27.
onderwijs - publiek-private samenwerking - innovaties - beroepsopleiding (hoger) - onderzoeksprojecten - biobased economy - education - public-private cooperation - innovations - professional education - research projects
Het CBBE wil in 2017 een grotere slagkracht krijgen. Een krachtenbundeling rondom de vier innovatieroutes moet leiden tot meer impact op de biobased en circulaire economie in ons land.
Opportunity identification competence : explaining individual and exploring team opportunity identification by employees
Baggen, Yvette - \ 2017
University. Promotor(en): Martin Mulder, co-promotor(en): Harm Biemans; Thomas Lans. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462579682 - 182
entrepreneurship - professional competence - competences - education - businesses - small businesses - medium sized businesses - employment opportunities - netherlands - portugal - europe - ondernemerschap - vakbekwaamheid - bevoegdheden - onderwijs - bedrijven - kleine bedrijven - middelgrote bedrijven - kansen op werk - nederland - europa

Opportunities and their identification are of significant importance for competitiveness in today’s complex and turbulent business environment because they serve as a key influencing factor for new value-creation. Opportunity identification (OI) is interesting not only from the perspective of new business start-ups, but also from the perspective of employees in existing organisations. Each entrepreneurial process starts with an imagined, rudimentary idea in the mind of an individual. The further exploration and development of such opportunities by employees can lead to the realisation of all kinds of corporate entrepreneurship outcomes, such as innovation, strategic renewal, and internal or external venturing.

This dissertation reports on the capability of employees to identify opportunities, referred to as opportunity identification competence (OIC). The importance of OI by employees is widely recognised in practice, and scholars have contributed significantly to understanding what opportunities are, how opportunities come into being, and how OIC can be measured. Nevertheless, substantial research challenges still need to be addressed. More specifically, based on both entrepreneurship literature and literature on organisational learning and entrepreneurship education, three overarching research issues have been identified:

The OI process has not been fully mapped out, including the role of individuals and teams.

Defining and explaining OIC is problematic because scholars tend not to agree whether opportunities are discovered in the economic environment or created by individuals.

Existing measurements of OIC have been criticised, because most of them include self-perceptions or the recall of earlier identified opportunities.

The main goal of this thesis was to contribute to the literature by addressing these three overarching research issues. Accordingly, the central research question was: What characterises opportunity identification by employees on the individual and team level?

In the dissertation, OIC is both conceptually mapped and empirically explored. A performance instrument to measure OIC is developed and tested in higher education. As well, 12 businesses, including 234 employees in 51 teams, participated in this research project. Most companies were in the category known as small and medium-sized enterprise (SME). The participating companies have in common that they felt an urgent need for entrepreneurship as a driver of competitiveness. Furthermore, they aimed to commit and stimulate their employees to contribute to the entrepreneurial process, without having formal mechanisms or structures for doing so.

Main conclusions

In light of the central research question of this dissertation, What characterises opportunity identification by employees on the individual and team level?, the results suggest that OI deserves attention in existing businesses, both as a meaningful process leading towards new value-creation and as a relevant capability of employees. OIC is a multi-phased phenomenon consisting of two main competencies, namely business idea generation and business idea evaluation. In business idea generation, individuals generate all kinds of (business) ideas that may have the potential to become a real opportunity. In business idea evaluation, those ideas are selected that actually have potential success. Employees can have one of the competencies (business idea generation or business idea evaluation) to a greater extent, or both of them. Organisations need employees that are able to generate business ideas and employees that are able to evaluate the potential success of business ideas. The results of this thesis suggest that, just like independent entrepreneurs, employees mainly acquire such competencies by a process of learning by doing; this means that employees should become involved in entrepreneurial activities on the shop floor. Creating teams can be a solution, bringing together the competencies needed for the successful identification of opportunities. Moreover, the results suggest that the commitment of teams in the early stages of the entrepreneurial process is highly relevant, because the team cognitive framework for identifying opportunities seems more effective than the individual cognitive framework.

Taken together, at the defining, initial stage of the entrepreneurial process opportunities are identified by individuals or, preferably, by teams – in a process by which business ideas are generated and evaluated for their potential success. When studying opportunities and their identification, scholars should take into account the differences in OIC between SMEs, employees, and even within OIC itself (i.e., between business idea generation and business idea evaluation). In practice as well, these differences should be considered in the selection and management of employees, in assessing OIC and in composing teams, because teams need both business idea generators and business idea evaluators.

Making Agriculture Curricula Competence-Oriented While Inserting Issues on Gender and Climate Change at Vietnamese Universities
Bosma, R.H. ; Phung, L.D. ; Le, An V. ; Ngo, An T. ; Tran, Hang M.T. ; Pham, Son H. ; Wals, A.E.J. - \ 2016
Tropicultura 34 (2016)special. - ISSN 0771-3312 - p. 3 - 19.
education - skills - attitude - lecturers - curricula - Vietnam
Many academic curricula suffer from a teacher­ centred focus on knowledge transfer and do not consider the societal needs for competences. This paper reflects on the transformation from theory­ centred towards competency-oriented curricula at three Vietnamese Agriculture Universities with support of a Netherlands-funded project. Experts guided the implementation, from analysis of labour market to evaluation of new courses. Based on students' evaluation and lecturers' experiences, both types of respondents reported that after having been exposed to a series of trainings and hands-on experience in and outside classrooms, they gained new sets of knowledge and skills. However, some issues emerged in the process. Among these are the lack of competence among lecturers to design curricula based on outcomes, particularly addressing competence of students' knowledge, skills and attitudes; lack of staff to develop and implement a competence-based curricula; non- aggregation of closely related courses in modules that avoid repetitions and provide time for training of skills and attitudes. There is a/so a need to train students for competency in performing more complex teaming outcomes, such as critical thinking. For this change to happen, lecturers need continuous training in didactics for active teaching, and universities need to provide means for participative learning.
Competence for life: a review of developments and perspective for the future : Farewell address upon retiring as Professor of Education and Competence Studies at Wageningen University & Research on 20 October 2016
Mulder, Martin - \ 2016
Wageningen : Wageningen University & Research - ISBN 9789462579675 - 36
education - competences - theory - research - onderwijs - bevoegdheden - theorie - onderzoek
The concept of competence is probably as old as humanity. Introduced in the academic literature in the 1950s, it underwent a remarkable development. Used in the 1960s, criticised in the 1970s, discarded in the 1980s, renewed in the 1990s, and transformed in the 2000s, the global competence movement in the 2010s is stronger than ever. Started as an approach to train specific skills and teach for known jobs, it developed as a strategy to align the worlds of work and education and to prepare professionals for the labour market and lifelong learning. Now it is time to think about competencies for the unknown future and about ways to learn these.
Towards competence-based technical-vocational education and training in Ethiopia
Solomon, Getachew Habtamu - \ 2016
University. Promotor(en): Martin Mulder, co-promotor(en): Renate Wesselink; Omid Noroozi. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462579002 - 161
vocational training - competency based education - competences - training - training courses - education - technical training - ethiopia - east africa - beroepsopleiding - vaardigheidsonderwijs - bevoegdheden - opleiding - scholingscursussen - onderwijs - technische opleiding - ethiopië - oost-afrika

In the human development effort, different countries are underscoring the role of technical-vocational education and training (TVET) in providing relevant knowledge and skills to improve productivity, increase access to employment opportunities and raise the standard of living. It is in recognition of this that, in all Ethiopian educational development endeavors, TVET has been considered to play a key role to tackle the country’s socio-economic underdevelopment through knowledgeable and skillful manpower. Since its introduction in 1941, TVET has been guided by different policies and strategies adopted by successive governments who came to power at different times. This thesis investigates how TVET has reached the current stage of its development in Ethiopia and the challenges encountered in implementing a competence-based system aimed at improving present and future TVET practices. Within this broad aim, the thesis looks into the historical pathways TVET in Ethiopia has passed through time, teachers’ involvement in policy and curriculum development and implementation, the extent to which TVET programs are competence-based (‘competentiveness’) and TVET teachers’ training and professional development. A mix of methods (quantitative and qualitative) was employed and data were collected through questionnaires, interview and documents.Four Polytechnic TVET colleges in Addis Ababa, TVET teachers, students and employed TVET graduates, teacher training teachers and students were involved.

The research findings showed that TVET development lacked consistent and stable policy direction, greatly influenced by government ideology. Competence-based TVET was implemented under severe challenges which include lack of adequately prepared teachers and resources, frequent curricula changes, lack of employers cooperation, discontent of teachers and administrators, etc. The competence-based approach was implemented without extensive deliberations and understanding by TVET teachers in which teachers participation was minimal. Positive correlation between TVET teachers’ participation in educational reform and perception towards TVET system was observed. Thought teachers, students and graduates observed competence-based education and training (CBET) principles in the Ethiopian TVET system, competence-based TVET is not performing well with regard to the practical dimensions of CBET (mainly the “how” aspect) in accordance with the principles of competence-based education. In a positively perceived work environment, ‘competentiveness’ of a TVET programs and employed TVET graduates’ workplace performance was observed. The TVET teacher training programs lack alignment (coherence) with competence-based TVET curriculum in terms of curriculum design and practices. The delivery is predominantly teacher-centered: more lecture oriented with less opportunity for students self and group reflection; student assessment was norm-referenced, not individual competence assessment. Though teachers believe that teacher professional development (TPD) enhances their professional growth, the practices were not in line with their belief; the personal initiative of TVET teachers to undertake TPD activities was minimal; no systematic professional development plan exists in TVET colleges, more traditional approaches in which TVET teachers’ engagement in research has almost been ignored.

Inconsistency in educational policymaking (unstable policy direction) hampered a consensus-based, national education system including TVET, structuring of TVET starting from the scratch. TVET is implemented without a strong foundation – administratively and manpower and materials/facilities (lack well-crafted implementation strategy), more a product of political than of collective decisions. From the study it appears that lacking proper alignment with employment capacity of the economy is a systemic problem of the TVET system. Enforcement of TVET strategy on TVET teachers and administrators without understanding the new competence-based education, which affected their perception. TVET teachers regarded as implementers of a decision rather than having a stake in the issue, affecting their actions and training outcome. Competence-based education and training (CBET) is practiced in TVET but the instruction and practical components lack alignment with CBET principles (no strong learning environments). Though it requires further evidence, the positive relationship between ‘competentiveness’ of a TVET program and graduates’ job performance found in this study supports the assertion that CBET bridges the gap between classroom learning and labor market reality. Because TVET teacher training programs are not aligned with TVET curriculum and teachers professional needs, it is difficult to say that TVET teachers are well prepared in terms of CBET requirement. In TVET teacher training programs, competence development focused instructional practices are not well fostered in practice. TVET teachers TPD activities are more conventional, not aligned with CBET and teachers’ needs.

A number of recommendations are forwarded to improve the implementation of competence-based TVET which have policy implications for future development of TVET and practical interventions to be taken to improve the implementation of competence-based TVET in its different dimensions.

Stadslandbouw in 'gastropool' New York
Pineda Revilla, Beatriz ; Valk, A.J.J. van der - \ 2016
Agora 32 (2016)2. - p. 36 - 39.
stedelijke gebieden - voedselconsumptie - gezondheid - onderwijs - sociale gebruiken - urban areas - food consumption - health - education - social customs
In de metropool New York draait het leven voor een belangrijk deel om eten. Voedsel wordt steeds vaker gezien als een verbindend element in het dagelijks leven. Het raakt aan uiteenlopende zaken als gezondheid, onderwijs, ontspanning en sociale cohesie.
Network formation, learning and innovation in multi-stakeholder research projects : experiences with Adaptive Research and Learning Alliances in rice farming communities in Southeast Asia
Flor, R.J. - \ 2016
University. Promotor(en): Cees Leeuwis, co-promotor(en): Harro Maat; Grant Singleton. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462576650 - 230 p.
learning activities - adult learning - learning - social networks - education - agricultural education - rice - farming - agricultural extension - south east asia - cambodia - leeractiviteiten - volwassenenstudie - leren - sociale netwerken - onderwijs - agrarisch onderwijs - rijst - landbouw bedrijven - landbouwvoorlichting - zuidoost-azië - cambodja

Mounting pressure on research organizations to achieve sustainable development outcomes from research has pushed them to use multi-stakeholder approaches. Insights are missing however, on how these influence social, technical, and institutional change, as well as what outcomes emerge from these. The thesis is an examination of the enactment of multi-stakeholder approaches, questioning how and to what extent Adaptive Research (AR) and Learning Alliance (LA) approaches influence socio-technical innovation in rice farming communities. Four case studies of research and development projects that employed the approaches in rice farming communities were elaborated in this thesis.

AR implementation in Indonesia (chapter 2), showed how AR fast-tracked technical adaptations and built upon the improvisational capacities of farmers. AR monitoring however, rendered invisible the adaptations required on the social aspect. Simultaneous social, technical, and institutional redesign was limited.

A case of LA implemented at national level engaged a network that changed and expanded after three years to include diverse actors (chapter 3). There were points where implementation (mis)aligned with assumptions from project implementers and from conceptual literature of the LA approach. The network influenced change at community level by engaging small groups that made reconfigurations on the technologies and the social arrangements for these (chapter 4). A community-level LA in Myanmar was also found to stimulate a self-organized learning process towards innovation for flatbed dryer technology (chapter 5).

A case where a project used AR only versus AR with LA in Myanmar (chapter 6), revealed differing networks, learning processes, and outcomes in terms of learning agenda. The involvement of a wider network resulted in a broader set of activities, which were initiatives outside the original plans of the project. The learning activities were not only about technologies but also included experimentations on supportive environment for access and use of the technologies.

This thesis therefore demonstrates that project actors implement AR and LA approaches through a range of translations in multiple contexts. These imply varied interactions in different types of networks. Such interactions triggered varied learning processes and thus influenced different planned or emergent outcomes. Both approaches have potential to catalyze innovation in farming communities; however, outcomes on adoption numbers provide a caveat that these approaches are not silver bullets that guarantee technology adoption. Instead, implementation that facilitates effective learning processes, and monitoring that flags where projects could support emergent outcomes, can help implementers improve their contributions to development in farming communities.

Designing hybrid learning configurations at the interface between school and workplace
Cremers, P.H.M. - \ 2016
University. Promotor(en): Martin Mulder; Arjen Wals, co-promotor(en): Renate Wesselink. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462576322 - 156 p.
intermediate vocational training - education - education programmes - higher education - organization of education - practical education - postsecondary education - vocational training - firms - companies - knowledge transfer - knowledge - netherlands - middelbaar beroepsonderwijs - onderwijs - onderwijsprogramma's - hoger onderwijs - onderwijsorganisatie - praktijkonderwijs - vervolgonderwijs - beroepsopleiding - firma's - kapitaalvennootschappen - kennisoverdracht - kennis - nederland

In today’s knowledge society there is a demand for professionals who are able to create knowledge across boundaries of disciplines, professions and perspectives. Increasingly, challenges have to be addressed by experts from different fields who collaborate across different contexts. In addition, given the fast pace with which society changes, experts must continually construct and reconstruct their expertise in a process of lifelong learning. Institutions for higher and vocational education are challenged to educate these ‘knowledge workers’. They are responding, among others, by developing novel hybrid practices at the interface between school and workplace, the so-called hybrid learning configurations. By connecting education, research and professional practice they aim to address complex problems in society by fostering interprofessional collaboration and learning. We define a hybrid learning configuration (HLC) as ‘a social practice around illdefined, authentic tasks or issues whose resolution requires transboundary learning by transcending disciplines, traditional structures and sectors, and forms of learning’.

While many educational institutions and other organizations are co-developing and experimenting with HLCs, the process followed is often one of trial and error. Practical expertise is becoming available but only in an ad hoc and fragmented way. Although research on situated and social learning offers relevant theories and concepts that are useful when designing an HLC, not much research has addressed the design of HLCs in a comprehensive way. This PhD research aims to address this lacuna. We investigate HLCs from an educational design research (EDR) perspective, which involves framing the HLC as a complex intervention. We are interested not only in the features or designed elements of such interventions, but also in the underlying principles or conjectures that are embodied in those features. In addition, we intend to provide support for interprofessional HLC design teams, which consist of, for instance, educational consultants, researchers, lecturers and other practitioners. In order to address these aims we studied six HLCs in the context of Dutch higher vocational education. One of the cases is a joint project of two Dutch institutions for senior secondary vocational educational (which are called ‘MBO’ in Dutch) and two universities of applied sciences (‘HBO’ in Dutch) in collaboration with two companies. The other cases are HLCs in different settings within the context of a university of applied sciences in the Netherlands.

The aims mentioned above led to the following general research questions: 1. Which heuristics can underpin the design of a hybrid learning configuration? 2. In which ways can interprofessional teams be supported when designing hybrid learning configurations? Chapters 2 and 3 address the first research question and chapters 4 and 5 address the second question.

Design principles for HLCs

Chapter 2 focuses on the HLC as a whole. The central research question is: “Which set of principles can underpin the design of a hybrid learning configuration for educating the knowledge worker?” Based on a literature search and designers’ craft knowledge, a set of initial design principles was developed for an HLC at the interface between school and workplace. The intention was that four learning processes would be enabled by the HLC: self-directed learning, authentic learning, the development of a professional identity and collaborative creation of knowledge across the boundaries of disciplines, professions and perspectives.

These initial design principles were evaluated from the perspective of the participants by analysing interview data from students, lecturers, educational consultants and business representatives. This resulted in the following set of seven refined principles that underpin the design of an HLC: fostering authenticity; creating a learning community; utilizing diversity; inter-linking of working and learning; facilitating reflexivity; enabling organization; enabling ecology. These principles can be used as heuristics for guiding the design and development of hybrid learning configurations in contexts that have similar goals and aligned tenets.

Fostering self-directed lifelong learning in HLCs

Chapter 3 elaborates further on the design principle ‘facilitating reflexivity’. Since knowledge workers have to redefine and reconstruct their own expertise in an on-going fashion, they should be able to reflect on and pro-actively develop their professional competence. This capacity for self-directed lifelong learning is an essential asset for them and should therefore be developed or enhanced in an HLC. The main research question in this chapter is: “Which design guidelines underpin an intervention that would foster students’ capacity for self-directed lifelong learning while working on ill-structured, authentic professional tasks?”

An intervention was designed, implemented and evaluated during two iterations of a hybrid learning configuration, which was embedded in a one-semester elective course at a university of applied sciences in the Netherlands. Evaluation methods included interviews with students and the course facilitator, questionnaires, and students’ logs and reports. This resulted in the following five intervention design guidelines: provide opportunities to engage in two or more cycles of self-directed learning; provide educational support; pay attention to emotional and motivational aspects; treat self-directed lifelong learning as a social learning process; position self-directed lifelong learning as a self-evident and integrated part of the course.

The intervention appeared to be usable and effective. At a basic level, the students developed their capacity for self-directed lifelong learning. We concluded that further research is needed to investigate conditions for realizing higher levels of proficiency in self-directed lifelong learning throughout the curriculum and beyond.

Utilization of design principles for HLCs

The focus of chapter 4 is the utilization of the set of design principles that was generated in chapter 2. Research has shown that while knowledge of design heuristics can increase the efficiency and effectiveness of design work, design teams often have difficulty articulating the rationale for their design. In addition, it is important to facilitate ideation and nourish creative spirit while utilizing the design heuristics to create a novel learning environment. In this study we explored an intervention for supporting the creative utilization of the set of design principles for HLC. The intervention was based on boundary-crossing theory and design thinking methods, with a particular focus on prototyping. It consisted of a ‘guidebook’ in which the design principles were explained, and a workshop. The corresponding research question was: “What is the perceived effectiveness of a boundarycrossing intervention (based on a set of research-based design principles) for (re)designing hybrid learning configurations?”

Four design teams of different HLCs in the context of a university of applied sciences used the guidebook and attended the workshop while (re)designing their HLC. The intervention was evaluated by way of questionnaires that were filled out by members of the design teams. The results show that the design teams perceived this intervention as being relevant, consistent, practical and effective. The intervention appeared to provide a conceptual framework for understanding and designing features of a hybrid learning configuration and a vocabulary to communicate design ideas. It, thereby, supported the creative utilization of the design principles. Further research could explore other, complementary ways of facilitating the design of hybrid learning configurations.

Cross-boundary learning during the design and implementation of an HLC

Chapter 5 concerns cross-boundary collaboration and learning processes within an interprofessional design team of an HLC. These teams often consist of actors from different educational institutions and other organizations, such as companies or (non) governmental institutions. When team members bring their different perspectives into the collaboration, they are likely to experience boundaries. Boundaries can be defined as ‘discontinuities in action or interaction’. They can hinder cooperation, but they can also provide opportunities for learning. This led to the following research question: “In which ways could a better understanding of boundaries enhance learning?”

In this study, transcripts of interviews with members of an HLC-design team were analysed using concepts of boundary crossing theory. This theoretical framework provided a lens through which different ways of boundary crossing, learning mechanisms and processes became visible. We established that boundaries are highly personal and subjective constructs. We found that if boundaries are detected and if the related practices are made explicit, this allows for further analysis of these boundaries. Our analysis yielded a number of possible ways to enhance trans-boundary learning in HLC design teams. We also concluded that boundary objects and brokers can play an important role in transboundary learning processes.

Conclusions in a broader perspective

In chapter 6 we frame our conclusions from the four studies in a broader perspective. The first aim of our research was the development of heuristics for the design of HLCs. Given this aim, we developed a set of design principles for an HLC and guidelines for an intervention that fosters the capacity for self-directed lifelong learning. We positioned these principles and guidelines in a ‘conjecture map’ (Sandoval 2014), which shows the relationships between design heuristics, their embodiment in features of an intervention, the intended mediating processes, and the desired outcomes. Our overall conclusion is that framing the set of design principles or guidelines in multiple conjecture maps, rather than representing them as causal chains of design propositions, can provide guidance and support for designing and researching complex educational interventions such as HLCs.

Our second aim was to provide support or ‘design knowledge’ for interprofessional HLC design teams. We addressed that aim by developing and testing an intervention that supported the creative utilization of a set of design principles for HLC. In addition, we provided guidance for enhancing learning across boundaries that could be experienced in an interprofessional design team. We positioned this design knowledge in a broader framework, the ‘ecological framework for conceptualizing teacher knowledge for technology-enhanced learning design’. This framework seems to be useful in contexts beyond technology-enhanced learning, and, so, we consider it relevant to the design of HLCs. We conclude that design teams of HLCs can be supported by using an appropriate framework for design knowledge and by adjusting or expanding this framework for the design of complex interventions by interprofessional design teams.

Further research and practical implications

Our studies led us to the following recommendations. While we focused mainly on learning processes that should occur within HLCs, further research could be directed towards the students’ learning outcomes. Moreover, our findings suggest that selfdirected lifelong learning should be developed and practiced throughout an education programme. To achieve this, curricula in higher education should offer opportunities for students to experiment and follow their own path, alongside prescribed activities with fixed learning outcomes. In the six HLCs that we studied, student learning was foregrounded. However, an HLC also involves other stakeholder types, such as lecturers, researchers, citizens, and entrepreneurs. Therefore, further research could shed light on supporting and evaluating multi-stakeholder learning processes and learning outcomes of all types of stakeholders. Our research on supporting interprofessional design teams focused on the utilization of design knowledge in early stages of (re)design of an HLC. Further research and development could yield ways of support in further stages of the design. In light of this we recommend crossing the boundaries of areas of design science outside the educational context. This will allow us to learn from each other and capitalize on what is already known.

In our study, design principles for HLC were ‘reified’ and disseminated by way of a guidebook. Further investigations could reveal other ways of documenting and communicating design knowledge, for instance via the construction of a database containing principles or guidelines and their associated features in different contexts. Boundary crossing theory appeared to provide a lens through which boundaries and related learning processes became visible. The elements of boundary crossing theory can be translated into guidelines or tools for enhancing cross-boundary learning in interprofessional HLC design teams and, perhaps, for other types of ‘hybrid teams’ as well.

This thesis intends to contribute to the knowledge base for designing hybrid learning configurations. This is done with the intention that this contribution will be utilized and developed further by researchers and practitioners who are committed to educating future professionals in an ever-changing world.

Effectiveness of nutrition education in Dutch primary schools
Fries, M.C.E. - \ 2016
University. Promotor(en): Pieter van 't Veer; Kees de Graaf, co-promotor(en): Annemien Haveman-Nies. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462576537 - 169 p.
schools - elementary schools - primary education - dietetic education - taste - education - vegetables - psychosocial aspects - food consumption - scholen - basisscholen - primair onderwijs - voedingsonderwijs - smaak - onderwijs - groenten - psychosociale aspecten - voedselconsumptie

“Nutrition education in Dutch primary schools”

School-based nutrition education programmes have increasingly been used to teach children about nutrition and to provide them with the skills to make healthy food choices. As these programmes differ in content and delivery, it is hard to identify what intervention components and implementation conditions are most effective. Furthermore, as nutrition education is not mandatory in the Netherlands, it is not clear what effects can be achieved with nutrition education in Dutch primary schools. In this thesis therefore two versions of Taste Lessons were evaluated. Taste Lessons is a practice-driven school-based nutrition education programme on taste development, healthy nutrition, and food quality. The programme was evaluated on its aims to increase children’s interest in food, and their knowledge and skills regarding healthy and conscious eating behaviour. Furthermore, the influence of adding experiential learning activities and implementation factors on effectiveness are addressed.

The first evaluation showed that partial implementation of the 10-12 lessons of Taste Lessons (first version) by the teachers during one school year resulted in small increases in psychosocial determinants of healthy eating behaviour. The highest increase was observed in children’s knowledge, which still persisted six months after the programme.

A second evaluation was conducted with the aim to compare effectiveness of the revised and shorter version of Taste Lessons with and without additional experiential learning activities on change in (psychosocial determinants of) vegetable consumption and willingness to taste unfamiliar vegetables. Results from this second study showed that, with almost complete implementation of the five lessons of Taste Lessons by the teachers during a couple of weeks, similar results as the first effect evaluation. Again with knowledge as the strongest intervention effect. Additional experiential learning activities, such as an extended cooking lesson with a dietician and the parents, an excursion to a grower and a supermarket assignment with the parents, showed more and stronger increases in several psychosocial determinants of vegetable consumption than Taste Lessons without these additional activities. No significant intervention effects were found on children’s willingness to taste unfamiliar vegetables during a taste test, and also not on their daily vegetable consumption and food neophobia.

Analyses on process indicators in both studies revealed that teachers and children highly liked Taste Lessons and that children most liked the experiential learning activities. Furthermore, children’s programme appreciation and interpersonal communication about the programme activities after the lessons were found to be positively associated with their change in psychosocial determinants.

In conclusion, evaluation of Taste Lessons showed an increase in children’s knowledge and several other psychosocial determinants of eating behaviour. Implementation of (additional) experiential learning methods in school-based nutrition education is likely to enhance the intervention’s effectiveness, as children mostly liked these activities and children’s enthusiasm was the strongest predictor of effectiveness. No effects were found on children’s vegetable consumption. To achieve behavioural change, school-based nutrition education should be complemented with a consistent set of changes in children’s environment.

Dierenwelzijnsweb : (digitale) ontmoetingsplaats gezelschapsdieren
Ruis, Markus - \ 2015
animal welfare - education - pets - animal housing - animal health - animal nutrition - animal behaviour
Biobased products and Biorefinery
Koenders, P. ; Vilsteren, G.E.T. van - \ 2015
Wageningen UR - 11 p.
biobased economy - biobased chemistry - biobased materials - education - teachers - chemie op basis van biologische grondstoffen - materialen uit biologische grondstoffen - onderwijs - docenten
Presentatie van de derde CBBE docentendag met als onderwerp: Biobased Products and Biorefinery.
Inauguratie Arjen Wals: Duurzaamheid ontbrekende schakel in onderwijs
Wals, A.E.J. - \ 2015
Wageningen UR
education - education programmes - environmental education - educational reform - sustainability - conscientization - community involvement - pupils - youth - onderwijs - onderwijsprogramma's - milieueducatie - onderwijshervorming - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - bewustwording - maatschappelijke betrokkenheid - leerlingen - jeugd
Het reguliere onderwijs is bijna volledig gericht op het versterken van de economie en gaat grotendeels voorbij aan de hedendaagse duurzaamheidskwesties. Daardoor missen jongeren het noodzakelijke basisdenken om wereldwijde problemen, zoals over voedselzekerheid, biodiversiteit of grondstoffenschaarste het hoofd te bieden. “We moeten jongeren opleiden en uitrusten met competenties die hen in staat stellen de wereld te verduurzamen,” zegt prof.dr.ir. Arjen Wals, persoonlijk hoogleraar Transformatief leren voor sociaalecologische duurzaamheid in zijn intreerede aan Wageningen University op 17 december
Beyond unreasonable doubt. Education and learning for socio-ecological sustainability in the Anthropocene
Wals, A.E.J. - \ 2015
Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462573697 - 36
onderwijs - leren - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - capaciteitsopbouw - vaardigheidsonderwijs - onderwijsvernieuwing - education - learning - sustainability - capacity building - competency based education - educational innovation
Leertraject voor Zorgboeren "Klaar voor de toekomst" : handleiding voor begeleiders van studiegroepen
Poelarends, J.J. ; Ferwerda-van Zonneveld, R.T. ; Hassink, J. ; Schepers, R. - \ 2015
Wageningen : Wageningen UR Livestock Research (Rapport / Wageningen UR Livestock Research 85) - 43
zorgboerderijen - sociale zorg - onderwijs - boeren - noord-nederland - zuid-nederland - social care farms - social care - education - farmers - north netherlands - south netherlands
Dit rapport beschrijft een aanpak voor een leertraject voor zorgboeren. In dit traject van 4 bijeenkomsten verkennen ze toekomstige mogelijkheden voor hun zorgboerderij en maken keuzes die bij henzelf, hun bedrijf en omgeving passen. Nieuwe product markt combinaties worden verkend, evenals de gevolgen voor henzelf, hun bedrijf en de organisatie en marketing ervan. Dit traject liep als pilot in 2014 in twee groepen in Noord en Zuid Nederland. Op basis van die ervaringen is deze handleiding gemaakt voor begeleiders van studiegroepen, netwerken, verenigingen etc. De begeleiders kunnen met deze aanpak een zelfde soort traject doorlopen met groepen zorgboeren.
Heuristic principles to teach and learn boundary crossing skills in environmental science education
Fortuin, K.P.J. - \ 2015
University. Promotor(en): Rik Leemans, co-promotor(en): Kris van Koppen. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462574830 - 173
onderwijs - milieuwetenschappen - heuristiek - onderwijzen - onderwijsvaardigheden - education - environmental sciences - heuristics - teaching - teaching skills

Since the 1970s academic environmental science curricula have emerged all over the world addressing a wide range of topics and using knowledge from various disciplines. These curricula aim to deliver graduates with competencies to study, understand and address complex environmental problems. Complex environmental problems span broad spatial, temporal and organisational scales, are multi-dimensional and involve political controversies. They are further characterized by many uncertainties and conflicting views on the nature of the problem and the best way to solve them. Generally accepted frameworks to educate environmental science graduates with the necessary competencies to address complex environmental problems are scarce. With this thesis, I aimed to explore and develop heuristic principles (i.e. ‘rules of thumb’) for teaching and learning activities that enable environmental science students to especially acquire boundary crossing skills. These skills are needed to develop sustainable solutions for complex environmental problems. I focussed on interdisciplinary and transdisciplinary cognitive skills as a sub-set of boundary crossing skills, and on the potential contribution of conceptual models and environmental systems analysis in teaching and learning these skills.

In order to achieve this aim, I did four studies (see Chapters 2 - 5). These studies were based on an extensive literature review, analysis of existing courses and course material at Wageningen University and elsewhere, personal experience and analysis of reflection papers written by students in authentic learning settings. The last study (Chapter 5) was an empirical statistical study. Here, I developed a strategy for teaching and learning reflexive skills, a subcomponent of interdisciplinary and transdisciplinary cognitive skills, and evaluated this strategy in a quasi-experimental setting.

The studies showed that operationalizing skills and developing teaching and learning activities are closely intertwined. Below, first boundary crossing skills are explicated. Next, the contribution of conceptual models and environmental systems analysis to develop interdisciplinary and transdisciplinary cognitive skills, specifically, is explained. Finally, heuristic principles for teaching and learning activities to develop boundary crossing skills are presented.

Boundary crossing skills in environmental science education

To understand complex environmental problems and develop sustainable solutions require skills to cross boundaries between disciplines, between cultures and between theoretical knowledge and practice. In this study, I used the concept of skills in a broad sense that included not only the actual skills of using different perspectives and dealing with the complexities and uncertainties involved, but also the knowledge (e.g., being aware of various perspectives) and the attitudes (e.g., toward using these perspectives) which are vital for these skills.

Interdisciplinary and transdisciplinary cognitive skills enable a person to integrate knowledge and modes of thinking in two or more disciplines to produce a cognitive advancement (e.g., solving a problem). I identified three components of these skills. The first component skill is the ability to understand environmental issues in a holistic way (i.e. considering different perspectives, systemic social and biophysical elements and their dynamics and interactions). The ability to frame environmental problems holistically allows a comprehensive insight into all relevant aspects to possibly solve the studied problem. The second component skill is the ability to identify, understand, critically appraise and connect disciplinary theories, methodologies, examples and findings into the integrative frameworks required to analyse environmental problems and to devise possible solutions. The third component skill is the ability to reflect on the role of disciplinary, interdisciplinary and transdisciplinary research in solving societal problems. The third component skill is about critically assessing the role of science in society. It encompasses reflecting on the processes of knowledge production and application. I introduced the term “reflexive skills” for this third component.

Furthermore, I distinguished two sub-components of reflexive skills: (i) the ability to assess the relative contributions of scientific disciplines and non-academic knowledge in addressing environmental issues; and (ii) the ability to understand the role of norms and values in problem-oriented research.

The contributions of conceptual models to teach and learn boundary crossing skills

My research showed that conceptual models are useful tools, for teachers, course and curriculum developers, and students, to cope with the challenges of environmental sciences (Chapter 3). These challenges are inherent to the interdisciplinary and problem-oriented character of environmental sciences curricula. The first challenge concerns the structure of a curriculum (i.e. how does one design a coherent curriculum, while including various disciplines?). The second challenge is teaching integrated problem-solving.

I introduced two types of conceptual models: domain models and process models. Domain models structure the domain of environmental sciences. Process models depict the different steps in an environmental research process and clarify how these steps are related to societal processes important to the research. Both types of models are valuable because they can be used to (i) improve the coherence and focus of an environmental sciences curriculum; (ii) analyse environmental issues and integrate knowledge; (iii) examine and guide the process of environmental research and problem solving; and (iv) examine and guide the integration of knowledge in the environmental-research and problem-solving processes (Chapter 3).

To expose students to a range of conceptual models during their education is essential, because such a variety is instrumental in enhancing the students’ awareness of the various approaches to frame environmental issues and to illustrate and explain how this framing has changed over time or what its consequences are. By applying and reflecting on these conceptual models, students likely acknowledge the complexity of human-environment systems and science’s role in dealing with complex environmental problems (Chapter 3).

Environmental systems analysis’s contribution to teach and learn boundary crossing skills

My research demonstrated that education in environmental systems analysis (ESA) improves students’ knowledge about integrative tools, techniques and methodologies, and their application, but also – to a certain extent – their interdisciplinary and transdisciplinary cognitive skills (Chapter 4). ESA education helps to conceptualize and frame an environmental issue holistically (i.e. first component cognitive skill). By applying ESA tools, methods and models to environmental problems, students become aware of the broader context of an environmental problem, its direct and indirect causes, and its direct and indirect effects, the probable connections between local and global issues, and the interactions with various societal actors and stakeholders. ESA education likely enhances students’ ability to identify and connect disciplinary approaches in integrative frameworks, but only enhances the students’ ability to critically appraise disciplinary approaches in integrative frameworks (i.e. second component cognitive skills) to some extent. In order to be able to appraise the contribution of such a disciplinary approach to a specific environmental problem, students need to have sufficient disciplinary knowledge and disciplinary education is needed. ESA education likely supports the ability to critically reflect on the role of disciplinary and interdisciplinary research in solving societal problems (i.e. the third component cognitive skills) by making students aware that a system always represents a simplified model and a particular perspective of reality, but more is needed. To successfully train students’ reflexive skills, specific teaching and learning activities are needed (Chapter 4). These are addressed hereafter.

Heuristics principles to teach and learn boundary crossing skills in environmental science education

My research revealed that acquiring boundary crossing skills requires learning activities that involve a combination of experience in concrete interdisciplinary or transdisciplinary projects, close interaction and debate with persons with other scientific or cultural backgrounds and interests, theory training and explicit moments of reflection. Obtaining concrete experience in addressing a complex environmental problem and developing and executing an interdisciplinary or transdisciplinary project is an excellent starting point. Going through all the stages of an interdisciplinary or transdisciplinary project, having to deal with incomplete data, addressing uncertainty and complexity, contribute to acquiring boundary crossing (Chapter 2) and reflexive skills, specifically (Chapter 5). Switching perspective, fieldwork and intensive group interaction enhance the acquisition of boundary crossing skills (Chapters 2 and 5). Switching perspectives involves working as a disciplinary expert, integrating disciplinary knowledge and empathizing with non-academic stakeholders. Fieldwork provides students with an opportunity to do so by experiencing the ‘complexity of reality’ to interact and empathize with local stakeholders. Intensive group interaction, in particular in a team whose members have diverse disciplinary and cultural backgrounds, makes students aware of differences in disciplinary approaches, perspectives, norms and values. This also contributes to a positive attitude or habitus to crossing boundaries, which is a precondition for being able to cross them (Chapters 2 and 4). I showed that notwithstanding the importance of experience in interdisciplinary or transdisciplinary projects and interaction with others, such experience alone seems insufficient to acquire boundary crossing skills. Students need theoretical training and they need to be stimulated to reflect (Chapter 5).

Key in an environmental science curriculum that aims to train boundary crossing skills, is thus a course that enables a student to actively involve in an interdisciplinary or transdisciplinary project, to interact with persons (students, non-academic stakeholders and experts) with other scientific or cultural backgrounds and interests, and to switch perspective. The teacher’s role in such a course differs considerably to traditional lecturing and providing information. I disclosed three crucial tasks for teachers in interdisciplinary or transdisciplinary student projects: (i) facilitating the students’ (research) experience, (ii) proving theory input, and (iii) encouraging students to reflect.

Theory input consists of integrative ESA methods, models and tools (Chapter 4). Theory also consists of the theoretical and philosophical aspects related to problem oriented environmental research, such as insights about science-society interactions in interdisciplinary and transdisciplinary research, the differences in logic of societal and scientific practices, and the role of perspectives and values in scientific research (Chapter 3). Providing students with these latter insights is particularly important in training the students’ in reflexive skills (Chapter 5).

Mastering boundary crossing skills is a long term process and requires alignment of modules and courses of an environmental science curriculum. Not only the teaching methods, but also the assessment procedure, the climate created in interaction with the students, the institutional settings, and the rules and procedures all need to work together towards boundary crossing skills as learning outcomes. Only under such conditions, can students effectively acquire and develop the necessary boundary crossing skills, required to successfully address the major environmental and sustainability challenges.

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