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Oxygen restriction as challenge test reveals early high-fat-diet-induced changes in glucose and lipid metabolism
Duivenvoorde, L.P.M. ; Schothorst, E.M. van; Derous, D. ; Stelt, I. van der; Masania, J. ; Rabbani, N. ; Thornalley, P.J. ; Keijer, J. - \ 2015
Pflugers Archiv-European Journal of Physiology 467 (2015)6. - ISSN 0031-6768 - p. 1179 - 1193.
adipose-tissue - gene-expression - intermittent hypoxia - energy-expenditure - insulin-resistance - transcriptional regulation - mass-spectrometry - mice - obesity - oxidation
Challenge tests stress homeostasis and may reveal deviations in health that remain masked under unchallenged conditions. Ideally, challenge tests are non-invasive and applicable in an early phase of an animal experiment. Oxygen restriction (OxR; based on ambient, mild normobaric hypoxia) is a non-invasive challenge test that measures the flexibility to adapt metabolism. Metabolic inflexibility is one of the hallmarks of the metabolic syndrome. To test whether OxR can be used to reveal early diet-induced health effects, we exposed mice to a low-fat (LF) or high-fat (HF) diet for only 5 days. The response to OxR was assessed by calorimetric measurements, followed by analysis of gene expression in liver and epididymal white adipose tissue (eWAT) and serum markers for e.g. protein glycation and oxidation. Although HF feeding increased body weight, HF and LF mice did not differ in indirect calorimetric values under normoxic conditions and in a fasting state. Exposure to OxR; however, increased oxygen consumption and lipid oxidation in HF mice versus LF mice. Furthermore, OxR induced gluconeogenesis and an antioxidant response in the liver of HF mice, whereas it induced de novo lipogenesis and an antioxidant response in eWAT of LF mice, indicating that HF and LF mice differed in their adaptation to OxR. OxR also increased serum markers of protein glycation and oxidation in HF mice, whereas these changes were absent in LF mice. Cumulatively, OxR is a promising new method to test food products on potential beneficial effects for human health.
Increasing protein intake modulates lipid metabolism in healthy young men and women consuming a high-fat hypercaloric diet 1-3
Rietman, A. ; Schwarz, J. ; Blokker, B.A. ; Siebelink, E. ; Kok, F.J. ; Afman, L.A. ; Tome, D. ; Mensink, M.R. - \ 2014
The Journal of Nutrition 144 (2014)8. - ISSN 0022-3166 - p. 1174 - 1180.
energy-expenditure - hepatic steatosis - adipose-tissue - liver fat - quantification - disease - rats - homeostasis - accurate - insulin
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of increasing protein intake, at the expense of carbohydrates, on intrahepatic lipids (IHLs), circulating triglycerides (TGs), and body composition in healthy humans consuming a high-fat, hypercaloric diet. A crossover randomized trial with a parallel control group was performed. After a 2-wk run-in period, participants were assigned to either the control diet [n = 10; 27.8 energy percent (en%) fat, 16.9 en% protein, 55.3 en% carbohydrates] for 4 wk or a high-fat, hypercaloric diet (n = 17; >2 MJ/d) crossover trial with 2 periods of 2 wk, with either high-protein (HP) (37.7 en% fat, 25.7 en% protein, 36.6 en% carbohydrates) or normal-protein (NP) (39.4 en% fat, 15.4 en% protein, 45.2 en% carbohydrates) content. Measurements were performed after 2 wk of run-in (baseline), 2 wk of intervention (period 1), and 4 wk of intervention (period 2). A trend toward lower IHL and plasma TG concentrations during the HP condition compared with the NP condition was observed (IHL: 0.35 ± 0.04% vs. 0.51 ± 0.08%, P = 0.08; TG: 0.65 ± 0.03 vs. 0.77 ± 0.05 mmol/L, P = 0.07, for HP and NP, respectively). Fat mass was significantly lower (10.6 ± 1.72 vs. 10.9 ± 1.73 kg; P = 0.02) with the HP diet than with the NP diet, whereas fat-free mass was higher (55.7 ± 2.79 vs. 55.2 ± 2.80 kg; P = 0.003). This study indicated that an HP, high-fat, hypercaloric diet affects lipid metabolism. It tends to lower the IHL and circulating TG concentrations and significantly lowers fat mass and increases fat-free mass compared with an NP, high-fat, hypercaloric diet. This trail was registered at www.clinicaltrails.gov as NCT01354626.
Identification of genes regulating growth and fatness traits in pig through hypothalamic transcriptome analysis
Perez-montarelo, D. ; Madsen, O. ; Alves, E.R. ; Rodriguez, C. ; Floch, J.M. ; Groenen, M. - \ 2014
Physiological genomics 46 (2014)6. - ISSN 1094-8341 - p. 195 - 206.
fatty-acid-composition - rna-seq - food-intake - rt-pcr - porcine transcriptome - insulin sensitivity - expression analysis - energy-expenditure - extreme phenotypes - body-weight
Previous studies on Iberian x Landrace (IBMAP) pig intercrosses have enabled the identification of several QTL regions related to growth and fatness traits; however the genetic variation underlying those QTLs are still unknown. These traits are not only relevant because of their impact on economically important production traits, but also because pig constitutes a widely studied animal model for human obesity and obesity related diseases. The hypothalamus is the main gland regulating growth, food intake and fat accumulation. Therefore, the aim of this work was to identify genes and/or gene transcripts involved in the determination of growth and fatness in pig by a comparison of the whole hypothalamic transcriptome (RNA-seq) in two groups of phenotypically divergent IBMAP pigs. Around 16,000 of the ~25.010 annotated genes were expressed in these hypothalamic samples, with most of them showing intermediate expression levels. Functional analyses supported the key role of the hypothalamus in the regulation of growth, fat accumulation and energy expenditure. Besides, 58,927 potentially new isoforms were detected. More than 250 differentially expressed genes and novel transcript isoforms were identified between the two groups of pigs. Twenty-one DE genes/transcripts that co-localized in previously identified QTL regions and/or whose biological functions are related to the traits of interest were explored in more detail. Additionally, the transcription factors potentially regulating these genes and the subjacent networks and pathways were also analyzed. This study allows us to propose strong candidate genes for growth and fatness based on expression patterns, genomic location and network interactions
Impact of oral vancomycin on gut microbiota, bile acid metabolism, and insulin sensitivity
Vrieze, A. ; Out, C. ; Fuentes Enriquez de Salamanca, S. ; Jonker, L. ; Reuling, I. ; Kootte, R.S. ; Nood, E. van; Holleman, F. ; Knaapen, M. ; Romijn, J.A. ; Soeters, M.R. ; Blaak, E.E. ; Dallinga-Thie, G.M. ; Reijnders, D. ; Ackermans, M.T. ; Serlie, M.J. ; Knop, F.K. ; Holst, J.J. ; Ley, C.V. ; Kema, I.P. ; Zoetendal, E.G. ; Vos, W.M. de; Hoekstra, J.B. ; Stroes, E.S. ; Groen, A.K. ; Nieuwdorp, M. - \ 2014
Journal of Hepatology 60 (2014)4. - ISSN 0168-8278 - p. 824 - 831.
salt hydrolase activity - diet-induced obesity - intestinal microbiota - energy-expenditure - mice - resistance - adiposity - glucagon - capacity - humans
BACKGROUND: Obesity has been associated with changes in the composition and function of the intestinal microbiota. Modulation of the microbiota by antibiotics also alters bile acid and glucose metabolism in mice. Hence, we hypothesized that short term administration of oral antibiotics in humans would affect fecal microbiota composition and subsequently bile acid and glucose metabolism. METHODS: In this single blinded randomized controlled trial, 20 male obese subjects with metabolic syndrome were randomized to 7 days of amoxicillin 500mg t.i.d. or 7 days of vancomycin 500mg t.i.d. At baseline and after 1 week of therapy, fecal microbiota composition (Human Intestinal Tract Chip phylogenetic microarray), fecal and plasma bile acid concentrations as well as insulin sensitivity (hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp using [6,6-2H2]-glucose tracer) were measured. RESULTS: Vancomycin reduced fecal microbial diversity with a decrease of gram-positive bacteria (mainly Firmicutes) and a compensatory increase in gram-negative bacteria (mainly Proteobacteria). Concomitantly, vancomycin decreased fecal secondary bile acids with a simultaneous postprandial increase in primary bile acids in plasma (p
Offspring pay sooner, parents pay later: experimental manipulation of body mass reveals trade-offs between immune functions, reproduction and survival
Hegemann, A. ; Matson, K.D. ; Flinks, H. ; Tieleman, B.I. - \ 2013
Frontiers in Zoology 10 (2013). - ISSN 1742-9994 - 12 p.
kestrel falco-tinnunculus - black-legged kittiwakes - rose colored starlings - tit parus-major - brood size - great tit - energy-expenditure - experimental increase - partner contribution - sturnus-vulgaris
Introduction - Life-history theory predicts that organisms trade off survival against reproduction. However, the time scales on which various consequences become evident and the physiology mediating the cost of reproduction remain poorly understood. Yet, explaining not only which mechanisms mediate this trade-off, but also how fast or slow the mechanisms act, is crucial for an improved understanding of life-history evolution. We investigated three time scales on which an experimental increase in body mass could affect this trade-off: within broods, within season and between years. We handicapped adult skylarks (Alauda arvensis) by attaching extra weight during first broods to both adults of a pair. We measured body mass, immune function and return rates in these birds. We also measured nest success, feeding rates, diet composition, nestling size, nestling immune function and recruitment rates. Results - When nestlings of first broods fledged, parent body condition had not changed, but experimental birds experienced higher nest failure. Depending on the year, immune parameters of nestlings from experimental parents were either higher or lower than of control nestlings. Later, when parents were feeding their second brood, the balance between self-maintenance and nest success had shifted. Control and experimental adults differed in immune function, while mass and immune function of their nestlings did not differ. Although weights were removed after breeding, immune measurements during the second brood had the capacity to predict return rates to the next breeding season. Among birds that returned the next year, body condition and reproductive performance a year after the experiment did not differ between treatment groups. Conclusions - We conclude that the balance between current reproduction and survival shifts from affecting nestlings to affecting parents as the reproductive season progresses. Furthermore, immune function is apparently one physiological mechanism involved in this trade-off. By unravelling a physiological mechanism underlying the trade-offs between current and future reproduction and by demonstrating the different time scales on which it acts, our study represents an important step in understanding a central theory of life-history evolution.
The association between indoor temperature and body mass index in children: the PIAMA birth cohort study
Scheffers, F.R. ; Bekkers, M.B.M. ; Kerhof, M. ; Gehring, U. ; Koppelman, G.H. ; Schipper, M. ; Haveman-Nies, A. ; Wijga, A.H. - \ 2013
BMC Public Health 13 (2013). - ISSN 1471-2458 - 10 p.
mild cold - ambient-temperature - energy-expenditure - metabolism - weight - thermogenesis - prevalence - responses - obesity - humans
Background Several experimental studies showed consistent evidence for decreased energy expenditure at higher ambient temperatures. Based on this, an association between thermal exposure and body weight may be expected. However, the effect of thermal exposure on body weight has hardly been studied. Therefore, this study investigated the association between indoor temperature and body mass index (BMI) in children in real life. Methods This longitudinal observational study included 3 963 children from the Dutch Prevention and Incidence of Asthma and Mite Allergy (PIAMA) birth cohort that started in 1996. These children were followed from birth until the age of 11 years. Winter indoor temperature (living room and bedroom) was reported at baseline and BMI z-scores were available at 10 consecutive ages. Missing data were multiply imputed. Associations between indoor temperature and BMI were analyzed using generalized estimating equations (GEE), adjusted for confounders and stratified by gender. In a subgroup of 104 children, bedroom temperature was also measured with data loggers. Results Mean reported living room and bedroom temperature were 20.3°C and 17.4°C, respectively. Reported and measured bedroom temperatures were positively correlated (r¿=¿0.42, p¿=¿0.001). Neither reported living room temperature (-0.03¿=¿ß¿=¿0.04) and bedroom temperature (-0.01¿=¿ß¿=¿0.02) nor measured bedroom temperature (-0.04¿=¿ß¿=¿0.05) were associated with BMI z-score between the age of 3 months and 11 years. Conclusions This study in children did not support the hypothesized association between indoor temperature and BMI in a real life setting.
Sex-specific effects of increased incubation demand on innate immunity in black guillemots
Berzins, L.L. ; Gilchrist, H.G. ; Matson, K.D. ; Burness, G. - \ 2011
Physiological and Biochemical Zoology 84 (2011)2. - ISSN 1522-2152 - p. 222 - 229.
clutch-size - reproductive effort - collared flycatcher - future reproduction - energy-expenditure - tree swallows - parus-major - great tits - trade-offs - costs
Life-history theory predicts that there should be negative fitness consequences, in terms of future reproduction and survival, for parents with increased reproductive effort. We examined whether increased incubation demand affected innate immunity and body condition by performing a clutch-size manipulation experiment in black guillemots (Cepphus grylle). We found that plasma from males incubating experimentally enlarged clutches exhibited significantly reduced lysis titers compared with plasma from males incubating control clutches, while this was not observed in females. The increased incubation demand also impacted agglutination titers differently in males and females, although the effect of treatment was not significant in either sex. Among all birds, lysis titers increased and haptoglobin concentrations decreased from mid- to late incubation. Natural antibody-mediated agglutination titers and body condition were highly repeatable within the incubation bout and between years. This suggests that agglutination titers may serve as a reliable and resilient index of the immunological character of individuals in future studies. Overall, this study demonstrates that increased incubation demand impacts indices of innate immunity differently in males and females. The potential for different components of the immune system to be impacted sex-specifically should be considered in future studies linking immune function and life-history trade-offs.
Supplementary dietary calcium stimulates faecal fat and bile acid excretion, but does not protect against obesity and insulin resistance in C57BL/6J mice
Wit, N.J.W. de; Bosch-Vermeulen, H. ; Oosterink, E. ; Müller, M.R. ; Meer, R. van der - \ 2011
British Journal of Nutrition 105 (2011)7. - ISSN 0007-1145 - p. 1005 - 1011.
metabolism-related proteins - body-weight - lipid-metabolism - energy-expenditure - rna expression - dairy - milk - gain - rats - adiposity
There is increased interest in the potential protective role of dietary Ca in the development of metabolic disorders related to the metabolic syndrome. Ca-induced intestinal precipitation of fatty acids and bile acids as well as systemic metabolic effects of Ca on adipose tissue is proposed to play a causal role. In this experiment, we have studied all these aspects to validate the suggested protective effect of Ca supplementation, independent of other dietary changes, on the development of diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance. In our diet intervention study, C57BL/6J mice were fed high-fat diets differing in Ca concentrations (50 v. 150 mmol/kg). Faecal excretion analyses showed an elevated precipitation of intestinal fatty acids (2.3-fold; P
Current and future drug targets in weight management
Witkamp, R.F. - \ 2011
Pharmaceutical Research 28 (2011)8. - ISSN 0724-8741 - p. 1792 - 1818.
11-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type-1 - protein-coupled receptor - cannabinoid cb1 receptor - brown adipose-tissue - placebo-controlled trial - histamine h3 receptor - food-intake - metabolic-disorders - endocannabinoid system - energy-expenditure
Obesity will continue to be one of the leading causes of chronic disease unless the ongoing rise in the prevalence of this condition is reversed. Accumulating morbidity figures and a shortage of effective drugs have generated substantial research activity with several molecular targets being investigated. However, pharmacological modulation of body weight is extremely complex, since it is essentially a battle against one of the strongest human instincts and highly efficient mechanisms of energy uptake and storage. This review provides an overview of the different molecular strategies intended to lower body weight or adipose tissue mass. Weight-loss drugs in development include molecules intended to reduce the absorption of lipids from the GI tract, various ways to limit food intake, and compounds that increase energy expenditure or reduce adipose tissue size. A number of new preparations, including combinations of the existing drugs topiramate plus phentermine, bupropion plus naltrexone, and the selective 5-HT2C agonist lorcaserin have recently been filed for approval. Behind these leading candidates are several other potentially promising compounds and combinations currently undergoing phase II and III testing. Some interesting targets further on the horizon are also discussed
Heat Stress and feeding strategies in meat-type chickens
Syafwan, W. ; Kwakkel, R.P. ; Verstegen, M.W.A. - \ 2011
Worlds Poultry Science Journal 67 (2011)4. - ISSN 0043-9339 - p. 653 - 674.
high ambient-temperature - male broiler-chickens - dietary-protein - environmental-temperature - water-consumption - whole-wheat - tropical climate - early age - physiological stress - energy-expenditure
Heat stress can induce hyperthermia in poultry. A reduction in heat load can be achieved by increasing the possibilities for dissipation, decreasing the level of heat production or by changing the thermal production pattern within a day. Strategies to reduce the negative effects of heat stress can be based on a specific feeding strategy, such as restricted feeding. Feed that is offered long enough before a hot period can ameliorate the harmful effects of high temperature. Another strategy may be to use choice feeding from different feed ingredients, rich in protein or in energy. With such self-selection, the chicken may adjust its intake of individual components, allowing the bird to optimise the heat load associated with the metabolism of the ingested nutrients. Additional promising strategies involve offering a choice between feeds with a different feed particle size or structure. A large particle size contributes to the development of the gastro-intestinal tract (GIT), especially the gizzard and the caeca. A large gizzard will maximize the grinding process and potentially ease digestion down the GIT, thereby reducing heat production associated with digestive processing. Also wet feeding may be profitable under heat stress conditions as well. Feeding wet diets may facilitate an increased water intake and larger particle sizes can limit water excretion in droppings, resulting in more water being available for evaporation during panting, hence cooling the bird. In conclusion, these feeding strategies may help to reduce heat production peaks, facilitate evaporative activity and/or decreases the heat load, resulting in beneficial effects on performance and health of the bird kept in more tropical areas worldwide.
Duration of hospitalization and appetite of HIV-infected South-African children
Mda, S. ; Raaij, J.M.A. van; MacIntyre, U.E. ; Villiers, F.R.M. de; Kok, F.J. - \ 2011
Maternal and Child Nutrition 7 (2011)2. - ISSN 1740-8695 - p. 175 - 187.
immunodeficiency-virus-infection - respiratory-tract infections - pediatric admissions - hiv-1-infected women - zinc supplementation - energy-expenditure - prospective cohort - school-children - cape-town - growth
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected children generally show poor growth. Episodes of diarrhoea and pneumonia in HIV-infected children are thought to be more severe than in HIV-uninfected children. The objective of this study was to compare duration of hospitalization, appetite and nutritional status of HIV-infected children with that of uninfected children. A cross-sectional study was performed on children (2–24 months) admitted with diarrhoea or pneumonia to the university hospital. Children were tested for HIV, and the duration of hospitalization was noted for 189 children. Follow-up for blood analysis (n = 154) and appetite measurement (n = 48) was performed 4–8 weeks after discharge. Appetite was measured as ad libitum intake of a commercial infant cereal using highly standardized procedures. Hospitalization (in days) was significantly longer in HIV-infected children; among children admitted with diarrhoea (5.9 ± 1.9 vs. 3.8 ± 1.5) (mean ± standard deviation) and with pneumonia (9.0 ± 2.5 vs. 5.9 ± 1.9). Serum zinc, iron and transferrin concentrations, and haemoglobin levels were significantly lower in HIV-infected children compared with uninfected children. Appetites [amounts eaten (g) per kg body weight] of HIV-infected children were significantly poorer than those of HIV-uninfected children (18.6 ± 5.8 vs. 25.2 ± 7.4). The eating rates (g min-1) of HIV-infected children were also slower (17.6 ± 6.2 vs. 10.1 ± 3.7) Mean Z-scores for length-for-age were significantly lower among HIV-infected children compared with HIV-uninfected children. Weight-for-length Z-scores were not significantly different. In summary, HIV-infected children had a 55% longer duration of hospitalization and a 21% lower appetite.
The Effects of Long-or Medium-Chain Fat Diets on Glucose Toleance and Myocellular Content of Lipid Intermediates in Rats
Vogel-van den Bosch, H.M. de; Hoeks, J. ; Timmers, S. ; Houten, S.M. ; Dijk, P.J. ; Boon, W.P.C. ; Beurden, D. van; Schaart, G. ; Kersten, A.H. ; Voshol, P.J. ; Wanders, R.J.A. ; Hesselink, M.K. ; Schrauwen, P. - \ 2011
Obesity 19 (2011)4. - ISSN 1930-7381 - p. 792 - 799.
muscle insulin-resistance - skeletal-muscle - differential oxidation - energy-expenditure - acids - triglycerides - metabolism - transport - carnitine - mechanism
Accumulation of triacylglycerols (TAGs) and acylcarnitines in skeletal muscle upon high-fat (HF) feeding is the resultant of fatty acid uptake and oxidation and is associated with insulin resistance. As medium-chain fatty acids (MCFAs) are preferentially ß-oxidized over long-chain fatty acids, we examined the effects of medium-chain TAGs (MCTs) and long-chain TAGs (LCTs) on muscle lipid storage and whole-body glucose tolerance. Rats fed a low-fat (LF), HFLCT, or an isocaloric HFMCT diet displayed a similar body weight gain over 8 weeks of treatment. Only HFLCT increased myocellular TAG (42.3 ± 4.9, 71.9 ± 6.7, and 48.5 ± 6.5 µmol/g for LF, HFLCT, and HFMCT, respectively, P <0.05) and long-chain acylcarnitine content (P <0.05). Neither HF diet increased myocellular diacylglycerol (DAG) content. Intraperitoneal (IP) glucose tolerance tests (1.5 g/kg) revealed a significantly decreased glucose tolerance in the HFMCT compared to the HFLCT-fed rats (802 ± 40, 772 ± 18, and 886 ± 18 area under the curve for LF, HFLCT, and HFMCT, respectively, P <0.05). Finally, no differences in myocellular insulin signaling after bolus insulin injection (10 U/kg) were observed between LF, HFLCT, or HFMCT-fed rats. These results show that accumulation of TAGs and acylcarnitines in skeletal muscle in the absence of body weight gain do not impede myocellular insulin signaling or whole-body glucose intolerance.
Dietary assessment in elderly people: experiences gained from studies in the Netherlands
Vries, J.H.M. de; Groot, C.P.G.M. de; Staveren, W.A. van - \ 2009
European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 63 (2009). - ISSN 0954-3007 - p. S69 - S74.
food-frequency questionnaires - randomized controlled-trial - low-socioeconomic-status - nursing-home residents - energy-expenditure - history method - picture-sort - validation - mortality - validity
Background/Objectives: In selecting a dietary assessment method, several aspects such as the aim of the study and the characteristics of the target population should be taken into account. In elderly people, diminished functionality and cognitive decline may hamper dietary assessment and require tailored approaches to assess dietary intake. The objective of this paper is to summarize our experience in dietary assessment in a number of different studies in population groups over 65 years of age in the Netherlands, and to discuss this experience in the perspective of other nutrition surveys in the elderly. Methods: In longitudinal studies, we applied a modified dietary history; in clinical nursing home studies, trained staff observed and recorded food consumption; and in a controlled trial in healthy elderly men, we used a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Results: For all methods applied in the community-dwelling elderly people, validation studies showed a similar underestimation of intake of 10¿15% compared with the reference value. In the care-depending elderly, the underestimation was less: 5% according to an observational method. The methods varied widely in the resources required, including burden to the participants, field staff and finances. Conclusions: For effective dietary assessment in older adults, the major challenge will be to distinguish between those elderly who are able to respond correctly to the less intensive methods, such as 24-h recalls or FFQ, and those who are not able to respond to these methods and require adapted techniques, for example, observational records.
Body condition of shorebirds upon arrival at their Siberian breeding grounds
Tulp, I.Y.M. ; Schekkerman, H. ; Klaassen, R.H.G. ; Ens, B.J. ; Visser, G.H. - \ 2009
Polar Biology 32 (2009)3. - ISSN 0722-4060 - p. 481 - 491.
calidris-canutus-islandica - red knots - energy-expenditure - tundra arthropods - ellesmere-island - fat reserves - migration - stores - survival - waders
Abstract Arctic breeding shorebirds carry substantial body stores on their long-distance migrations from their non-breeding grounds. Upon arrival at the breeding area the remains of these stores can be used for egg formation, insurance against poor feeding conditions or rebuilding organs. We quantified body condition (body mass, total body water, lean body mass and fat mass estimated using the deuterium dilution method) in seven shorebird species caught upon arrival in the Siberian Arctic. Arrival condition was compared with incubation condition in a subset of species. After correction for structural size, body mass was significantly lower at arrival than during incubation in most of the species (but 3¿18% above lean mass). Fat index (fat mass/lean mass) varied between 5.1 and 13.2%. Fat stores were estimated to enable survival for 0.6 days for the smallest and 2.5 days for the largest species. We discuss possible functions of arrival stores: insurance, egg-formation or rebuilding organs.
|Alcohol, smoking, and physical activity related to respiratory infections in elderly people
Horst-Graat, J.M. van der; Terpstra, J.S. ; Kok, F.J. ; Schouten, E.G. - \ 2007
Journal of Nutrition, Health and Aging 11 (2007)1. - ISSN 1279-7707 - p. 80 - 85.
randomized controlled-trial - tract infections - common cold - vitamin-e - ethanol-consumption - energy-expenditure - supplementation - risk - susceptibility - community
OBJECTIVE: Elderly people show an increased risk of acute respiratory infections and their complications. This increased susceptibility may be the result of immunosenescence. If lifestyle factors could influence the risk of the infections, this could result in great public health relevance. We investigated the relation between alcohol consumption, smoking, and physical activity with acute respiratory infections. DESIGN: Prospective observational analysis. SETTING: The study took place between September 1998 - June 2000, in the Wageningen area of The Netherlands. PARTICIPANTS: In total 652 relatively healthy elderly people participated. Participants were noninstitutionalized and 60 years and older. MEASUREMENTS: The lifestyle factors were assessed at baseline by means of standardized and validated questionnaires in the participants. Self-reported respiratory infections were assessed from 1998-2000 by nurse telephone contact, and home visits, and were evaluated by microbiological tests in a subset. RESULTS: We detected 1024 acute respiratory infections among 443 participants, the overall incidence rate (IR) was 1.6 infections per person per year. IR ratio (95% confidence interval) of the infections was 1.31 (1.01, 1.70) for occasional (superior 0 glasses/day <1), 1.22 (0.92, 1.64) for light (1 <glasses/day <3 (men) and 1<glasses/day <2 (women)), and 1.33 (1.04, 1.83) at moderate/heavy (superior 3 (men) or superior 2 (women) glasses/day) alcohol consumption after adjustment for age and sex. Alcohol intake was not related to illness severity. Smoking and physical activity were not related to the incidence and severity of the infections. All results remained unaltered after adjustment for lifestyle factors and for other potential risk factors for respiratory infections. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that only alcohol intake may be unfavorably associated with the frequency of acute respiratory infections in apparently healthy elderly people. Until our results are confirmed in trials, it is not warranted to recommend elderly people to change their habits of life, such as alcohol consumption, smoking and physical activity in order to reduce the risk of acute respiratory infections.
Impaired Fat-induced Thermogenesis in Obese Subjects: The NUGENOB Study
Blaak, E.E. ; Hul, G. ; Verdich, C. ; Stich, V. ; Martinez, J.A. ; Petersen, M. ; Feskens, E.J.M. ; Patel, K. ; Oppert, J.M. ; Barbe, P. ; Tourbro, S. ; Polak, J. ; Anderson, I. ; Astrup, A. ; Macdonald, I. ; Langin, D. ; Sorensen, T. ; Saris, W.H.M. - \ 2007
Obesity 15 (2007)3. - ISSN 1930-7381 - p. 653 - 663.
resting metabolic-rate - sympathetic neural activation - insulin-resistance - energy-expenditure - postprandial thermogenesis - physical-activity - growth-hormone - adipose-tissue - weight-gain - food
Objectives: To study energy expenditure before and 3 hours after a high-fat load in a large cohort of obese subjects (n=701) and a lean reference group (n = 113). Research Methods and Procedures: Subjects from seven European countries underwent a 1-day clinical study with a liquid test meal challenge containing 95% fat (energy content was 50% of estimated resting energy expenditure). Fasting and 3-hour postprandial energy expenditures, as well as metabolites and hormones, were determined. Results: Obese subjects had a reduced postprandial energy expenditure after the high-fat load, independent of body composition, age, sex, research center, and resting energy expenditure, whereas within the obese group, thermogenesis increased again with increasing BMI category. Additionally, insulin resistance, habitual physical activity, postprandial plasma triacylglycerols, and insulin were all independently positively related to the postprandial energy expenditure. Resting energy expenditure, adjusted for fat-free mass, increased with degree of obesity, a difference that disappeared after adjustment for fat mass. Furthermore, insulin resistance, fasting plasma free fatty acids, and cortisol were positively associated, whereas fasting plasma leptin and insulin-like growth factor-1 were negatively associated, with resting energy expenditure. Discussion: The 3-hour fat-induced thermogenic response is reduced in obesity. It remains to be determined whether this blunted thermogenic response is a contributory factor or an adaptive response to the obese state.
|Health issues of whey proteins: 2. Weight management
Schaafsma, G. - \ 2006
Current Topics in Nutraceutical Research 4 (2006)2. - ISSN 1540-7535 - p. 123 - 126.
diet-induced thermogenesis - amino-acid profiles - food-intake - body-weight - respiration chamber - energy-expenditure - satiety - humans - metabolism - ghrelin
The increasing prevalence in many countries of people with overweight and obesity is undoubtedly one of the biggest threats to public health. Dietary proteins, because of their positive effects on satiation/satiety, may help to reduce energy intake and promote a healthy body composition with Less body fat. Several mechanisms have been put forward to explain why proteins, as compared to fats and carbohydrates, enhance satiation. These are diet-induced thermogenesis, increased post-prandial concentration of plasma amino acids and effects on gut hormones, playing a role in the brain-gut axis. In this paper these mechanisms are discussed and the significance of whey proteins for weight management is evaluated. It is concluded that replacement of either fat or carbohydrates by whey proteins can be helpful in reduction of energy intake. To what extent whey proteins offer a specific advantage in this regard as compared to other dietary proteins, should be investigated in more detail.