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Institutional Changes and Changing Political Consumerism in China
Lei, Zhang ; Liu, Wenling ; Oosterveer, P.J.M. - \ 2018
In: The Oxford Handbook of Political Consumerism / Boström, Magnus, Micheletti, Michele, Oosterveer, Peter, Oxford University Press - ISBN 9780190629038
consumerism - institutional changes - behavioral change - consumption transitions - food - energy
The growth of consumption is one of the most impressive social changes in contemporary China. This transformation is driven and shaped by the forces of globalization, economic growth, political modernization, the emerging middle class, industrialization/urbanization, advances in information and communication technologies, and sustainability challenges. Given China’s unique historical, cultural, and institutional context, it is highly interesting to assess the relevance of the concept of political consumerism in China. This chapter analyzes how institutional changes are shaping consumer politics and how political consumerism affects the development of governance in China. Two important consumption domains, food and energy, are used to explore what occurred in the particular context of rapidly transforming China. The conclusion discusses the question of whether the increased buying power of Chinese consumers will actually be used to address environmental and safety concerns.
Review : Converting nutritional knowledge into feeding practices: A case study comparing different protein feeding systems for dairy cows
Lapierre, H. ; Larsen, M. ; Sauvant, D. ; Amburgh, M.E. van; Duinkerken, G. van - \ 2018
Animal (2018). - ISSN 1751-7311 - 10 p.
dairy cows - energy - feeding system - milk protein yield - protein

Improving milk nitrogen efficiency through a reduction of CP supply without detrimental effect on productivity requires usage of feeding systems estimating both the flows of digestible protein, the exported true proteins and from these predict milk protein yield (MPY). Five feeding systems were compared in their ability to predict MPY v. observed MPY in two studies where either protein supply or protein and energy supply were changed. The five feedings systems were: Cornell Net Carbohydrate and Protein System (v6.5.5), Dutch protein evaluation system (1991 and 2007), Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique in France (INRA), National Research Council and NorFor. The key characteristic of the systems with the best predicted MPY was the inclusion of a variable efficiency of utilisation of protein supply taking into account the supply of both protein and energy. The systems still using a fixed efficiency had the highest slope bias in their prediction of MPY. Therefore, the development of new feeding systems or improvement of existing systems should include a variable efficiency of utilisation of the protein related to both the protein and energy supply. The limitation of the current comparison did not allow determining if additional factors, as used in INRA, were beneficial. This concept should also probably be transferred to essential amino acids.

Klimaat-, warmte- en energievoorziening veranderen- hoe spelen we daarop in?
Lenzholzer, Sanda - \ 2018
urban climate - energy
Transitions to Energy and Climate Security in Southeast Asia? Civil Society Encounters with Illiberalism in Thailand and Myanmar
Simpson, Adam ; Smits, Mattijs - \ 2018
Society & Natural Resources 31 (2018)5. - ISSN 0894-1920 - p. 580 - 598.
Climate - energy - illiberalism - Myanmar - Thailand
All states, whether governed by liberal or illiberal regimes, face the prospect of momentous and potentially catastrophic environmental impacts due to climate change. Historically, energy policy has been directed towards simply achieving energy security. This goal has now been significantly complicated by the need to achieve it while minimizing greenhouse gas emissions. Environmental non governmental organizations (ENGOs) could play a crucial role in promoting the transition to energy and climate security but the relative (il)liberalism of the political regime they operate under influences their effectiveness. This article assesses how ENGOs have impacted on the transition to energy and climate security in Myanmar and Thailand, two Southeast Asian countries highly susceptible to climate impacts and characterized by illiberal rule. It finds that the impact of ENGOs was highly dependent on their strategies, tactics and operation, with community-level projects providing a key route to effect change under conditions of extreme illiberalism.
De energiesector als lichtend of verblindend voorbeeld?
Giezen, M. ; Brouwer, Stijn ; Roest, Kees ; Vliet, B.J.M. van - \ 2017
H2O online (2017). - 6 p.
energie - water - hernieuwbare energie - systemen - economie - energy - renewable energy - systems - economics
De energiesector wordt in de watersector veelvuldig genoemd als voorbeeld voor de transitie richting een circulaire economie. In hoeverre werkt dit verhelderend of juist verblindend? In deze literatuurstudie laten de auteurs hun licht schijnen op de energiesector als voorbeeld wanneer het gaat om de introductie van nieuwe decentrale technieken. Vanuit zowel een technologisch, economisch, sociaal-cultureel als een institutioneel perspectief brengen de auteurs de contextuele systeemveranderingen die van invloed kunnen zijn op toepassing van decentrale technieken in kaart. Hiermee worden de overeenkomsten en verschillen tussen energie- en watersectoren helder en ontstaat ruimte voor relativering en nuance.
Philosophical explorations on energy transition
Geerts, Robert-Jan - \ 2017
University. Promotor(en): Bart Gremmen; Guido Ruivenkamp, co-promotor(en): Josette Jacobs. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463430487 - 172
philosophy - technology - sustainable energy - renewable energy - social change - energy consumption - quality - society - energy - filosofie - technologie - duurzame energie - hernieuwbare energie - sociale verandering - energiegebruik - kwaliteit - samenleving - energie

This dissertation explores energy transition from a philosophical perspective. It puts forward the thesis that energy production and consumption are so intimately intertwined with society that the transition towards a sustainable alternative will involve more than simply implementing novel technologies. Fossil energy sources and a growth-based economy have resulted in very specific energy practices, which will change in the future. Broader reflection is needed to understand how and in which direction such change is acceptable and desirable.

This reflection is initiated by articulating two pertinent problems with current energy practices that have thus far failed to receive appropriate attention in debates on energy transition: 1) the difficulty of dealing with intermittent sources in relation to the idea of cumulative accounting of energy consumption, and 2) the mismatch between expectations of ethical consumer behaviour in energy systems that discourage engagement.

To move forward, instead of assuming that all consumption is equivalent and that more is better, we must develop a better informed and more nuanced idea of 'good' energy practices that actually contribute to our quality of life. One often overlooked aspect of this may be 'embodied engagement', which would suggest that automation of tasks through energy-consuming technologies may be convenient, but also tends to lead to a loss of appreciation for both the task and its result. Some things, like creating a cozy environment around a fireplace, or climbing a mountain, are better partly because they take effort. In such cases, the 'efficiency' of the technology (e.g. the heat-pump, or the automobile) is besides the point - the question is whether it gives us anything of value at all.

Read all about it!? Public accountability, fragmented global climate governance and the media
Karlsson-Vinkhuyzen, Sylvia I. ; Friberg, Lars ; Saccenti, Edoardo - \ 2017
Climate Policy 17 (2017)8. - ISSN 1469-3062 - p. 982 - 997.
Accountability - climate change - energy - fragmentation - global governance - media

This study is instructive for the media and civil society, who should both act as accountholders of governments with regard to how they act in global climate governance and its implementation. Reporting and commentaries need to reflect the overarching process, not only sporadic coverage of high-level meetings, but also critical analysis of what is achieved. They should also take a broader scope in terms of the kinds of meetings and processes in global governance that they cover. Civil society should encourage the media to increase coverage along these lines, e.g. by adequate monitoring of government actions (or lack thereof) and share this with the media.

Duurzame energie 2050 : verkenning rol van (agrarische) ondernemers in de energietransitie naar 2050
Wijnands, Frank ; Holster, Henri - \ 2016
Wageningen : Praktijkonderzoek Plant & Omgeving, onderdeel van Wageningen UR - 33
boeren - plattelandsomgeving - duurzame energie - energie - energievoorraden - hernieuwbare energie - farmers - rural environment - sustainable energy - energy - energy resources - renewable energy
Rural entrepreneurs (farmers) are going to play a major role in the energy transitions towards 2050. In professional dialogues between farmers and pertinent stakeholders it was shown that farmers are already involved in all aspects and are in the right position. The transition needs to be facilitated in local initiatives.
Energie en eiwitwaardeschatting gras-klaverkuilen
Schooten, H.A. van; Spek, J.W. - \ 2016
Wageningen : Wageningen Livestock Research (Wageningen Livestock Research rapport 994) - 33
grasklaver - eiwitten - energie - voedingswaarde - biochemie - diervoedering - grass-clover swards - proteins - energy - nutritive value - biochemistry - animal feeding
Energy status and ovarian follicular development
Meng, Li - \ 2016
University. Promotor(en): Jaap Keijer; Katja Teerds. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462579170 - 144
ovarian development - energy - follicles - reproduction - atresia - development - ovaries - ovariumontwikkeling - energie - follikels - voortplanting - atresie - ontwikkeling - ovaria

Female reproduction is tightly linked to body energy status and it has become increasingly clear that disturbed energy metabolism can negatively affect reproductive performance. Nevertheless, the way how a disturbed energy status affects ovarian follicular reserve as well as follicular recruitment and growth is little investigated and not fully elucidated. Therefore, the overall goal of this thesis was to investigate the effects of an altered metabolism, and particularly an altered energy status, on ovarian follicular development. To achieve this goal, the first aim was to establish the role of autophagy in follicular degeneration under normal physiological conditions, with focus on preantral and antral follicles; The second aim was to elucidate the effects of a diet-induced reduction in thyroid hormone concentrations, affecting whole body metabolism, on ovarian follicular development; The third aim was to investigate the effect of an increased nutrient flux towards skeletal muscle on ovarian follicular development and the possible underlying mechanism.

It is well known that granulosa cell death via apoptosis is the main cause of atresia of antral follicles, however, whether preantral follicular attrition makes use of the same cell death pathway is not clear. Therefore, in chapter 2 I have investigated different cell death pathways in the adult rat ovary to examine whether they represent the reported histological differences between preantral and antral atretic follicles. Based on the results of studies in other organs, I used microtubule-associated light-chain protein 3 (LC3) and QSQTM1/p62 as markers of autophagy and cleaved caspase 3 (cCASP3) as marker of apoptosis, using immunohistochemistry, western blotting, and laser capture micro-dissection followed by qRT-PCR. The results showed that in the granulosa cells of atretic preantral follicles, p62 immunostaining was less intense compared to healthy preantral follicles, while no difference in LC3 immunostaining intensity was observed. In contrast, in antral follicles, no difference in both immunostaining and mRNA levels of LC3 and p62 were found between healthy and atretic follicles, indicating that autophagy was not responsible for attrition of antral follicles. cCASP3 immunostaining was scarce in the granulosa cells of atretic preantral follicles, whereas many cCASP3 positive apoptotic cells were present in atretic antral follicles, indicating that apoptosis is a major cell death pathway activated in antral follicle degeneration. Immunostaining for superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2) was reduced in preantral and antral atretic follicles. This observation was confirmed by a concomitant down regulation of Sod2 mRNA levels. These findings suggest that preantral follicular atresia mainly makes use of autophagy as cell death pathway, while antral follicles degenerate mainly via apoptosis.

In chapter 3, the consequences of prolonged exposure to reduced thyroid hormone concentrations in adulthood on the size of the ovarian follicle pool are investigated. Besides having a direct effect on the functioning of many cells, changes in thyroid hormone levels also influence metabolism. In this study female rats at the age of 10 weeks were given a control diet or an iodide deficient diet in combination with perchlorate supplementation to inhibit iodide uptake by the thyroid, resulting in a relatively mild chronic hypothyroid condition. At the age of 26 weeks animals were sacrificed and ovaries histologically evaluated. Plasma concentrations of relevant hormones (thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), tri-iodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH) and anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) were determined. Primordial, primary and preantral follicle numbers were significantly lower in the hypothyroid ovaries compared to the euthyroid controls, while a downward trend in antral follicle numbers and corpora lutea was observed. The percentage of atretic follicles was not different between the two groups. Plasma AMH concentrations showed a significant correlation with the growing follicle population represented by the total number of primary, preantral and antral follicles per ovary. The data indicate that prolonged mild hypothyroidism negatively affects ovarian follicular reserve as well as the size of the growing follicle population, which may impact fertility. AMH can serve, also under mild hypothyroid conditions, as a surrogate marker to assess the size of the growing ovarian follicle population, offering a non-invasive way to evaluate the correlation between female reproductive health and thyroid status.

Subsequently, in chapter 4, the long-term effects of chronic hypothyroidism initiated already in the foetal/neonatal period on ovarian follicular development were investigated. In contrast to the experiments described in chapter 3, the rats in this experiment were exposed to reduced thyroid hormone levels from the moment of conception until necropsy. Effects on the ovarian follicular reserve and ovulation rate in prepubertal (12-day-old) and adult (64-day-old and 120-day-old) rats were studied. Besides, antioxidant gene expression, mitochondrial density and the occurrence of oxidative stress were analyzed. The results of this investigation showed that continuous fetal/postnatal hypothyroidism resulted in lower preantral and antral follicle numbers in adulthood, accompanied by a higher percentage of atretic follicles, when compared to euthyroid age-matched controls. Not surprisingly, ovulation rate was lower in the hypothyroid rats. At the age of 120 days, the mRNA and protein content of superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) was significantly increased, while catalase (CAT) mRNA and protein content was significantly decreased, suggesting a disturbed antioxidant defense capacity of ovarian cells in the hypothyroid animals. This was supported by a significant reduction in peroxiredoxin 3 (Prdx3), thioredoxin reductase 1 (Txnrd1), and uncoupling protein 2 (Ucp2) mRNA content and a downward trend in glutathione peroxidase 3 (Gpx3) and glutathione S-transferase mu 2 (Gstm2) mRNA content. These changes in gene expression were likely responsible for the increased immunostaining of the oxidative stress marker 4-hydroxynonenal. Together these results suggest that chronic hypothyroidism initiated in the foetal/neonatal period resulted in a decreased ovulation rate associated with a disturbance of the antioxidant defense system in the ovary. In contrast to hypothyroidism induced in adulthood (chapter 3), no reduction in primordial or primary follicle numbers was observed, suggesting that the ovarian reserve was not affected.

Chapter 5 addressed the question what the consequences were of a change in nutrient flux on ovarian follicular development. In this chapter mice were employed that ectopically express uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) in skeletal muscle (UCP1-TG). This did not affect adiposity, but led to a redistribution of energy sources away from the ovaries towards skeletal muscle tissue,; a model of skeletal muscle pseudo-starvation. The results showed that UCP1-TG female mice had increased energy expenditure, reduced body size, unchanged adiposity, increased plasma fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) concentrations and reduced insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) levels. UCP1-TG mice had a 30% lower number of healthy follicle compared to WT mice. Primary and preantral follicle numbers were decreased by 40%, while the number of atretic follicles was significantly increased and corpora lutea (CL) were absent in 40% of the ovaries of UCP1-TG mice. The latter suggested that these mice did not ovulate and thus were infertile. The elevated circulating FGF21 concentrations were not responsible for the ovarian phenotype, since UCP1-TG and UCP1-TG/FG21-/- mice show the same ovarian follicular phenotype. Significant correlation of circulating IGF1 levels with antral follicle, CL numbers and differentially activated AKT in healthy antral follicles and activated IRS2 in atretic follicles between WT and UCP1-TG mice shows, that IGF1 is, at least partly, responsible for the ovarian phenotype of these mice. Together, our data show that an energy drain towards skeletal muscle tissue negatively impacts growing pool of ovarian follicles and ovulation rate in female mice, which is, at least in part, mediated by IGF1, and not by FGF21.

In conclusion, the results of my thesis research shows that preantral atresia occurs mainly through autophagy. Dietary induced chronic hypothyroidism, an intervention that reduces basal metabolic rate, initiated either during foetal/neonatal or adulthood impairs ovarian follicle development. The age at onset of hypothyroidism modified the effects of this condition on ovarian follicular development. A change in nutrient flux away from the ovaries towards skeletal muscle tissue negatively affects ovarian follicle development. Overall, the results of my thesis have provided new insights in the mechanisms of follicular attrition and shows that conditions that alter metabolic fuel use impact on ovarian follicular development.

Plantmonitoring op basis van fotosynthese sensoren : ontwikkelen en testen van sensoren
Dieleman, Anja ; Bontsema, Jan ; Jalink, Henk ; Snel, Jan ; Kempkes, Frank ; Voogt, Jan ; Pot, Sander ; Elings, Anne ; Jalink, Vincent ; Meinen, Esther - \ 2016
Bleiswijk : Wageningen UR Glastuinbouw (Rapport GTB 1405) - 86
teelt onder bescherming - glastuinbouw - kastechniek - sensors - fotosynthese - kooldioxide - energie - energiebesparing - verlichting - kunstlicht - kunstmatige verlichting - ventilatie - kunstmatige ventilatie - fluorescentie - tomaten - solanum lycopersicum - protected cultivation - greenhouse horticulture - greenhouse technology - photosynthesis - carbon dioxide - energy - energy saving - lighting - artificial light - artificial lighting - ventilation - artificial ventilation - fluorescence - tomatoes
The basic process for crop growth and production is photosynthesis. Measuring crop photosynthesis is therefore important to monitor the status of the crop and whether the greenhouse climate is set to the needs of the crop. In this project, two monitoring systems for crop photosynthesis were developed and tested. (1) The crop photosynthesis monitor is a soft sensor that can calculate the CO2 uptake of an entire crop. The basis for these calculations are the balance between CO2 supply and CO2 loss via ventilation and crop photosynthesis. By measuring the CO2 concentration and humidity inside and outside the greenhouse, the crop photosynthesis can be calculated. (2) The CropObserver is a fluorescence sensor that measures the light use efficiency of photosynthesis of a large crop area (3 x 3 m2). The crop receives light pulses from a laser in the top of the greenhouse, the sensor measures the fluorescence signal of the crop. Both sensors were tested in a tomato crop in 2014 with promising results. The sensors functioned without problems and delivered patterns of daily photosynthesis which matched the reference measurements reasonably well up to well.
Exergy analysis in industrial food processing
Zisopoulos, F.K. - \ 2016
University. Promotor(en): Remko Boom, co-promotor(en): Atze Jan van der Goot. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462578326 - 229
thermodynamics - energy - physical properties - food production - drying - food industry - efficiency - thermodynamica - energie - fysische eigenschappen - voedselproductie - drogen - voedselindustrie - efficiëntie

The sustainable provision of food on a global scale in the near future is a very serious challenge. This thesis focuses on the assessment and design of sustainable industrial food production chains and processes by using the concept of exergy which is an objective metric based on the first and second law of thermodynamics. Three case studies are presented, two on a chain level (industrial bread and mushroom production), and one on a process level (conceptual spray drying of a lactose solution). Furthermore, industrial food production chains are categorized as thermodynamic archetypes and general rules are derived for their sustainable design exergy-wise. Additional methodological aspects related to e.g. the impact of system boundaries, the allocation of exergy values to waste streams, and the influence of the selection of the environment of reference on the outcome of the analysis, are also discussed.

Evaluatie energiebelastingtarief glastuinbouw : vergelijking met energie-intensieve industriële sectoren
Velden, N.J.A. van der; Silvis, H.J. ; Smit, Martine ; Blom, Martijn - \ 2016
Wageningen : LEI Wageningen UR (LEI rapport 2016-027) - ISBN 9789462577909 - 63 p.
glastuinbouw - energiekosten - energiegebruik - energie - belastingen - tarieven - industrie - economische evaluatie - vergelijkend onderzoek - greenhouse horticulture - energy expenditure - energy consumption - energy - taxes - tariffs - industry - economic evaluation - comparative research
Energiebelasting in de glastuinbouw in Noordwest-Europa
Velden, N.J.A. van der; Smit, P.X. - \ 2016
Wageningen : LEI Wageningen UR (Report / LEI Wageningen UR 2016-025) - ISBN 9789462577428 - 47 p.
glastuinbouw - energiekosten - energiegebruik - energie - belastingen - tarieven - brandstoffen - elektriciteit - noord-europa - west-europa - europa - greenhouse horticulture - energy expenditure - energy consumption - energy - taxes - tariffs - fuels - electricity - northern europe - western europe - europe
In Europa wordt belasting geheven op energie. De belastingen voor de belangrijkste energiesoorten in
de glastuinbouw in de landen in Noordwest-Europa zijn onderzocht. In de afzonderlijke landen worden
door de glastuinbouw verschillende brandstoffen ingezet, warmte en elektriciteit ingekocht en wkinstallaties
gebruikt. De energiebelasting vertoont grote verschillen tussen landen en tussen
energiesoorten per land. Verlaagde tarieven of vrijstellingen voor de glastuinbouw zijn er in alle
onderzochte landen. In het algemeen zijn de kosten voor energiebelasting het hoogst in Denemarken,
gevolgd door het Verenigd Koninkrijk, Nederland, Duitsland, Frankrijk, België en Polen. Bezien vanuit
de energiebelasting is er in Noordwest-Europa geen gelijk speelveld voor glastuinbouwbedrijven.
Protocol Energiemonitor Glastuinbouw : vernieuwde versie tot en met 2014
Velden, N.J.A. van der - \ 2015
Den Haag : LEI, onderdeel van Wageningen UR (LEI-nota 2015-122a) - 42 p.
kassen - glastuinbouw - energie - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - duurzame energie - energiegebruik - protocollen - methodologie - bedrijfsvoering - kastechniek - klimaatregeling - energiebesparing - greenhouses - greenhouse horticulture - energy - sustainability - sustainable energy - energy consumption - protocols - methodology - management - greenhouse technology - air conditioning - energy saving
Het LEI voert de Energiemonitor Glastuinbouw uit in opdracht van de Stichting Programmafonds Glastuinbouw/LTO Glaskracht Nederland en het ministerie van Economische Zaken (EZ). In de Energiemonitor Glastuinbouw wordt jaarlijks als eerste de energie-input en -output en de fysieke productie van glastuinbouwproducten gekwantificeerd. Vervolgens wordt de ontwikkeling van de energie-indicatoren bepaald. Ook wordt een jaarlijkse elektriciteitsbalans van de glastuinbouw opgesteld. Naast de elektriciteitsinput en -output wordt hierbij ook de elektriciteitsproductie en -consumptie in kaart gebracht. In de Energiemonitor Glastuinbouw word ook het effect op het primaire brandstofverbruik c.q. de energie-efficiëntie en op het fossiel brandstofverbruik c.q. de CO2-emissie door wk-installaties in gebruik door de glastuinbouw bepaald. Dit geldt ook voor de inkoop van efficiënter geproduceerde energie (restwarmte en wk-warmte van energiebedrijven) en duurzame energie.
Monitoring energiebesparing en teeltervaringen bij energie-innovaties
Zwart, Feije de - \ 2015
greenhouse horticulture - cropping systems - energy - air conditioning - greenhouse technology - artificial ventilation
Altered food-cue processing in chronically ill and recovered women with anorexia nervosa
Sanders, N. ; Smeets, P.A.M. ; Elburg, A.A. van; Danner, U.N. ; Meer, F. van; Hoek, H.W. ; Adan, R.A.H. - \ 2015
Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience 9 (2015). - ISSN 1662-5153 - 12 p.
default mode network - high-calorie foods - eating-disorders - functional-anatomy - reward - fmri - stimuli - leptin - energy - cortex
Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a severe mental disorder characterized by food restriction and weight loss. This study aimed to test the model posed by Brooks et al. (2012a,b) that women suffering from chronic AN show decreased food-cue processing activity in brain regions associated with energy balance and food reward (bottom-up; BU) and increased activity in brain regions associated with cognitive control (top-down; TD) when compared with long-term recovered AN (REC) and healthy controls (HC). Three groups of women, 15 AN (mean illness duration 7.8 ± 4.1 years), 14 REC (mean duration of recovery 4.7 ± 2.7 years) and 15 HC viewed alternating blocks of food and non-food images preceded by a short instruction during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), after fasting overnight. Functional region of interests (fROIs) were defined in BU (e.g., striatum, hippocampus, amygdala, hypothalamus, and cerebellum), TD (e.g., medial and lateral prefrontal cortex, and anterior cingulate), the insula, and visual processing areas (VPA). Food-cue processing activation was extracted from all fROIs and compared between the groups. In addition, functional connectivity between the fROIs was examined by modular partitioning of the correlation matrix of all fROIs. We could not confirm the hypothesis that BU areas are activated to a lesser extent in AN upon visual processing of food images. Among the BU areas the caudate showed higher activation in both patient groups compared to HC. In accordance with Brooks et al.’s model, we did find evidence for increased TD control in AN and REC. The functional connectivity analysis yielded two clusters in HC and REC, but three clusters in AN. In HC, fROIs across BU, TD, and VPA areas clustered; in AN, one cluster span across BU, TD, and insula; one across BU, TD, and VPA areas; and one was confined to the VPA network. In REC, BU, TD, and VPA or VPA and insula clustered. In conclusion, despite weight recovery, neural processing of food cues is also altered in recovered AN patients.
Energie uit bloembolresten
Dijk, W. van; Durksz, D.L. - \ 2015
BloembollenVisie (2015)295. - ISSN 1571-5558 - p. 26 - 26.
bloembollen - agrarische afvalstoffen - afvalhergebruik - brandstoffen - biogas - energie - proeven - gasproductie - biobased economy - bio-energie - ornamental bulbs - agricultural wastes - waste utilization - fuels - energy - trials - gas production - bioenergy
Bloembolresten zijn een goede aanvulling in het rantsoen van een vergister. De gasproductie liep uiteen van 100 m3 per ton vers voor lelieresten tot 250 m3 per ton vers voor tulpenresten. Dit blijkt uit proeven die zijn uitgevoerd met de vergister van ACRRES in Lelystad.
Groenkennisnet Dossier Duurzame Energielandschappen
Stremke, S. ; Waal, R.M. de - \ 2015
Wageningen University
energie - bio-energie - energiebronnen - zonne-energie - duurzame energie - waterkracht - windenergie - meervoudig landgebruik - landschap - landinrichting - lesmaterialen - energy - bioenergy - energy sources - solar energy - sustainable energy - water power - wind power - multiple land use - landscape - land development - teaching materials
De duurzame energievormen hebben een lagere energiedichtheid dan de fossiele brandstoffen en de winning ervan neemt daarom vaak meer ruimte in beslag. Als ze zo in het landschap opgenomen worden dat ze bijdragen aan de ontwikkeling van de omgeving en de gemeenschap en bovendien andere functies en waarden van het landschap (voedselvoorziening, biodiversiteit, landschappelijke kwaliteit, en andere ecosysteemdiensten) niet aantasten kun je spreken van duurzame energielandschappen.
Minder verbruik elektriciteit, meer licht voor de plant
Hemming, S. - \ 2015
Kas techniek 2015 (2015)januari. - p. 12 - 13.
glastuinbouw - kastechniek - energie - energiebesparing - elektriciteit - lichtregiem - led lampen - kassen - snijbloemen - temperatuur - greenhouse horticulture - greenhouse technology - energy - energy saving - electricity - light regime - led lamps - greenhouses - cut flowers - temperature
Terwijl de laatste jaren het energieverbruik voor warmte in de glastuinbouw flink is gedaald, stijgt het elektriciteitsverbruik. Volgens de LEI energiemonitor was deze in 2005 4.6 miljard kWh en in 2013 7.6 miljard kWh. Aanleiding om in het onderzoeksprogramma Kas als Energiebron een halvering van het elektriciteitsverbruik voor groeilicht bij gelijkblijvende opbrengsten als één van de belangrijke doelstellingen te formuleren.
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