Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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The social dynamics of smart grids : On households, information flows & sustainable energy transitions
Naus, Joeri - \ 2017
University. Promotor(en): Gert Spaargaren, co-promotor(en): Bas van Vliet; Hilje van der Horst. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463436977 - 234
households - sustainable energy - energy consumption - supply - energy policy - netherlands - huishoudens - duurzame energie - energiegebruik - aanbod - energiebeleid - nederland

In international climate and energy policy the development of smart grids features as a critical new step in the transition towards a sustainable energy future. Smart grids enable two-way energy and information exchange between households and energy providers. Drawing on social practice theories, transition theories and informational governance, this thesis seeks to shed light on the changes that are taking place at the level of households: How do householders understand, handle and use new information flows? How can we conceptualise the interplay between households and smart energy systems? And what does this mean for householder participation in smart energy transitions? The thesis suggests that the key to understanding and governing the social dynamics of smart grids lies in the ‘Home Energy Management-practices’ (HEM-practices) that are emerging at the interface between households and wider energy systems.

Paprikateelt in de hooggeïsoleerde VenLow Energy kas
Zwart, H.F. de; Gelder, A. de; Hofland-Zijlstra, J. ; Noordam, M. - \ 2017
Bleiswijk : Wageningen University & Research, BU Glastuinbouw (Rapport GTB 1435) - 34
paprika's - capsicum annuum - kassen - kasgewassen - glasgroenten - glastuinbouw - energiebesparing - energiegebruik - isolatie (insulation) - broeikasgassen - kooldioxide - sweet peppers - greenhouses - greenhouse crops - greenhouse vegetables - greenhouse horticulture - energy saving - energy consumption - insulation - greenhouse gases - carbon dioxide
In order to realise a horticultural sector that operates without the combustion of fossil fuel, the first step is to reduce the demand for heating by improving the insultation of greenhouses. This holds especially for crops that are grown at high temperatures, like sweet pepper. The Venlow Energy greenhouse with its double glass cladding and energy screen is a good example of such a highly insulated greenhouse. This report presents the results of a one year cultivation and serves as a bench mark for the state of the art in energy conserving production of Sweet Pepper in the Netherlands. It shows the greenhouse climate conditions required, and the possibilities to meet these requirements with a low energy consumption and options to realise this from sustainable sources. The application of sustainable energy sources was not tested in practice, but since the exact resources (heat and CO2) required from hour to hour were measured, it is easy to do the math on the amounts and capacities needed. The application of pure CO2 or CO2 from another sustainable source is essential when aiming at a fossil energy free horticulture. Without external CO2 the production will drop substantially, especially because an energy conserving greenhouse has typically a strongly reduced air exchange. But, for the same reason, the amount of CO2 needed to increase the CO2 concentration is quite limited, 25 kg/m² per year in this experiment. With a production of 32.5 kg class I of red Sweet Pepper per m², the experiment has shown that halving the energy consumption compared to the general practice did’nt reduced the production.
Teelt Gerbera in Balans : de invloed van lichtsom, etmaaltemperatuur en daglengte op productie, energiegebruik en plantbalans
Garcia Victoria, Nieves ; Gelder, Arie de; Kempkes, Frank ; Dings, Eugenie - \ 2017
Bleiswijk : Wageningen University & Research, BU Glastuinbouw (Rapport GTB 1417) - 102
glastuinbouw - kasgewassen - kassen - gerbera - energiegebruik - kooldioxide - kunstlicht - gewaskwaliteit - productie - greenhouse horticulture - greenhouse crops - greenhouses - energy consumption - carbon dioxide - artificial light - crop quality - production
“Gerbera: Growing in Balance” was a research project to support the reduction of energy and CO2 consumption in the cultivation of Gerbera. The varieties Pre-Semmy, Rich, Whisper and Suri were grown in three glasshouses with different treatments: “Cool Cultivation” (15°C temperature; 90 μmol light, day length 13 hour in winter); “Practice” (temperature depending on day light integral, 100 μmol/m2s light, day length 11.5 hours) and “Light Dependent” (temperature depending sharply on day light integral, 90 μmol/m2s light, day length 13 hours in winter). The day light integral was kept equal in all treatments, regardless the difference in light intensity and day length in the winter. For flower quality and energy use “Cool Cultivation” was the best treatment, but required the most kg / m² of CO2. Whisper and Suri produced more flowers / m2 in the treatment “Light Dependent” but flower weights were low. Pre-Semmy and Rich gave more flowers in the treatment “Practice”, but spalkes were weak in May and June. The 13 hour day length in winter was not detrimental to production or quality. Light sum, day length and daily temperature are the three buttons to control the plant balance for optimum production and quality. The project was Funded by the Program “Greenhouse as Energy Source” (Ministry of Economic Affairs and LTO Glaskracht) and the Knowledge Cooperative Gerbera.
Philosophical explorations on energy transition
Geerts, Robert-Jan - \ 2017
University. Promotor(en): Bart Gremmen; Guido Ruivenkamp, co-promotor(en): Josette Jacobs. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463430487 - 172
philosophy - technology - sustainable energy - renewable energy - social change - energy consumption - quality - society - energy - filosofie - technologie - duurzame energie - hernieuwbare energie - sociale verandering - energiegebruik - kwaliteit - samenleving - energie

This dissertation explores energy transition from a philosophical perspective. It puts forward the thesis that energy production and consumption are so intimately intertwined with society that the transition towards a sustainable alternative will involve more than simply implementing novel technologies. Fossil energy sources and a growth-based economy have resulted in very specific energy practices, which will change in the future. Broader reflection is needed to understand how and in which direction such change is acceptable and desirable.

This reflection is initiated by articulating two pertinent problems with current energy practices that have thus far failed to receive appropriate attention in debates on energy transition: 1) the difficulty of dealing with intermittent sources in relation to the idea of cumulative accounting of energy consumption, and 2) the mismatch between expectations of ethical consumer behaviour in energy systems that discourage engagement.

To move forward, instead of assuming that all consumption is equivalent and that more is better, we must develop a better informed and more nuanced idea of 'good' energy practices that actually contribute to our quality of life. One often overlooked aspect of this may be 'embodied engagement', which would suggest that automation of tasks through energy-consuming technologies may be convenient, but also tends to lead to a loss of appreciation for both the task and its result. Some things, like creating a cozy environment around a fireplace, or climbing a mountain, are better partly because they take effort. In such cases, the 'efficiency' of the technology (e.g. the heat-pump, or the automobile) is besides the point - the question is whether it gives us anything of value at all.

Vochtbeheersing in kassen en terugwinning van latente energie : Een verkenning naar vochtbeheersing in kassen en de mogelijkheden van het terugwinnen van de energie die opgesloten zit in de gewasverdamping
Weel, P.A. van; Zwart, H.F. de; Voogt, J.O. - \ 2016
Wageningen UR Gastuinbouw (Rapport GTB 1421) - 76 p.
kassen - kastechniek - tomaten - glastuinbouw - ontvochtiging - energiegebruik - energiebesparing - ventilatie - greenhouses - greenhouse technology - tomatoes - greenhouse horticulture - dehumidification - energy consumption - energy saving - ventilation
Dehumidification of a greenhouse by ventilation increases the energy input with 8-10 m3/m2.year of natural gas to compensate the heat losses. This study shows different methods to reduce those energy losses. A 25% reduction in ventilation is obtained by using heat exchangers connected to plastic distribution ducts or by using the Ventilationjet system. The sensible heat from the exhaust air can be used to heat the incoming outside air to greenhouse temperature. Heat exchangers with 100% efficiency to do that are available. The latent heat included in the water vapour leaving the greenhouse can be recovered by means of a condensating wall. A good working priciple is the Dewpoint Heat Exchanger in which outside air is wettened to reach the lowest possible temperature and then used to cool down the greenhouse air far below the temperature where condensation begins. The recovered latent heat must be stored in a water tank to use it in the heating pipes. Another approach is to skip ventilation and use a set of a cold and warm heat exchanger connected to a heat pump or to use a salt water absorber. The absorber opens the possibility to use solar or wind energy to dehumidify the greenhouse and collect 100% of the sensible and latent heat.
Filmpje: Paprika, schermen bij tropisch weer, geen binnenrot
Gelder, A. de - \ 2016
Kasalsenergiebron.nl
paprika's - gewasproductie - energiebesparing - energiegebruik - gewaskwaliteit - glastuinbouw - teeltsystemen - sweet peppers - crop production - energy saving - energy consumption - crop quality - greenhouse horticulture - cropping systems
Het weglaten van de minimumbuis en het gebruik van twee energieschermen elke nacht, ook tijdens de warmste dagen in augustus, waren de opvallendste aspecten tijdens het onderzoek ‘Paprika energiezuinig met een goede kwaliteit’. Aat Dijkshoorn (LTO Glaskracht Nederland), Jeroen Zwinkels (Delphy), Arie de Gelder (Wageningen University & Research) en telers Danny van der Spek (Paprikakwekerij Van der Spek) en Maikel van den Berg (Quality Peppers) vertellen in dit filmpje over deze opvallende resultaten van het onderzoek.
2SaveEnergy-Gewächshaus- Produktion und Energieverbrauch
Kempkes, F.L.K. ; Janse, J. - \ 2016
Bleiswijk : Wageningen UR Glastuinbouw (Rapport GTB 1404) - 46 p.
greenhouse horticulture - greenhouse crops - greenhouse technology - energy saving - energy consumption - isolation - isolation techniques - tomatoes - solanum lycopersicum - glastuinbouw - kasgewassen - kastechniek - energiebesparing - energiegebruik - isolatie - isolatietechnieken - tomaten
Energy savings through a greenhouse cover of insulation glass requires a large investment. In the search for a cheaper alternative by a consortium of companies consisting of VDH Plastic Greenhouses, Van der Valk Horti Systems, AGC Chemicals Europe en Boal Systems a Glass-Film-greenhouse cover, better known as the 2SaveEnergy greenhouse concept was realized in summer 2014. The combination of clear glass with a diffuse ETFE film and a double screen mounted at a distance of only a few centimetres, in the year 2015, resulted in a low energy consumption and a better than expected good tomato production. During cultivation, the principles of the new cultivation methods were used. With respect to the common practice, the energy consumption was more than 50% lower at a minimum equal production.
Teelt en energie 2SaveEnergy kas
Kempkes, F.L.K. ; Janse, J. - \ 2016
Bleiswijk : Wageningen UR Glastuinbouw (Rapport GTB 1402) - 42 p.
glastuinbouw - kasgewassen - kastechniek - energiebesparing - energiegebruik - isolatie - isolatietechnieken - tomaten - solanum lycopersicum - greenhouse horticulture - greenhouse crops - greenhouse technology - energy saving - energy consumption - isolation - isolation techniques - tomatoes
Energy savings through a greenhouse cover of insulation glass requires a large investment. In the search for a cheaper alternative by a consortium of companies consisting of VDH Plastic Greenhouses, Van der Valk Horti Systems, AGC Chemicals Europe en Boal Systems a Glass-Film-greenhouse cover, better known as the 2SaveEnergy greenhouse concept was realized in summer 2014. The combination of clear glass with a diffuse ETFE film and a double screen mounted at a distance of only a few centimetres, in the year 2015, resulted in a low energy consumption and a better than expected good tomato production. During cultivation, the principles of the new cultivation methods were used. With respect to the common practice, the energy consumption was more than 50% lower at a minimum equal production.
Jaarrond duurzame en intensieve aardbeienteelt met minder stroom : Deskstudie naar mogelijkheden besparing op elektriciteit
Janse, J. - \ 2016
Bleiswijk : Wageningen UR Greenhouse Horticulture (Rapport GTB 1397) - 28 p.
fragaria ananassa - aardbeien - fruitteelt - energiegebruik - led lampen - elektriciteit - strawberries - fruit growing - energy consumption - led lamps - electricity
The opportunities to significantly reduce the electricity consumption in an illuminated strawberry cultivation
has been analysed in a desk study. Special energy-efficient LED lamps can be used to steer plant growth and
development. By replacing HPS-lamps by the latest LEDs with an energy efficiency of 2.7 μmol/W, the power
consumption can be reduced by more than 30%. It seems possible to reduce this consumption in illuminated
strawberries by another 10% in a greenhouse with high light transmission in the winter months and using
artificial lighting more in relation to different growth stages. Light colour (spectrum) affects the growth,
production and quality of strawberries. A high amount of red light stimulates production and blue light enhances
the sugar and vitamin C content.
The light and energy consumption can be further decreased by improved space utilization and by reducing the
leaf/fruit ratio. Gas savings are possible by minimizing the use of the minimum heating pipe and closing the
energy screen during cold weather. However, this requires special attention with respect to the prevention of
fungal diseases and maintaining fruit quality.
Evaluatie energiebelastingtarief glastuinbouw : vergelijking met energie-intensieve industriële sectoren
Velden, N.J.A. van der; Silvis, H.J. ; Smit, Martine ; Blom, Martijn - \ 2016
Wageningen : LEI Wageningen UR (LEI rapport 2016-027) - ISBN 9789462577909 - 63 p.
glastuinbouw - energiekosten - energiegebruik - energie - belastingen - tarieven - industrie - economische evaluatie - vergelijkend onderzoek - greenhouse horticulture - energy expenditure - energy consumption - energy - taxes - tariffs - industry - economic evaluation - comparative research
Sensible use of primary energy in organic greenhouse production
Stanghellini, C. ; Baptista, F. ; Eriksson, Evert ; Gilli, Celine ; Giuffrida, F. ; Kempkes, F.L.K. ; Munoz, P. ; Stepowska, Agnieszka ; Montero, J.I. - \ 2016
[Netherlands] : BioGreenhouse - ISBN 9789462575356 - 54 p.
greenhouse horticulture - organic farming - energy consumption - greenhouse technology - heating systems - sustainable energy - fossil energy - air conditioning - glastuinbouw - biologische landbouw - energiegebruik - kastechniek - verwarmingssystemen - duurzame energie - fossiele energie - klimaatregeling
Review of the major sources for energy consumption in organic greenhouse horticulture and analyse of the options available to reduce energy consumption or, at least, increase the energy use efficiency of organic production in greenhouses. At the moment, the best way to match demand and availability of electricity (solar and wind power) is through the grid, also in view of existing subsidies for electricity sale to the grid. There is some scope for local application of solar thermal energy for heating and/or humidity management, although this requires a large investment in thermal buffering. In combined organic farms there is scope for biomass burning and/or biogas production. Technology developments ensure that currently there are commercial greenhouse operations that benefit from the use of biomass and, in some cases, biogas. Such alternative energy sources are progressively replacing traditional (and more pollutant) fuels.
Energiebelasting in de glastuinbouw in Noordwest-Europa
Velden, N.J.A. van der; Smit, P.X. - \ 2016
Wageningen : LEI Wageningen UR (Report / LEI Wageningen UR 2016-025) - ISBN 9789462577428 - 47 p.
glastuinbouw - energiekosten - energiegebruik - energie - belastingen - tarieven - brandstoffen - elektriciteit - noord-europa - west-europa - europa - greenhouse horticulture - energy expenditure - energy consumption - energy - taxes - tariffs - fuels - electricity - northern europe - western europe - europe
In Europa wordt belasting geheven op energie. De belastingen voor de belangrijkste energiesoorten in
de glastuinbouw in de landen in Noordwest-Europa zijn onderzocht. In de afzonderlijke landen worden
door de glastuinbouw verschillende brandstoffen ingezet, warmte en elektriciteit ingekocht en wkinstallaties
gebruikt. De energiebelasting vertoont grote verschillen tussen landen en tussen
energiesoorten per land. Verlaagde tarieven of vrijstellingen voor de glastuinbouw zijn er in alle
onderzochte landen. In het algemeen zijn de kosten voor energiebelasting het hoogst in Denemarken,
gevolgd door het Verenigd Koninkrijk, Nederland, Duitsland, Frankrijk, België en Polen. Bezien vanuit
de energiebelasting is er in Noordwest-Europa geen gelijk speelveld voor glastuinbouwbedrijven.
Eindrapportage HNT Gerbera : de gerberateler aan zet voor HNT valorisatie
Persoon, Stefan ; Weel, P.A. van; Gelder, A. de - \ 2016
Wageningen UR Glastuinbouw - 22 p.
glastuinbouw - snijbloemen - gerbera - sierteelt - bedrijfsvergelijking in de landbouw - tuinbouw - teeltsystemen - klimaatregeling - energiegebruik - rassen (planten) - greenhouse horticulture - cut flowers - ornamental horticulture - farm comparisons - horticulture - cropping systems - air conditioning - energy consumption - varieties
Sinds het najaar van 2009 is er onderzoek gedaan naar Het Nieuwe Telen (HNT) in de Gerberateelt, gevolgd door meerdere valorisatietrajecten in de praktijk. Er was binnen de sector behoefte om deze kennis centraal bijeen te brengen, wat ook is geslaagd. De drie systemen van HNT zorgen niet voor een extra kwalitatieve verbetering in de vorm van minder bloemsmet en rotkoppen. De verwachting in 2012 was dat met slurven onderdoor er meer luchtbeweging zou zijn door het gewas en een drogend effect. Het omgekeerde bleek het geval: bij de luchtslurf onderdoor is het VD rondom de bloem lager wat kan leiden tot smet. Bij luchtslurven bovendoor bleek dit niet het geval. Voor wat betreft rotkoppen kan niet zondermeer gezegd worden dan een van de systemen de voorkeur geniet. Een hypothese is dat uitstraling in de nacht in negatieve zin bijdraagt aan suikerrot, doordat op specifieke momenten er lokaal onvoldoende verdamping is in de bloem. Het optreden van suikerrot is nog steeds een niet getackeld teeltprobleem in Gerbera.
Energiemonitor van de Nederlandse glastuinbouw 2014
Velden, N.J.A. van der; Smit, P.X. - \ 2015
LEI Wageningen UR (Rapport / LEI Wageningen UR 2015-122) - ISBN 9789086157211 - 58 p.
glastuinbouw - energiegebruik - energiebesparing - klimaatregeling - kastechniek - kooldioxide - emissie - greenhouse horticulture - energy consumption - energy saving - air conditioning - greenhouse technology - carbon dioxide - emission
De totale CO2-emissie nam in 2014. Ook zit de totale CO2-emissie 1,1 Mton onder het niveau van 1990 (-16%). Indien wordt gecorrigeerd voor de warme buitentemperatuur in 2014 dan is de CO2-emissie in 2014 6,0 Mton en dit ligt ook onder het doel voor 2020. In geheel Nederland ligt de CO2-emissie 2% onder het niveau van 1990. De glastuinbouw loopt daarmee voor op de landelijke ontwikkeling
Ontwikkeling teeltsystemen op basis van led
Dieleman, J.A. - \ 2015
Kas Magazine / TuinbouwCommunicatie (2015)10. - ISSN 1878-8408 - p. 38 - 40.
tuinbouw - glastuinbouw - teeltsystemen - tomaten - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - fossiele energie - kooldioxide - energiegebruik - led lampen - landbouwkundig onderzoek - meetinstrumenten - horticulture - greenhouse horticulture - cropping systems - tomatoes - sustainability - fossil energy - carbon dioxide - energy consumption - led lamps - agricultural research - indicating instruments
De glastuinbouwsector is een miljarden business en daardoor van grote economische waarde. Keerzijde is dat de sector veel fossiele energie gebruikt, waarbij grote hoeveelheden CO2 worden uitgestoten. Duurzaamheid komt daardoor steeds nadrukkelijker op de agenda van de tuinbouw te staan. Een belangrijke stap in het verlagen van de CO2 voetafdruk van belichte teeltsystemen kan de toepassing van led zijn in plaats van de huidige standaard SON-T belichting.
Protocol Energiemonitor Glastuinbouw : vernieuwde versie tot en met 2014
Velden, N.J.A. van der - \ 2015
Den Haag : LEI, onderdeel van Wageningen UR (LEI-nota 2015-122a) - 42 p.
kassen - glastuinbouw - energie - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - duurzame energie - energiegebruik - protocollen - methodologie - bedrijfsvoering - kastechniek - klimaatregeling - energiebesparing - greenhouses - greenhouse horticulture - energy - sustainability - sustainable energy - energy consumption - protocols - methodology - management - greenhouse technology - air conditioning - energy saving
Het LEI voert de Energiemonitor Glastuinbouw uit in opdracht van de Stichting Programmafonds Glastuinbouw/LTO Glaskracht Nederland en het ministerie van Economische Zaken (EZ). In de Energiemonitor Glastuinbouw wordt jaarlijks als eerste de energie-input en -output en de fysieke productie van glastuinbouwproducten gekwantificeerd. Vervolgens wordt de ontwikkeling van de energie-indicatoren bepaald. Ook wordt een jaarlijkse elektriciteitsbalans van de glastuinbouw opgesteld. Naast de elektriciteitsinput en -output wordt hierbij ook de elektriciteitsproductie en -consumptie in kaart gebracht. In de Energiemonitor Glastuinbouw word ook het effect op het primaire brandstofverbruik c.q. de energie-efficiëntie en op het fossiel brandstofverbruik c.q. de CO2-emissie door wk-installaties in gebruik door de glastuinbouw bepaald. Dit geldt ook voor de inkoop van efficiënter geproduceerde energie (restwarmte en wk-warmte van energiebedrijven) en duurzame energie.
Chrysant zonder gas : opties voor besparing en hergebruik van warmte
Raaphorst, M.G.M. ; Kempkes, F.L.K. ; Knaap, E. van der; Veld, Paul de - \ 2015
Bleiswijk : Wageningen UR Glastuinbouw (Rapport GTB 1382) - 30 p.
glastuinbouw - snijbloemen - chrysanten - energiegebruik - energiebesparing - teeltsystemen - greenhouse horticulture - cut flowers - chrysanthemums - energy consumption - energy saving - cropping systems
The most relevant options that can decrease the heat demand on Chrysanthemum are calculated on their saving potential. With the joint options, a gas consumption of less than 10 m3/m2.year can be realized. The main bottlenecks are the increased risk of fungal diseases and the low net present value of some options. In addition, it has been calculated that at a low electricity price level and a high gas price level, geothermal energy or the combination of a heat pump, air conditioning units and a seasonal heat storage are the most economic heat suppliers. This would make the climate neutral greenhouse within reach.
Vervangt led straks SON-T in gerberateelt?
Dueck, T.A. ; Kempkes, F.L.K. - \ 2015
Kas techniek 2015 (2015)1. - p. 16 - 19.
glastuinbouw - kastechniek - belichting - led lampen - gerbera - snijbloemen - energiebesparing - cultuurmethoden - energiegebruik - greenhouse horticulture - greenhouse technology - illumination - led lamps - cut flowers - energy saving - cultural methods - energy consumption
Veel belichtingsinstallaties in de gerberateelt bestaan nog uit 600W armaturen. Bij vervanging worden vaak 1000W SON-T lampen gebruikt. De praktijk laat zien dat onder een hogere lichtintensiteit, de gerbera meer toegevoegd groeilicht nodig heeft voor de afsplitsing en ontwikkeling van één enkele bloem. Het lijkt er dan ook op dat de efficiency van de plant terugloopt. Kan led een oplossing bieden voor energiebesparing en sturing van het gewas?
Plants can take more than we often think : Tomato not affected by high humidity at night
Staalduinen, J. van; Janse, J. ; Zwart, H.F. de - \ 2015
In Greenhouses : the international magazine for greenhouse growers 4 (2015)2. - ISSN 2215-0633 - p. 22 - 23.
glastuinbouw - groenten - tomaten - solanum lycopersicum - vochtgehalte - klimaatregeling - kassen - energiegebruik - energiebesparing - gewaskwaliteit - landbouwkundig onderzoek - greenhouse horticulture - vegetables - tomatoes - moisture content - air conditioning - greenhouses - energy consumption - energy saving - crop quality - agricultural research
Research in the VenLowKas trial greenhouse in Bleiswijk, the Netherlands, has been geared up for growing in a (very) high humidity. The climate control is set to a moisture deficit of 1 gram water per m3 air. Botrytis has not been a problem and production is clearly ahead of the previous year. “The heating was hardly on during the last five months. We anticipate the total energy consumption being the equivalent of around 10 m3 natural gas per m2, including the electricity consumption for the air circulation,” says Feije de Zwart, of Wageningen UR Greenhouse Horticulture.
Tomatenteelt in de hooggeïsoleerde VenLow Energy Kas
Zwart, H.F. de; Janse, J. ; Kempkes, F.L.K. - \ 2015
Bleiswijk : Wageningen UR Glastuinbouw (Rapport GTB 1366) - 34
glastuinbouw - kastechniek - tomaten - solanum lycopersicum - energiebesparing - energiegebruik - kassen - constructie - isolatie (insulation) - ontvochtiging - doelstellingen - haalbaarheidsstudies - greenhouse horticulture - greenhouse technology - tomatoes - energy saving - energy consumption - greenhouses - construction - insulation - dehumidification - objectives - feasibility studies
In the research program Greenhouse as Energy Source aims at having energy-neutral operated greenhouses by 2020. Therefore, a reduction of the energy use is important. The highly insulated VenLow Energy greenhouse have shown a low energy consumption for several years and in 2014 it was attempted to bring it below 10 m³ of natural gas equivalents per m² without a lowered production. To achieve this the leakage had to be reduced further and the screen quality was improved and a high humidity control setpoint was accepted. This in order to reduce the evaporation. Also the manipulation of the EC in the slab could lower the crop transpiration related energy consumption. The experiment showed an energy consumption of 8 m³/m² per year without a decreased crop production. This is far below target, but 2014 was a historically warm year. However, simulations showed that even in an average Dutch year the measurements taken would have met the target. The manipulation of the EC of the slab worked adversely, meaning that it increased the crop transpiration. The conclusion reads that the measures taken in the greenhouse make a productive tomato crop with less than 10 m³ of gas equivalents per m² per year realistic. With respect to the climate, a high humidity must be accepted and a shortened growing season running from mid-January to late November. A tomato variety like Komeett will yield at least 70 kg/m² can be expected, providing that CO2 dosing is not related to gas consumption for heating.
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