Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Een haalbaarheidsstudie naar integratie van elektrische voortstuwing in de visserijsector : Academic Consultancy Training
Born, Michael van den; Geurts, Joris ; Jong, Hermen de; Langezaal, Hugo ; Dreessen, Sebastiaan - \ 2016
Kenniskringvisserij.nl - 68 p.
fisheries - costs - fuels - electricity - visserij - kosten - brandstoffen - elektriciteit
De visserijsector heeft de laatste jaren te maken gehad met grote fluctuaties in visprijzen en brandstofkosten. Om de sector toekomstbestendig te maken moeten brandstofkosten worden verlaagd om zo minder invloed te hebben op de financiële resultaten. Daarnaast is het terugdringen van emissies en onafhankelijkheid van fossiele brandstoffen een steeds belangrijker thema. Daarom is in dit project onderzocht in hoeverre het mogelijk is om vissersschepen volledig elektrisch aan te drijven. De focus gelegd op drie thema’s: technische haalbaar, ecologisch verantwoord en economisch rendabel. Tevens is er een stakeholderanalyse uitgevoerd. De resultaten zijn samengevat in een sterkte-zwakte analyse.
Duurzaamheid als leidraad voor roos : vervolg onderzoek Perfecte Roos: energiezuinig geteeld
Gelder, Arie de; Warmenhoven, Mary ; Knaap, Edwin van der; Burg, Rick van der - \ 2016
Bleiswijk : Wageningen UR Glastuinbouw (Rapport GTB 1412) - 50
rozen - teelt onder bescherming - kasgewassen - glastuinbouw - duurzame landbouw - energiebesparing - elektriciteit - assimilatie - kunstlicht - kunstmatige verlichting - verlichting - koelen - meeldauw - geïntegreerde bestrijding - geïntegreerde plagenbestrijding - roses - protected cultivation - greenhouse crops - greenhouse horticulture - sustainable agriculture - energy saving - electricity - assimilation - artificial light - artificial lighting - lighting - cooling - mildews - integrated control - integrated pest management
The project Sustainable rose cultivation aimed to achieve a sustainable and energy efficient rose cultivation by a controlled use of assimilation lighting, an optimum use of the cooling and an integrated control strategy for mildew. The production came to 320 stems.m-2 average weight 54 grams. The branch length and bud size varied through the season. There was no saving on electricity. There was a significant saving on heat. The improvement of the energy efficiency was totally determined by the reduction of the heat consumption. The light utilization efficiency was 2:44 g.mol-¹ and increased compared to the previous year. Cooling and forced ventilation had a positive effect on the stem elongation in the autumn. The installation with forced ventilation from above combined with the screen had a favourable effect on the climate, especially in the humidity control under a largely (95-98%) closed screen. The payback period of the investment in airconditioning is within 3 years.
Biomassa voor de energievoorziening van tuinbouwclusters
Zwart, H.F. de; Ruijs, M.N.A. ; Visser, H.J.M. - \ 2016
Bleiswijk : Wageningen UR Glastuinbouw (Rapport GTB 1393) - 34 p.
bio-energie - glastuinbouw - haalbaarheidsstudies - economische haalbaarheid - warmte - kooldioxide - elektriciteit - biomassa - biobased economy - biochar - verbranding - opwekking van elektriciteit - warmteproductie - bioenergy - greenhouse horticulture - feasibility studies - economic viability - heat - carbon dioxide - electricity - biomass - combustion - electricity generation - heat production
Biomass combustion in combination with a cluster of greenhouses to provide heat, CO2 and electricity can provide a partly solution to the sustainability of the horticultural sector. A biomass gasification plant could also provide valuable biochar, the result of partial combustion of biocarbon. This was shown to have attractive characteristics to be used in high quality potting soil. Despite the high value of the biochar (contributing for 16% of the income from the plant), the economic feasibility of a biomass combustion plant depends heavily on governmental subsidies (SDE +). When the developed technology is used on a practical scale, a biomass plant of 8 MW thermal power and 1.4 MW of electrical power is a sound size. Such a plant fits well with a horticultural cluster of 15 hectares, consisting of 6 ha Tomato, 6 ha Pepper and 3 hectares of Chrysanthemum. The biomass plant produces over 91% of the heating and 95% of the CO2 requirement and 67% of the electricity counsumed. However during winter a lot of electricity will have to be bought, which is compensated with selling to the public grid in summer. The biomass combustion plant will mainly run on biomass is supplied from elsewhere. The biomass from the local cluster covers only 0.3% of the combusted amount. If all available biomass from Netherlands territory would be used to heat greenhouses about 20% of greenhouse industry could make use of system like described in this report.
Jaarrond duurzame en intensieve aardbeienteelt met minder stroom : Deskstudie naar mogelijkheden besparing op elektriciteit
Janse, J. - \ 2016
Bleiswijk : Wageningen UR Greenhouse Horticulture (Rapport GTB 1397) - 28 p.
fragaria ananassa - aardbeien - fruitteelt - energiegebruik - led lampen - elektriciteit - strawberries - fruit growing - energy consumption - led lamps - electricity
The opportunities to significantly reduce the electricity consumption in an illuminated strawberry cultivation
has been analysed in a desk study. Special energy-efficient LED lamps can be used to steer plant growth and
development. By replacing HPS-lamps by the latest LEDs with an energy efficiency of 2.7 μmol/W, the power
consumption can be reduced by more than 30%. It seems possible to reduce this consumption in illuminated
strawberries by another 10% in a greenhouse with high light transmission in the winter months and using
artificial lighting more in relation to different growth stages. Light colour (spectrum) affects the growth,
production and quality of strawberries. A high amount of red light stimulates production and blue light enhances
the sugar and vitamin C content.
The light and energy consumption can be further decreased by improved space utilization and by reducing the
leaf/fruit ratio. Gas savings are possible by minimizing the use of the minimum heating pipe and closing the
energy screen during cold weather. However, this requires special attention with respect to the prevention of
fungal diseases and maintaining fruit quality.
Energiebelasting in de glastuinbouw in Noordwest-Europa
Velden, N.J.A. van der; Smit, P.X. - \ 2016
Wageningen : LEI Wageningen UR (Report / LEI Wageningen UR 2016-025) - ISBN 9789462577428 - 47 p.
glastuinbouw - energiekosten - energiegebruik - energie - belastingen - tarieven - brandstoffen - elektriciteit - noord-europa - west-europa - europa - greenhouse horticulture - energy expenditure - energy consumption - energy - taxes - tariffs - fuels - electricity - northern europe - western europe - europe
In Europa wordt belasting geheven op energie. De belastingen voor de belangrijkste energiesoorten in
de glastuinbouw in de landen in Noordwest-Europa zijn onderzocht. In de afzonderlijke landen worden
door de glastuinbouw verschillende brandstoffen ingezet, warmte en elektriciteit ingekocht en wkinstallaties
gebruikt. De energiebelasting vertoont grote verschillen tussen landen en tussen
energiesoorten per land. Verlaagde tarieven of vrijstellingen voor de glastuinbouw zijn er in alle
onderzochte landen. In het algemeen zijn de kosten voor energiebelasting het hoogst in Denemarken,
gevolgd door het Verenigd Koninkrijk, Nederland, Duitsland, Frankrijk, België en Polen. Bezien vanuit
de energiebelasting is er in Noordwest-Europa geen gelijk speelveld voor glastuinbouwbedrijven.
Efficiënt omgaan met elektriciteit bij chrysant : opties voor besparing
Raaphorst, M.G.M. ; Dueck, T.A. ; Kempkes, F.L.K. ; Veld, P. de; Corsten, R. - \ 2015
Bleiswijk : Wageningen UR Glastuinbouw (Rapport GTB 1370) - 32
chrysanthemum - teelt onder bescherming - kasgewassen - sierteelt - elektriciteit - kunstlicht - kunstmatige verlichting - energiebesparing - led lampen - afdeklagen - reflectie - diffuus glas - snijbloemen - glastuinbouw - protected cultivation - greenhouse crops - ornamental horticulture - electricity - artificial light - artificial lighting - energy saving - led lamps - coatings - reflection - diffused glass - cut flowers - greenhouse horticulture
Trials have demonstrated that that the heat use for Chrysanthemum can be considerably reduced if the right measures are taken. If these reduction can also be realised with lighting, then we are well on the way to climateneutral Chrysanthemum cultivation. In order to identify energy saving measures with lighting, Wageningen UR Greenhouse Horticulture along with growers and DLV-Plant have calculated energy savings for the most promising measures. The most important measures also appear to entail a large investment, such as ARcoatings, diffused glass, LED lighting or a super-reflecting greenhouse structure. More accessible measures, such as soil reflection (for example, styromull), can also lead to a 5% lower electricity costs. In addition, there are many small measures that are expected to increase the energy efficiency. Examples are the stage-dependent lighting regime or an extended propagation. However, it is not yet known how large the effects of these measures are and if they are also economically viable
Bacterial battery chargers
Versluis, K. ; Heijne, A. ter - \ 2015
Mugmedia
stedelijk afvalwater - afvalwaterbehandeling - elektriciteit - elektronen - bacteriën - bio-energie - biobased economy - biotechnologie - waterzuivering - municipal wastewater - waste water treatment - electricity - electrons - bacteria - bioenergy - biotechnology - water treatment
Annemiek ter Heijne investigates a new method to produce electricity from waste water. She uses bacteria as battery chargers.
Minder verbruik elektriciteit, meer licht voor de plant
Hemming, S. - \ 2015
Kas techniek 2015 (2015)januari. - p. 12 - 13.
glastuinbouw - kastechniek - energie - energiebesparing - elektriciteit - lichtregiem - led lampen - kassen - snijbloemen - temperatuur - greenhouse horticulture - greenhouse technology - energy - energy saving - electricity - light regime - led lamps - greenhouses - cut flowers - temperature
Terwijl de laatste jaren het energieverbruik voor warmte in de glastuinbouw flink is gedaald, stijgt het elektriciteitsverbruik. Volgens de LEI energiemonitor was deze in 2005 4.6 miljard kWh en in 2013 7.6 miljard kWh. Aanleiding om in het onderzoeksprogramma Kas als Energiebron een halvering van het elektriciteitsverbruik voor groeilicht bij gelijkblijvende opbrengsten als één van de belangrijke doelstellingen te formuleren.
Tomaten belichten met minder elektriciteit
Dieleman, J.A. ; Janse, J. ; Gelder, A. de; Kempkes, F.L.K. ; Visser, P.H.B. de; Lagas, P. ; Meinen, E. ; Warmenhoven, M.G. ; Elings, A. - \ 2015
Bleiswijk : Wageningen UR Glastuinbouw (Rapport GTB 1338) - 76
glastuinbouw - cultuurmethoden - tomaten - solanum lycopersicum - belichting - led lampen - energiegebruik - efficiëntie - elektriciteit - reductie - gewasproductie - greenhouse horticulture - cultural methods - tomatoes - illumination - led lamps - energy consumption - efficiency - electricity - reduction - crop production
Over the last 10 years, the use of electricity for assimilation lighting has increased considerably. It is now an important part of the energy use of the horticultural sector. To reverse this trend, in the lighting season 2013/2014, we conducted a trial with the aim to reduce the electricity use in a lighted tomato crop by 35% while maintaining production levels. Two treatments were applied: (1) Reference cultivation: clear glass and lighting by 50% HPS lamps and 50% LED intermittent lighting (210 µmol/m2/s), (2) energy efficient cultivation: diffuse greenhouse cover and lighting by 50% LED top lighting and 50% intermittent LED lighting (210 µmol/m2/s). In the energy efficient cultivation, 37% less electricity was used in the period October - May. However, energy use for heating in this treatment was higher to compensate for the lack of radiative heat. The light sum the plants received (sunlight + artificial lighting) was 6% lower in the energy efficient cultivation compared to the reference cultivation due to the lower number of lighting hours. However, the production difference was only 0.3 kg/m2, less than 1%! Detailed plant measurements showed hardly any differences between the treatments in light interception, light absorption by the leaves, photosynthesis and the production and distribution of assimilates. The analysis of the crop growth model showed that the effect of the lower number of lighting hours in the energy efficient cultivation was fully compensated by the positive effects of the diffuse greenhouse cover which has a higher light transmission.
Analysis of the mechanisms of bioelectrochemical methane production by mixed cultures
Eerten-Jansen, M.C.A.A. van; Jansen, N.C. ; Plugge, C.M. ; Wilde, V. de; Buisman, C.J.N. ; Heijne, A. ter - \ 2015
Journal of Chemical Technology and Biotechnology 90 (2015)5. - ISSN 0268-2575 - p. 963 - 970.
microbial electrolysis cells - fuel-cells - carbon-dioxide - electricity - acetate - co2 - electromethanogenesis - electrosynthesis - performance - generation
BACKGROUND In a methane-producing bioelectrochemical system (BES) microorganisms grow on an electrode and catalyse the conversion of CO2 and electricity into methane. Theoretically, methane can be produced bioelectrochemically from CO2 via direct electron transfer or indirectly via hydrogen, acetate or formate. Understanding the electron transfer mechanisms could give insight into methods to steer the process towards higher rate. RESULTS In this study, the electron transfer mechanisms of bioelectrochemical methane production by mixed cultures were investigated. At a cathode potential of -0.7¿V vs. normal hydrogen electrode (NHE), average current density was 2.9 A m-2 cathode and average methane production rate was 1.8 mole e- eq m-2 cathode per day (5.2¿L CH4 m-2 cathode per day). Methane was primarily produced indirectly via hydrogen and acetate. Methods to steer towards bioelectrochemical hydrogen and acetate production to further improve the performance of a methane-producing BES are discussed. CONCLUSION At cathode potentials equal to or lower than -0.7¿V vs. NHE and using mixed cultures, methane was primarily produced indirectly via hydrogen and acetate. (Bio)electrochemical hydrogen and acetate production rate could be increased by optimizing the cathode design and by enriching the microbial community. Consequently, the production rate of CO2-neutral methane in a BES could be increased. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
Zo bespaart u elektriciteit met stalverlichting
Winkel, A. ; Ellen, H.H. - \ 2014
stallen - verlichting - elektriciteit - kunstlicht - energiebesparing - huisvesting, dieren - rundveehouderij - stalls - lighting - electricity - artificial light - energy saving - animal housing - cattle husbandry
Poster. Hoe kan elektriciteitsverbruik van stalverlichting worden beperkt?
Capacitive bioanodes for electricity storage in Microbial Fuel Cells
Deeke, A. - \ 2014
University. Promotor(en): Cees Buisman, co-promotor(en): Bert Hamelers; Annemiek ter Heijne. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462571105 - 151
afvalwaterbehandeling - organische stof - brandstofcellen - energiebronnen - elektriciteit - opslag - energiegebruik - elektrodes - elektrolyten - bio-energie - onderzoek - biobased economy - waste water treatment - organic matter - fuel cells - energy sources - electricity - storage - energy consumption - electrodes - electrolytes - bioenergy - research
Denkend aan het opraken van de fossiele brandstoffen, wordt de noodzaak om naar hernieuwbare alternatieven te kijken alleen maar groter. Zon, wind, water en biomassa zijn al hernieuwbare bronnen die actueel gebruikt worden. Maar voor zonne-, wind- en waterenergie beperkt die discontinue aanwezigheid de verdere ontwikkeling en wordt de noodzaak voor elektriciteitsopslag benadrukt. Een andere technologie voor hernieuwbare elektriciteitsopwekking is de microbiële brandstofcel (MFC). In een MFC worden de organische bestanddelen van het afvalwater rechtstreeks in elektrische energie omgezet. MFCs zijn een opkomende technologie van de afgelopen 10 jaar en vele onderzoekers hebben onderzoek gedaan naar de verbetering van de stroomdichtheid en het vermogen. De continue verwerking van het afvalwater vraagt om opslag van het afvalwater of om opslag van de geproduceerde elektriciteit. Opslag van de elektriciteit kan bewerkstelligd worden door het combineren van een MFC met een condensator.
Strategies to reduce electricity consumption on dairy farms : an economic and environmental assessment
Upton, J.R. - \ 2014
University. Promotor(en): Imke de Boer; Peter Groot Koerkamp, co-promotor(en): L. Shalloo. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462570771 - 171
elektriciteit - energiegebruik - melkveehouderij - reductie - kosten - technologie - innovaties - economische analyse - milieutoets - electricity - energy consumption - dairy farming - reduction - costs - technology - innovations - economic analysis - environmental assessment

The aim of this thesis was to assess how, and to what extent, do managerial and technology changes affect electricity consumption, associated costs and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of dairy farms. Dairy farms in Ireland are expected to expand in the future, due to policy incentives and the abolishment of European Union milk quotas in 2015, which will result in an increased use of resources such as land, water, and energy, and increased emissions to the environment. In order to develop strategies to reduce electricity consumption associated costs and GHG emissions, it was necessary to understand the consumption trends and the hot-spots of electricity consumption within the farm. Therefore, we performed a life cycle assessment by quantifying the energy use on 22 commercial Irish dairy farms, from cradle-to-farm-gate. This analysis demonstrated that a total of 31.7 MJ of energy was required to produce one kg of milk solids, of which 20% was direct and 80% was indirect energy use. Electricity consumption was found to represent 12% of total cradle-to-farm-gate energy use or 60% of direct energy, and was centered on milk harvesting. Following this analysis we devised two main groups of strategies, i.e. ‘cost strategies’ and ‘energy strategies’. ‘Cost strategies’ consisted of measures that could save on-farm costs but no energy or related emissions, such as, moving to a new electricity tariff or decoupling large electricity users, such as water heating, from milking times and shifting them to off-peak periods when electricity price is lower. Examples of ‘energy strategies’ are; the use of variable speed vacuum pumps on the milking machine, pre-cooling of milk and solar thermal technologies to provide hot water for cleaning purposes. A mechanistic model of electricity consumption that simulates farm equipment on an hourly and monthly basis was developed to further evaluate the ‘cost’ and ‘energy’ strategies. We used this model to show that a Day & Night electricity tariff minimised annual electricity costs, while a Flat tariff would increase the electricity costs by between 16% and 34%, depending on farm size. We also discovered that milking earlier in the morning and later in the evening reduced the simulated annual electricity consumption and related GHG emissions by between 5% and 7%, depending on farm size. An analysis of ‘energy strategies’ was carried out which revealed that that the ideal blend of technologies to maximise farm profitability while also reducing electricity consumption and GHG emissions, consisted of a direct expansion milk tank with pre-cooling of milk with well water to 15°C, electrical water heating and standard vacuum pumps. An individual farmer can also choose to increase his or her use of renewable energy by adding solar thermal water heating with the trade-off of reduced profitability and negative return on investment figures. This analysis highlighted the need for an investment appraisal approach to technology investments on dairy farms.

Smart energy practices : examining how householders shape – and are shaped by – smart energy systems : informational govenance
Spaargaren, G. ; Vliet, B.J.M. van; Horst, H.M. van der; Naus, J. - \ 2014
Wageningen UR
energie - energiegebruik - energiebesparing - gedrag van huishoudens - meetapparatuur - computertechnieken - elektriciteit - energy - energy consumption - energy saving - household behaviour - meters - computer techniques - electricity
This project analyses the ways in which householders start making use of new energy and information flows, and the opportunities and threats that come along with new forms of communication and transparency.
Increase of power output by change of ion transport direction in a plant microbial fuel cell
Timmers, R.A. ; Strik, D.P.B.T.B. ; Hamelers, H.V.M. ; Buisman, C.J.N. - \ 2013
International Journal of Energy Research 37 (2013)9. - ISSN 0363-907X - p. 1103 - 1111.
long-term performance - bioelectrochemical systems - exchange membranes - electrolysis cells - iron reduction - rice plants - electricity - cathode - rhizodeposits - generation
The plant microbial fuel cell (PMFC) is a technology for the production of renewable and clean bioenergy based on photosynthesis. To increase the power output of the PMFC, the internal resistance (IR) must be reduced. The objective of the present study was to reduce the membrane resistance by changing the transport direction of cations in the direction of the established concentration gradient. Two setups, a MFC and PMFC, were designed with one anode and two cathode compartments to demonstrate the effect of changing the transport direction. This design allowed changing the direction of transport of cations by switching the cathode compartment that functions as cathode. The change between cathode 1 and cathode 2 enhanced the power output of the PMFC by 398%. More specifically, after changing transport direction, the increase in power output was due to the reduction of IR (normalized to membrane area) from 4.3 O m2mem to 1.2 O m2mem in the PMFC. Consecutive changes of cathodes resulted in an increase of generated power with cathode 1 while this power decreased for cathode 2. During the consecutive changes, the average power output remained constant 0.0362¿±¿0.0005 W m-2mem; this was 246% higher than the initial power output with cathode 1
Groei elektriciteitsconsumptie glastuinbouw : Hoe verder?
Velden, N.J.A. van der; Smit, P.X. - \ 2013
Den Haag : LEI, onderdeel van Wageningen UR (Rapport / LEI : Werkveld, Sectoren en ondernemerschap ) - ISBN 9789086156429 - 60
glastuinbouw - teelt onder bescherming - energiegebruik - energiebehoeften - elektriciteit - opwekking van elektriciteit - warmtekrachtkoppeling - groei - onderzoek - kooldioxide - greenhouse horticulture - protected cultivation - energy consumption - energy requirements - electricity - electricity generation - cogeneration - growth - research - carbon dioxide
De consumptie van elektriciteit door de glastuinbouw is de achterliggende jaren substantieel toegenomen Waarvoor de elektriciteit wordt gebruikt is onvoldoende bekend. Het LEI heeft in opdracht van PT en EZ het gebruik en de groei van de elektriciteitsconsumptie naar apparatuur in kaart gebracht. Bovendien is een kwalitatieve verkenning uitgevoerd naar het belang van de opties voor de verduurzaming van de elektriciteitsconsumptie. De basisinformatie is afkomstig van diverse databonnen maar vooral van ervaringsdeskundigen.
The flat-plate plant-microbial fuel cell: the effect of a new design on internal resistances
Helder, M. ; Strik, D.P.B.T.B. ; Hamelers, H.V.M. ; Buisman, C.J.N. - \ 2012
Biotechnology for Biofuels 5 (2012). - ISSN 1754-6834
electricity - performance - growth
Due to a growing world population and increasing welfare, energy demand worldwide is increasing. To meet the increasing energy demand in a sustainable way, new technologies are needed. The Plant-Microbial Fuel Cell (P-MFC) is a technology that could produce sustainable bio-electricity and help meeting the increasing energy demand. Power output of the P-MFC, however, needs to be increased to make it attractive as a renewable and sustainable energy source. To increase power output of the P-MFC internal resistances need to be reduced. With a flat-plate P-MFC design we tried to minimize internal resistances compared to the previously used tubular P-MFC design. With the flat-plate design current and power density per geometric planting area were increased (from 0.15 A/m(2) to 1.6 A/m(2) and from 0.22 W/m(2) to and 0.44 W/m(2)) as were current and power output per volume (from 7.5 A/m(3) to 122 A/m(3) and from 1.3 W/m(3) to 5.8 W/m(3)). Internal resistances times volume were decreased, even though internal resistances times membrane surface area were not. Since the membrane in the flat-plate design is placed vertically, membrane surface area per geometric planting area is increased, which allows for lower internal resistances times volume while not decreasing internal resistances times membrane surface area. Anode was split into three different sections on different depths of the system, allowing to calculate internal resistances on different depths. Most electricity was produced where internal resistances were lowest and where most roots were present; in the top section of the system. By measuring electricity production on different depths in the system, electricity production could be linked to root growth. This link offers opportunities for material-reduction in new designs. Concurrent reduction in material use and increase in power output brings the P-MFC a step closer to usable energy density and economic feasibility.
Electrostatic powder coating of foods - State of the art and opportunities
Khan, M.K.I. ; Schutyser, M.A.I. ; Schroën, C.G.P.H. ; Boom, R.M. - \ 2012
Journal of Food Engineering 111 (2012)1. - ISSN 0260-8774 - p. 1 - 5.
transfer efficiency - particulate flows - particle-size - technology - surfaces - triboelectrification - electricity - transport - dustiness - ignition
Edible coatings and incorporation of active ingredients can improve food quality (appearance, taste, flavours, and increased shelf life). In this paper, specific emphasis is given to electrostatic application of powdercoatings that is known for high transfer efficiency and even coating. This application technique has the potential to reduce excessive use of coating material (up to 68%) and minimise dust release (up to 84%) to the environment. Different parameters (e.g. powder particle size) are discussed that influence powdercoating quality and efficiency for both non-electrostatic and electrostaticpowder application. Typical food processing systems are reviewed that can be combined with electrostaticpowdercoating. Finally, an overview of electrostatically coated food products and a short outlook of electrostaticpowdercoating of foods are given.
Praktijkervaringen met de DaglichtKas
Zwart, H.F. de; Noort, F.R. van - \ 2012
Wageningen : Wageningen UR Glastuinbouw (rapporten GTB 1157) - 60
glastuinbouw - kassen - daglicht - optische eigenschappen - potplanten - lichtdoorlating - zonne-energieverwarming - elektriciteit - warmteproductie - greenhouse horticulture - greenhouses - daylight - optical properties - pot plants - light transmission - solar heating - electricity - heat production
De DaglichtKas is een innovatief ontwerp voor kassen voor schaduwminnende teelten waarbij gebruik gemaakt wordt van lenzen in het dak. Deze lenzen buigen het directe licht af naar een brandlijn waar een collector het omzet in warmte en in elektriciteit. De lens is alleen effectief voor direct licht en daardoor heeft het systeem nauwelijks effect op de diffuse doorlatendheid. Dit blijkt te resulteren in een zeer geschikt lichtklimaat voor de teelt van potplanten.
Characterization of the internal resistance of a plant microbial fuel cell
Timmers, R.A. ; Strik, D.P.B.T.B. ; Hamelers, H.V.M. ; Buisman, C.J.N. - \ 2012
Electrochimica Acta 72 (2012). - ISSN 0013-4686 - p. 165 - 171.
exchange membranes - rice plants - electricity - rhizodeposits - generation - transport - bacteria
The objective of this research was to clarify the internal resistance of the PMFC. To characterize internal resistances of the PMFC current interrupt and polarization were used, and partial resistances were calculated. The internal resistance consisted mainly of anode resistance and membrane resistance which both decreased during current interrupt. The anode resistance was the result of mass transfer resistance in the electrochemically active biofilm. The membrane resistance was the result of accumulation of cations in the cathode. The polarization showed a distinct hysteresis which was explained by the increase of the internal resistance during polarization. The increase of this resistance makes it difficult to interpret the maximum power output of the PMFC.
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