Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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The economic impact of pilgrimage: An economic impact analysis of pilgrimage expenditures in Galicia
Graave, Elisabeth J.E. ; Klijs, J. ; Heijman, W.J.M. - \ 2017
International Journal of Religious Tourism and Pilgrimage 5 (2017)3. - ISSN 2009-7379 - p. 39 - 54.
Pilgrimage - Sntiago de Compostela - Galicia - regional economic impact - input-output model, simple location quotient - Flegg's location quotient - gross value added - employment
In this article, we calculate the economic impact of pilgrimage to Santiago de Compostela in the NUTS 2 region Galicia (Spain) in 2010. This economic impact is relevant to policymakers and other stakeholders dealing with religious tourism in Galicia. The analysis is based on the Input-Output model. Location Quotient formulas are used to derive the regional Input-Output table from the national Input-Output table of Spain. Both the Simple Location Quotient formula and Flegg’s Location Quotient formula are applied. Furthermore, a sensitivity analysis is carried out. We found that pilgrimage expenditures in 2010 created between €59.750 million and €99.575 million in Gross Value Added and between 1,362 and 2,162 jobs. Most of the impact is generated within the ‘Retail and Travel Services’ industry, but also the ‘Industry and Manufacturing’, ‘Services’ and ‘Financial and Real Estate Services’ industries benefit from pilgrimage expenditures. This research indicates that in even in the most conservative scenario, the impact of pilgrimage is significant on the local economy of Galicia.
Tourism, income, and jobs : improving the measurement of regional economic impacts of tourism
Klijs, J. - \ 2016
University. Promotor(en): Wim Heijman, co-promotor(en): Jack Peerlings. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789054723509 - 188 p.
tourism - economic impact - income - employment - regional economics - models - tourism impact - visitor impact - toerisme - economische impact - inkomen - werkgelegenheid - regionale economie - modellen - impact van toerisme - impact van bezoekers

Summary

Tourism can have a broad range of impacts, including impact on the economy, on the natural and built environment, on the local population, and on visitors themselves. This PhD thesis discussed the measurement of regional economic impacts of tourism, including impacts on output, value added, and employment caused by visitor expenditure. The focus was on the choice between models that can be used to calculate these regional economic impacts and the data requirements, usage, and further development of one specific model; the Input-Output (I-O) model.

The starting point of an I-O model is final demand, which is the value of goods and services bought by final users for the direct fulfilment of their needs and wants. In tourism this refers to the value of the goods and services bought by visitors. Final demand brings about a chain of production. First, goods and services that are part of final demand need to be produced. This requires production factors (i.e., capital and labour) as well as intermediate inputs. These intermediate inputs also need to be produced, again requiring production factors and a subsequent ‘level’ of intermediate inputs. Combining final demand and all ‘levels’ of intermediate inputs, an I-O model enables calculation of the total output required to satisfy final demand. An I-O model can be an appropriate choice for an economic impact analysis (EIA) in the following context:

Relevant data exist on (the change of) final demand, i.e. visitors expenditure per industry;

There is an I-O table on the appropriate spatial scale;

Impacts are analysed of (a change in) final demand;

The assumption ‘no scarcity of production factors’ is acceptable (which implies there are no relative prices changes, input substitution and redistribution of production factors among industries);

The assumption ‘no productivity changes’ is acceptable (final demand changes do not lead to productivity changes, e.g. employees working longer, harder or more efficiently);

There is interest in indirect impacts on output, value added, income and/or employment per industry, while there is little interest in induced impacts, spatial considerations, temporal consideration, social impacts, environmental impacts, and economic externalities. Indirect impacts are impact generated by the production of intermediary inputs.

Not all EIAs in tourism will be carried out within such a context. In some EIAs one or more of these conditions are not met. The overall goal of this research was to improve the measurement of the regional economic impacts of tourism by

Establishing criteria based on which an appropriate economic impact model can be selected for an EIA in tourism and;

Providing solutions for those situations where

an Input Output table on the appropriate spatial scale is not available;

and/or analysis is required of different ‘shocks’ than final demand changes;

and/or the assumption ‘no scarcity of production factors’ cannot be accepted (which implies there can be relative prices changes, input substitution and/or redistribution of production factors among industries);

and/or the assumption ‘no productivity changes’ cannot be accepted

without introducing prohibitive complexity and data demands to an I-O model.

This overall objective was subdivided into the following specific objectives:

Provide an overview and evaluation of the criteria for the selection of economic impact models.

Provide an explanation for the sign of the difference between regional I-O coefficients calculated between two alternative location quotient (LQ) methods, for all combinations of demanding and supplying industries.

To analyze medical tourism’s state-level economic impacts in Malaysia.

Address the limitations of I-O models and ‘upgrade’ the I-O model, without introducing the complexity and data collection costs associated with a full Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) model.

To include labour productivity changes, caused by a change in final demand in the tourism industries, into a non-linear I-O (NLIO) model.

Each of these specific objectives was discussed in a separate chapter. Chapter 2 discussed criteria to choose between economic impact models, when carrying out an EIA in tourism. Based on the literature review 52 potential criteria were identified. After consulting experts in tourism and/or EIAs 24 of these 52 criteria were identified as essential. These essential criteria were used to compare the five economic impact models that are most used in EIAs in tourism; Export Base, Keynesian, Ad hoc, I-O, and CGE models. The results show that CGE models are the preferred choice for many of the criteria. Their detail and flexibility potentially lead to more realistic outcomes. However, CGE models do not ‘score’ high on criteria related to transparency, efficiency, and comparability. Multiplier models (Keynesian, Export Base and Ad Hoc) score high on these criteria, but the realism of their results is limited. I-O models are an “in-between” option for many criteria, which explains their extensive usage in EIAs in tourism. Nonetheless, I-O models have some important disadvantages, most notably their strong assumptions (‘no scarcity of production factors’ and ‘no productivity changes’), which limit the realism of their results. Although the choice of a model should always depend on the specific context of each EIA, the general conclusion is that an ‘ideal model’ for many applications could be found somewhere in between I-O and CGE. The challenge, however, is to extend the I-O model, while keeping the complexity and data demands to a minimum. This conclusion provided the motivation for the application and further development of an NLIO model, in chapters 5 and 6.

Both I-O and NLIO models require the existence of an I-O table on the appropriate spatial scale. For a regional I-O analysis an I-O table needs to be available for the specific region. When such a table is not available, it can be created using LQ methods. The four most used LQ methods are Simple Location Quotient, Cross Industry Location Quotient, Round’s Location Quotient, and Flegg’s Location Quotient (FLQ). The size of the regional I-O coefficients (RIOCs), which are derived from a regional I-O table, directly influences the results of an EIA. An over- or underestimation of RIOCs can lead to over- or underestimation of economic impacts. It is therefore very important to understand the differences between LQ methods and the consequences for the RIOCs. Chapter 3 showed that the ranking in size of the RIOCs, generated by the four LQ methods, depends on the J-value of demanding industries (output of industry j on regional level divided by output of industry j on national level). The conditions were calculated under which FLQ, the LQ method which was developed to avoid overestimation, leads to the lowest RIOCs47. Although this chapter does not provide a complete answer to question which LQ method to use in an EIA it does show that a choice for the FLQ method could be motivated by the wish to arrive at a careful estimate of regional economic impacts and to avoid or limit overestimation.

In chapter 4 the FLQ method was used to create RIOCs for nine Malaysian states. These RIOCs were used to calculate state-level economic impacts of medical tourism based on regional I-O models. It was shown that impacts related to non-medical expenditure of medical tourists (USD 273.7 million) are larger than impacts related to medical expenditure (USD 104.9 million) and that indirect impacts (USD 95.4 million) make up a substantial part of total impacts (USD 372.3 million). Data limitations implied that strong assumptions were required to estimate final demand by medical tourists, specifically regarding their non-medical expenditure and allocation of this expenditure to industries of the I-O model.

In chapter 5 the I-O model was “upgraded” to a NLIO model, by replacing the Leontief production function, underlying the I-O model with a Constant Elasticity of Substitution (CES) production function. Thereby the main drawback of the I-O model, the need to accept the assumption of ‘no scarcity of production factors’ was thus eliminated. The analysis performed showed that, for large changes of final demand, an NLIO model is more useful than an I-O model because relative prices changes are likely, leading to substitution and redistribution of production factors between industries. The NLIO takes this into account. Impacts can be higher or lower than in the I-O model, depending on assumptions about capacity constraints, production factor mobility and substitution elasticities. Relative price changes, substitution, and redistribution are less likely for a small change of final demand. In that case most realistic results are achieved by accepting assuming ‘no scarcity of production factors’, as in case of the I-O model. To analyze impacts of other types of ‘shock’ than final demand changes, such as a change of subsidies, an I-O model is not an option. A more flexible model is required, such as a NLIO model. A NLIO model requires additional assumptions and/or data. First, researchers need to choose the appropriate assumption regarding the functioning of factor markets and production factor mobility between industries. Second, the NLIO model forces the researcher to specify the substitution elasticities, instead of implicitly assuming an elasticity of zero (as in the I-O model). Compared to a CGE model, the NLIO model offers the advantage that it is not dependent on the existence of a Social Accounting Matrix (SAM) on the appropriate spatial scale, while the production structure is identical. Furthermore, using a CGE model introduces additional complexity as it requires the specification of the relationships between income and final demand, including issues such as income transfers and income taxation.

In chapter 6 labour productivity changes, that result from final demand changes were included into the NLIO model, thereby integrating productivity changes. A differentiation was made between real and quasi productivity changes and productivity changes for core and peripheral labour. Real productivity changes (changes that enable the production of more output per unit of labour) were integrated by introducing Factor Augmenting Technical Change (FATC) based on an endogenous specification. Quasi productivity changes (substitution of labour by other inputs which automatically leads to higher labour productivity) were already integrated into the NLIO based on the CES production function. The differentiation between core and peripheral labour was integrated by a smaller potential change of FATC for peripheral labour, implying less room for productivity changes. The NLIO model with and without FATC was applied to calculate impacts of a 10% increase of expenditure in tourism in the province of Zeeland in the Netherlands. Accounting for FATC leads to less usage of labour in the tourism industries as productivity increases allow output to be produced using fewer inputs. This implies lower marginal costs, which leads to lower output prices. These relative input and output price changes stimulate substitution and quasi productivity changes. To what degree the NLIO with FATC leads to more realistic results than the NLIO without FATC depends vitally on the specification of FATC, the differentiation between core and peripheral labour, and the labour supply function. All these elements require additional assumptions and/or data.

For some EIAs the NLIO is an improvement compared to the I-O model because it does not require the assumption ‘no scarcity of production factors’ to be accepted. In the NLIO with FATC neither the assumption of ‘no scarcity of production factors’ nor the assumption of ‘no productivity changes’ is required. In chapter 7 are discussed considerations related to the acceptance or rejection of these two assumptions. Rejection of ‘no scarcity of production factors’ can be appropriate in EIAs in large regions, of large changes of final demand, in regions with limited or no unused labour and capital, in long term analyses, in regions with low factor mobility from and to other regions, and for impact analyses (instead of significance analyses). Acceptance or rejection of the assumption ‘no productivity changes’ depends on the degree to which labour productivity changes can be expected as a result of a final demand change, a consideration which requires expert judgment.

This research makes several contributions to the measurement of the regional economic impacts of tourism:

24 essential criteria that can be used to select a model for application in an economic impact analysis. Although the decision which criteria to consider, and how to weigh these criteria, should always be made on a case specific basis the essential criteria provide a good starting point

This thesis provides additional insights into the differences between the regional I-O coefficients and total output multipliers generated by the four LQ methods. Furthermore, it was shown that a choice for FLQ could be motivated by the wish to avoid or limit overestimation of regional economic impacts.

The NLIO model with endogenous factor augmenting technical change enables a calculation of economic impacts of tourism in contexts where the I-O model is not the most appropriate choice. The NLIO model namely allows for measurement of different ‘shocks’ than final demand changes and can be applied in context where the assumptions ‘no scarcity of production factors’ and/or ‘no productivity change’ are untenable. When applying an NLIO model, the added realism compared to the I-O model needs to be weighed against the need to make additional assumptions, collect additional data, and deal with the more complex nature of this model. In this perspective the NLIO model does compare favourably to the CGE Model, often presented as a more realistic alternative to the I-O model, because it does not depend on data on the relationships between income and final demand (i.e. the need for a SAM).

Essay Kennisinfrastructuur akkerbouw en algemeen economisch belang
Smit, A.B. - \ 2015
Den Haag : LEI Wageningen UR - 4 p.
akkerbouw - economische aspecten - innovaties - werkgelegenheid - kennisniveau - programma's - kennisoverdracht - arable farming - economic aspects - innovations - employment - knowledge level - programs - knowledge transfer
Op verzoek van BO Akkerbouw heeft LEI Wageningen UR een literatuurstudie gedaan naar het algemeen economisch belang van een goede kennisinfrastructuur voor de akkerbouwsector, dat in de aangehaalde Verordening als voorwaarde wordt genoemd. Ook heeft het LEI een ex-antebeoordeling gegeven van de bijdrage van het Kennis- en innovatieprogramma van BO Akkerbouw aan dit belang.
Auswirkungen der Erhöhung des Mehrwertsteuersatzes für Zierpflanzenerzeugnisse : Situation im Jahr 2015
Bunte, F. ; Galen, M.A. van - \ 2015
LEI Wageningen UR (Rapport / LEI Wageningen UR 2015-103) - ISBN 9789086157167 - 25 p.
ornamental horticulture - value added tax - change - effects - turnover - economic evaluation - employment - european union - netherlands - sierteelt - belasting toegevoegde waarde - verandering - effecten - omzet - economische evaluatie - werkgelegenheid - europese unie - nederland
This report evaluates the effects of a possible application of the general VAT rate to ornamentals on turnover and employment in the Dutch and European ornamental supply chain. The effects are calculated for the scenario in which the Netherlands decide to apply the general VAT rate and the scenario in which all member states of the European Union (EU) decide to apply the general VAT rate. In 2015, the lower VAT rate is applied to ornamentals in 13 EU member states. The effects are measured using the Hortus model of LEI Wageningen UR, which models demand and supply in European horticulture.
Effects of increased VAT rates for ornamentals : situation 2015
Bunte, F. ; Galen, M.A. van - \ 2015
LEI Wageningen UR (Report / LEI Wageningen UR 2015-103) - ISBN 9789086157174 - 23 p.
ornamental horticulture - value added tax - change - effects - turnover - economic evaluation - employment - european union - netherlands - sierteelt - belasting toegevoegde waarde - verandering - effecten - omzet - economische evaluatie - werkgelegenheid - europese unie - nederland
This report evaluates the effects of a possible application of the general VAT rate to ornamentals on turnover and employment in the Dutch and European ornamental supply chain. The effects are calculated for the scenario in which the Netherlands decide to apply the general VAT rate and the scenario in which all member states of the European Union (EU) decide to apply the general VAT rate. In 2015, the lower VAT rate is applied to ornamentals in 13 EU member states. The effects are measured using the Hortus model of LEI Wageningen UR, which models demand and supply in European horticulture.
Effets de l'augmentation du taux de TVA pour les produits d'horticulture ornementale : situation 2015
Bunte, F.H.J. ; Galen, M.A. van - \ 2015
Wageningen : LEI Wageningen UR (Rapport / LEI Wageningen UR 2015-103) - ISBN 9789086157167 - 25 p.
ornamental horticulture - value added tax - change - effects - turnover - economic evaluation - employment - european union - netherlands - sierteelt - belasting toegevoegde waarde - verandering - effecten - omzet - economische evaluatie - werkgelegenheid - europese unie - nederland
This report evaluates the effects of a possible application of the general VAT rate to ornamentals on turnover and employment in the Dutch and European ornamental supply chain. The effects are calculated for the scenario in which the Netherlands decide to apply the general VAT rate and the scenario in which all member states of the European Union (EU) decide to apply the general VAT rate. In 2015, the lower VAT rate is applied to ornamentals in 13 EU member states. The effects are measured using the Hortus model of LEI Wageningen UR, which models demand and supply in European horticulture.
Effecten van verhoging btw-tarief voor sierteeltproducten : situatie 2015
Bunte, F.H.J. ; Galen, M.A. van - \ 2015
Wageningen : LEI Wageningen UR (LEI rapport 2015-103) - ISBN 9789086157167 - 25 p.
sierteelt - belasting toegevoegde waarde - verandering - effecten - omzet - economische evaluatie - werkgelegenheid - europese unie - nederland - ornamental horticulture - value added tax - change - effects - turnover - economic evaluation - employment - european union - netherlands
This report evaluates the effects of a possible application of the general VAT rate to ornamentals on turnover and employment in the Dutch and European ornamental supply chain. The effects are calculated for the scenario in which the Netherlands decide to apply the general VAT rate and the scenario in which all member states of the European Union (EU) decide to apply the general VAT rate. In 2015, the lower VAT rate is applied to ornamentals in 13 EU member states. The effects are measured using the Hortus model of LEI Wageningen UR, which models demand and supply in European horticulture.
Omvang van het Nederlandse bos- en houtcomplex : Productiewaarde, toegevoegde waarde en werkgelegenheid in 2010-2012
Silvis, H.J. ; Verhoog, A.D. ; Voskuilen, M.J. - \ 2015
Wageningen : LEI Wageningen UR (Nota / LEI 2015-060) - 28
bosbouw - houthandel - houtteelt - economische analyse - werkgelegenheid - nederland - forestry - timber trade - silviculture - economic analysis - employment - netherlands
Deze notitie raamt de economische betekenis van en werkgelegenheid in het Nederlandse bos- en houtcomplex in de periode 2010-2012. Inzicht hierin is van belang om maatschappelijk gerichte initiatieven van het complex te kunnen beoordelen op hun economische effecten
Benchmark Agrofood : de positie van regio FoodValley in Nederland
Agricola, H.J. ; Kuhlman, T. - \ 2015
Wageningen : Alterra, Wageningen-UR (Alterra-rapport 2637) - 32
landbouwsector - agro-industriële sector - agro-industriële complexen - landbouwindustrie - voedselindustrie - landbouwproductie - voedselproductie - agro-industriële ketens - werkgelegenheid - gelderse vallei - veehouderij - agricultural sector - agroindustrial sector - agroindustrial complexes - agribusiness - food industry - agricultural production - food production - agro-industrial chains - employment - livestock farming
Gemeente Ede wil meer inzicht krijgen in de economische betekenis van het regionale agrofoodcomplex. Meer specifiek luidt de vraag: hoe verhoudt de bedrijvigheid van de agrofoodsector in de regio FoodValley – in termen van werkgelegenheid en toegevoegde waarde – zich tot andere agrofoodregio’s in Nederland? Om de positie van regio FoodValley en gemeente Ede te duiden, zal een vergelijking worden gemaakt met de deelgebieden Oost-Brabant, Rotterdam Foodcluster en Amsterdam-Zaanstreek.
De Nederlandse visverwerkende industrie en visgroothandel : economische analyse van de sector, ontwikkelingen en trends
Beukers, R. - \ 2015
Den Haag : LEI Wageningen UR (Report LEI 2014-026) - ISBN 9789086157099 - 87
visverwerkende industrie - handel - vis - economische analyse - tendensen - werkgelegenheid - omzet - import - export - fish industry - trade - fish - economic analysis - trends - employment - turnover - imports - exports
Dit onderzoek geeft inzicht in de economische situatie van de visverwerkende industrie en visgroothandel in Nederland door een analyse van de economische structuur van de sector en de belangrijkste ontwikkelingen. De bedrijven in de visverwerkende industrie en visgroothandel hadden in 2013 een gezamenlijke omzet van 3.6 miljard euro; een groei van 7% ten opzichte van de omzet in 2009. 70% van de totale omzet van Nederlandse visverwerkende bedrijven en visgroothandels werd behaald uit export; 30% werd gerealiseerd op de binnenlandse markt.
De kracht van het agrocluster : het belang van de primaire landbouw voor het totale agrocomplex
Berkhout, P. ; Asseldonk, M.A.P.M. van; Benninga, J. ; Ge, L. ; Hoste, R. ; Smit, A.B. - \ 2015
Wageningen : LEI Wageningen UR (LEI rapport 2015-032) - ISBN 9789086157082 - 56
landbouwsector - economische analyse - economische ontwikkeling - agro-industriële ketens - varkenshouderij - sierteelt - aardappelen - akkerbouw - werkgelegenheid - gevalsanalyse - agricultural sector - economic analysis - economic development - agro-industrial chains - pig farming - ornamental horticulture - potatoes - arable farming - employment - case studies
Nederland kent een sterke en innovatieve agrosector, die met een aandeel van zo’n 8% in het nationaal inkomen en de werkgelegenheid een belangrijke pijler is onder de nationale economie. De kracht van de Nederlandse agrosector is sterk verbonden met een historisch gegroeid cluster van bedrijven in de keten. Bij dit cluster behoren spelers in de toelevering en verwerking van diensten. De vraag is wat er overblijft van de kracht van het agrocluster als bijvoorbeeld door regelgeving de primaire schakel belangrijk in omvang zou afnemen. Dit rapport poogt in opdracht van het ministerie van EZ op deze vraag een antwoord te geven.
Ruimte voor de toekomst in het landelijk gebied : trendverkenning 2020-2030 voor gemeenten met veel landelijk gebied /
Nieuwenhuizen, W. ; Gies, T.J.A. ; Och, R.A.F. van; Rooij, L.L. de - \ 2015
Wageningen : Alterra, Wageningen-UR (Alterra-rapport 2628) - 81
plattelandsomgeving - tendensen - gemeenten - platteland - plattelandsontwikkeling - landbouw - demografie - werkgelegenheid - recreatie op het platteland - rural environment - trends - municipalities - rural areas - rural development - agriculture - demography - employment - rural recreation
Hoe het landelijk gebied er in 2040 uit zal zien, weet niemand. Toch is een aantal trends aan te wijzen dat nu al zichtbaar is en voor een groot deel de richting zal bepalen waarin het zich gaat ontwikkelen. Het landelijk gebied wordt steeds meer een multifunctionele leef- en werkomgeving, waarbinnen initiatieven van burgers en bedrijven oplossingen aandragen voor lokale problemen. Schaalvergroting van (agrarische) bedrijven en voorzieningen gaat gelijk op met een toename van kleinschalige en lokale initiatieven van burgers en bedrijven. Technologische innovatie kan de bedrijvigheid en de leefbaarheid in het landelijk gebied vergroten. Tot slot is een toename van extreme gebeurtenissen mogelijk door klimaatverandering of de uitbraak van dierziekten. Dit rapport beschrijft een aantal van de belangrijkste trends voor gemeenten met veel landelijk gebied. De trends worden besproken aan de hand van verschillende thema's.
Two Centuries of State Involvement in the Dutch Agro sector: An Assessment of Policy in a Long-term Historical Perspective
Haas, M.A. de - \ 2013
Den Haag : WRR - Nederlands scientific council for Goverment Policy (Webpublications / Netherlands Scientific Council for Government Policy (WRR) 72) - 100
landbouwbeleid - export - werkgelegenheid - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - dierenwelzijn - voedselzekerheid - agricultural policy - exports - employment - sustainability - animal welfare - food security
This paper addresses the development of Dutch government policies on the agro sector in a long-term historical perspective. Agro policies touch upon a wide range of matters, from export, competitiveness and employment to sustainability, animal welfare and food security, Unsurprisingly, they are a topic of heated debate. Aspects of Dutch agro policies have received both praise and condemnation. A long-term assessment of agro policies shows that policy priorities have shifted quite radically over time. States’ concerns about food supply and food security have existed for as long as states themselves, and remain of key relevance to this day. In addition, the agro sector has always employed a large section of the working population and played an important role in economic life. Even today, the agro sector accounts for a considerable share of GDP (10%) and an even larger share of exports. To ensure an economically healthy and competitive agro sector, policies specifically designed to improve productivity and competitiveness have been developed over the past two centuries.
Innovatie in de levensmiddelenindustrie : de rol van het mkb
Logatcheva, K. ; Bakker, T. ; Oosterkamp, E.B. ; Galen, M.A. van; Bunte, F.H.J. - \ 2013
Den Haag : LEI Wageningen UR (LEI-rapport : Markt & ketens ) - ISBN 9789086156221 - 76
voedselindustrie - innovaties - productontwikkeling - nieuwe producten - concurrerend vermogen - middelgrote bedrijven - kleine bedrijven - werkgelegenheid - nederland - food industry - innovations - product development - new products - competitive ability - medium sized businesses - small businesses - employment - netherlands
In een Europese vergelijking staat Nederland op drie als het gaat om innovatie in de levensmiddelenindustrie. Nederland investeert veel tijd en middelen in onderzoek en innovatie, maar genereert minder omzet uit nieuwe producten. De belangrijkste focus van Nederlandse bedrijven ligt op procesefficiëntie en kostenverlaging in plaats van productvernieuwing en marketing; op den duur een doodlopende weg. Innovatie van het MKB is belangrijk voor de concurrentiepositie en werkgelegenheid. Wel wordt het MKB belemmerd door hoge kosten, gebrek aan middelen en onvoldoende gekwalificeerde werknemers.
Participation and returns in rural nonfarm activities: evidence from the Kyrgyz Republic
Atamanov, A. ; Berg, M.M. van den - \ 2012
Agricultural Economics 43 (2012)4. - ISSN 0169-5150 - p. 459 - 471.
income diversification - households - employment
This article uses two representative household budget surveys from the Kyrgyz Republic to analyze factors influencing participation and returns from different types of nonfarm activities in 2005 and 2006. We use the double hurdle and Heckman models, which allow us to demonstrate that a number of variables has different effects on participation and income from nonfarm activities. For example, residing in remote areas and lack of capital are found to stimulate participation in nonfarm activities, but decrease nonfarm income. Results are robust, but using the Heckman model seems to produce more accurate results for returns to education and gender under the presence of selection bias. Overall, nonfarm activities are found to be most important for the poor, who are pushed out of agriculture due to limited and poor land resources. This indicates that equipping poor households to enable them to move towards better remunerative nonfarm activities should be a priority for Kyrgyz rural policy makers.
Deep feelings around a shallow coast. A spatial analysis of tourism jobs and the attractivity of nature in the Dutch Wadden area
Sijtsma, F.J. ; Daams, M.N. ; Farjon, J.M.J. ; Buijs, A.E. - \ 2012
Ocean & Coastal Management 68 (2012). - ISSN 0964-5691 - p. 138 - 148.
destination life-cycle - economic-development - rural regions - management - employment - countries
The Dutch Wadden area is an internationally renowned natural area with World Heritage status. Its ecological uniqueness can be attributed to its shallow coastal waters. However, the Wadden area is also a rural area in search of competitive economic activity so as to provide employment to its population. The aim of the analysis is to ascertain the level of the contribution of tourism to different parts of the rural economy, and to examine which parts and aspects of the natural area are highly appreciated by visitors and thus may serve as immobile resources for the local economy. The results of our study indicate that the islands have a completely specialized local economy: tourism, while the share of tourism in the economy of the mainland coast is below the Dutch national average. The natural attractivity of the Wadden area relates mainly to the islands and the sea, whereas the mainland coast is very modestly appreciated for its natural qualities. Eight spatial clusters of attractive places are identified. The tourism employment level and the share in attractive places are assessed for each cluster. Although strongly attractive parts of the Wadden area are often spatially-related to huge numbers of visitors, they nevertheless lead to only modest employment figures. We also find that the natural attractivity of the Wadden area arouses deep feelings in visitors in that they experience priceless qualities such as the purity and immensity of the natural environment, and they feel strongly connected to nature. Our findings cast light on the need for an integrative management approach to the Wadden area as both a rural and a natural area, and meanwhile relating it to competing urban areas. An example of a suitable integrative policy would be one that accounts for the trade-off between the value of urban dwellers' deep feelings (as tourists) and the value of rural jobs
The contribution of town functions to the development of rural areas: empirical analyses for Ethiopia
Tadesse Woeldesenbet, T. - \ 2012
University. Promotor(en): Arie Oskam. - S.l. : s.n. - ISBN 9789461731883 - 211
relaties tussen stad en platteland - steden - nutfunctie - invloeden - gezinsinkomen - inkomen - werkgelegenheid - huishoudens - landbouwhuishoudens - gewassen - bemesting - agrarische handel - overheidsdiensten - wegtransport - telefoons - elektriciteit - drinkwater - ontwikkeling - economische ontwikkeling - plattelandsontwikkeling - platteland - ethiopië - rural urban relations - towns - utility functions - influences - household income - income - employment - households - agricultural households - crops - fertilizer application - agricultural trade - public services - road transport - telephones - electricity - drinking water - development - economic development - rural development - rural areas - ethiopia
Rural areas in many developing countries often lack infrastructure and institutions. However, rural towns and towns possess some of the major services that rural and town households can use to advance their economic activities. The study of the contribution that towns and their functions make to different economic activities is still in development. The thesis sought to add to the literature by conceptually discussing the role of town functions and empirically examining the influence on income, employment opportunities, rural household crop marketing and fertilizer application. For these purposes, data from households in four major regional states of Ethiopia are used. Results show that shorter distances to roads, transport services and telephone centers, and connection to electricity and tap water are likely to increase income and non-farm wage employment. We find also that proximity to roads and markets and strong network connections are associated with improved input-output exchange among rural households
Regionale verschillen in werkgelegenheid en inkomen
Heijman, W.J.M. ; Kroes, R.G. - \ 2012
ESB Economisch Statistische Berichten 97 (2012)4626. - ISSN 0013-0583 - p. 13 - 14.
arbeidsmarkt - werkgelegenheid - arbeid (werk) - inkomen - regio's - arbeidseconomie - labour market - employment - labour - income - regions - labour economics
De regionale groei van inkomen en werkgelegenheid wijkt sterk af van het landelijk gemiddelde. Het grootste deel van dit verschil kan worden verklaard door regionaal-specifieke omstandigheden.
Zorgen om voldoende personeel bollensector in Greenport Duin- en Bollenstreek
Derkx, M.P.M. - \ 2011
BloembollenVisie 2011 (2011)233. - ISSN 1571-5558 - p. 24 - 25.
bloembollen - tuinbouwbedrijven - arbeid (werk) - personeel - werkgelegenheid - kansen op werk - opleiding - agrarisch onderwijs - ornamental bulbs - market gardens - labour - personnel - employment - employment opportunities - training - agricultural education
Ontgroening, vergrijzing, schaalvergroting en tekort aan arbeidskrachten zijn veelgehoorde termen die de bloembollenteelt in Greenport Duin- en Bollenstreek kunnen raken. Maar hoe denken ondernemers nu zelf over ontwikkelingen op de arbeidsmarkt en welke stappen vinden zij hierin nodig?
Vasteplantenkwekers in Greenport Duin- en Bollenstreek verwachten geen personeelstekort
Weijnen-Derkx, M.P.M. - \ 2011
De Boomkwekerij 10 (2011)47. - ISSN 0923-2443 - p. 12 - 13.
plantenkwekerijen - bollen - arbeid (werk) - geschoolde personen - beroepsvaardigheden - werkgelegenheid - personeel - kansen op werk - agrarisch onderwijs - functieuitoefening - personeelsmanagement - nurseries - bulbs - labour - skilled persons - job skills - employment - personnel - employment opportunities - agricultural education - job performance - personnel management
Ontgroening, vergrijzing, schaalvergroting en tekort aan arbeidskrachten zijn veel gehoorde termen die de vasteplantenteelt in Greenport Duin- en Bollenstreek kunnen raken. PPO onderzocht in opdracht van de Provincie Zuid-Holland hoe ondernemers nu zelf denken over ontwikkelingen op de arbeidsmarkt en welke stappen zij nodig vinden.
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