Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Invited review: A position on the Global Livestock Environmental Assessment Model (GLEAM)
MacLeod, M.J. ; Vellinga, T. ; Opio, C. ; Falcucci, A. ; Tempio, G. ; Henderson, B. ; Makkar, H. ; Mottet, A. ; Robinson, T. ; Steinfeld, H. ; Gerber, P.J. - \ 2018
Animal 12 (2018)2. - ISSN 1751-7311 - p. 383 - 397.
climate change - environmental assessment - life-cycle analysis - livestock - models
The livestock sector is one of the fastest growing subsectors of the agricultural economy and, while it makes a major contribution to global food supply and economic development, it also consumes significant amounts of natural resources and alters the environment. In order to improve our understanding of the global environmental impact of livestock supply chains, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations has developed the Global Livestock Environmental Assessment Model (GLEAM). The purpose of this paper is to provide a review of GLEAM. Specifically, it explains the model architecture, methods and functionality, that is the types of analysis that the model can perform. The model focuses primarily on the quantification of greenhouse gases emissions arising from the production of the 11 main livestock commodities. The model inputs and outputs are managed and produced as raster data sets, with spatial resolution of 0.05 decimal degrees. The Global Livestock Environmental Assessment Model v1.0 consists of five distinct modules: (a) the Herd Module; (b) the Manure Module; (c) the Feed Module; (d) the System Module; (e) the Allocation Module. In terms of the modelling approach, GLEAM has several advantages. For example spatial information on livestock distributions and crops yields enables rations to be derived that reflect the local availability of feed resources in developing countries. The Global Livestock Environmental Assessment Model also contains a herd model that enables livestock statistics to be disaggregated and variation in livestock performance and management to be captured. Priorities for future development of GLEAM include: improving data quality and the methods used to perform emissions calculations; extending the scope of the model to include selected additional environmental impacts and to enable predictive modelling; and improving the utility of GLEAM output.
Cumulative effects assessment: proof of concept marine mammals
Piet, Gerjan ; Boon, Arjen ; Jongbloed, Ruud ; Meulen, Myra van der; Tamis, Jacqueline ; Teal, Lorna ; Wal, Jan Tjalling van der - \ 2017
Den Helder : Wageningen Marine Research (Wageningen Marine Research report C002/17) - 107
marine mammals - marine ecology - environmental impact - environmental assessment - ecological risk assessment - zeezoogdieren - mariene ecologie - milieueffect - milieutoets - ecologische risicoschatting
This development of the framework and approach for a Cumulative Effects Assessment (CEA) is based on a literature review. The literature identified some key challenges that need to be addressed for CEA to evolve into a consistent, appropriate tool to assist decision-making. These challenges included • A clear distinction of the receptor-led CEA from the dominating stressor-led Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) approaches and • Enabling CEA to provide ecosystem-relevant information at an appropriate regional scale. Therefore this CEA is explicitly developed to be a receptor-led and fully integrated framework, i.e. involving multiple occurrences of multiple pressures (from single and/or different sources) on multiple receptors, as opposed to other existing approaches dealing with only a subset of those pressures or receptors, hence our use of the phrase iCEA for integrated CEA. As a proof of concept for this iCEA we selected one receptor, the ecosystem component marine mammals. The main conclusions of this exercise (see Chapter 6) are that the iCEA framework and approach presented in this study appear suitable to fulfil its main purpose and ultimately inform the policy process as described in the conception phase. However it should be acknowledged this is only the very first step in a process where through many iterations new information can be introduced and assessed (relative to existing information) based on the criteria provided resulting in an improved iCEA with increasing confidence levels. As more information becomes available the relative importance of impact chains and its corresponding information modules may change giving direction to new areas for research. For further development of this iCEA towards its intended applications we can distinguish between the first purpose, i.e. identification of the main impact chains contributing to the risk that a specific ecosystem component is impacted, which can be achieved with the approach presented here focussing on one specific ecosystem component and the second purpose, i.e. an evaluation of the performance of possible management strategies, which would require all ecosystem components to be included as would be required for ecosystem-based management. Thus to further the development and application of this iCEA towards its (two) purpose(s) the recommendation is to: • Include the available information presented in this report into the iCEA and develop the Bayesian Belief Network such that it can process this information and its associated confidence into an assessment that identifies the main impact chains for the marine mammals. • Extend the framework and approach to (all) the other ecosystem components so that a truly integrated CEA is possible. Note that this is likely to affect the identification of what should be considered the main pressures to guide management. • Improve the information modules that emerged from the evaluation as the most promising to increase the confidence in the outcome of the iCEA. Note that the previous two steps may result in a different prioritisation of the information modules as the importance of pressures and hence impact chains changes.
Scenarios for exposure of aquatic organisms to plant protection products in the Netherlands
Wipfler, E.L. ; Linden, A.M.A. van der; Os, E.A. van; Wingelaar, G.J. ; Cornelese, A.A. ; Bergstedt, H. - \ 2015
Wageningen : Alterra, Wageningen-UR (Alterra report 2604) - 41
glastuinbouw - cultuur zonder grond - pesticiden - toelating van bestrijdingsmiddelen - waterverontreiniging - milieutoets - scenario-analyse - greenhouse horticulture - soilless culture - pesticides - authorisation of pesticides - water pollution - environmental assessment - scenario analysis
Een studie is uitgevoerd naar de impact op de toelaatbaarheid van gewasbeschermingsmiddelen als de nieuwe oppervlaktewater exposure scenario’s voor substraatteelten in Nederlandse kassen worden ingevoerd. Ook is de gevoeligheid van de modeluitkomsten bepaald voor een aantal belangrijke modelparameters. De berekende milieuconcentratie in oppervlaktewater van de 35 bekeken gewasgewasbeschermingsmiddel combinaties lag in 27 gevallen hoger dan het bijbehorende toelatingscriterium. Voor deze combinaties zullen end-of-pipe reductietechnieken nodig zijn om de milieuconcentraties voldoende te verlagen.
Environmental Risk Assessment expertise at Alterra Wageningen UR
Alterra - Centrum Landschap, - \ 2015
aquatic ecosystems - pollution - pollution control - risk assessment - ecological assessment - university research - pesticides - environmental assessment - environmental protection
Resource-efficient supply chains: a research framework, literature review and research agenda
Matopoulos, A. ; Barros, A.C. ; Vorst, J.G.A.J. van der - \ 2015
Supply Chain Management : an International Journal 20 (2015)2. - ISSN 1359-8546 - p. 218 - 236.
greenhouse-gas emissions - life-cycle assessment - food-production systems - carbon footprint - land-use - environmental assessment - conceptual-framework - manufacturing firms - energy efficiency - complexity theory
Purpose – The study aims to define a research agenda for creating resource-efficient supply chains (RESCs) by identifying and analysing their key characteristics as well as future research opportunities. Design/methodology/approach – We follow a systematic review method to analyse the literature and to understand RESC, taking a substantive theory approach. Our approach is grounded in a specific domain, the agri-food sector, because it is an intensive user of an extensive range of resources. Findings – The review shows that works of literature has looked at the use of resources primarily from the environmental impact perspective. There is a need to explore whether or not and how logistics/supply chain decisions will affect the overall configuration of future food supply chains in an era of resource scarcity and depletion and what the trade-offs will be. Research imitations/implications – The paper proposes an agenda for future research in the area of RESC. The framework proposed along with the key characteristics identified for RESC can be applied to other sectors. Practical implications – Our research should facilitate further understanding of the implications and trade-offs of supply chain decisions taken on the use of resources by supply chain managers. Originality/value – The paper explores the interaction between supply chains and natural resources and defines the key characteristics of RESC. Keywords Systematic literature review, Logistics and supply chain design decisions, Natural resource-based view, Resource scarcity, Resource-efficiency, Sustainable supply chains
The interaction triangle as a tool for understanding stakeholder interactions in marine ecosystem based management
Rockmann, C. ; Leeuwen, J. van; Goldsborough, D.G. ; Kraan, M.L. ; Piet, G.J. - \ 2015
Marine Policy 52 (2015). - ISSN 0308-597X - p. 155 - 162.
traditional ecological knowledge - fisheries management - environmental assessment - citizen participation - resource-management - risk communication - uncertainty - governance - framework - science
Expectations about ecosystem based management (EBM) differ due to diverging perspectives about what EBM should be and how it should work. While EBM by its nature requires trade-offs to be made between ecological, economic and social sustainability criteria, the diversity of cross-sectoral perspectives, values, stakes, and the specificity of each individual situation determine the outcome of these trade-offs. The authors strive to raise awareness of the importance of interaction between three stakeholder groups (decision makers, scientists, and other actors) and argue that choosing appropriate degrees of interaction between them in a transparent way can make EBM more effective in terms of the three effectiveness criteria salience, legitimacy, and credibility. This article therefore presents an interaction triangle in which three crucial dimensions of stakeholder interactions are discussed: (A) between decision makers and scientists, who engage in framing to foster salience of scientific input to decision making, (B) between decision makers and other actors, to shape participation processes to foster legitimacy of EBM processes, and (C) between scientists and other actors, who collaborate to foster credibility of knowledge production. Due to the complexity of EBM, there is not one optimal interaction approach; rather, finding the optimal degrees of interaction for each dimension depends on the context in which EBM is implemented, i.e. the EBM objectives, the EBM initiator’s willingness for transparency and interaction, and other context-specific factors, such as resources, trust, and state of knowledge.
Assessing uncertainty associated with the monitoring and evaluation of spatially managed areas
Stelzenmueller, V. ; Fernandez, T.V. ; Cronin, K. ; Rockmann, C. ; Jak, R.G. ; Hoof, L.J.W. van - \ 2015
Marine Policy 51 (2015). - ISSN 0308-597X - p. 151 - 162.
environmental assessment - north-sea - framework - science - implementation - indicators - quality - nusap
Marine spatial planning (MSP) is advocated to support an ecosystem approach to marine management, as it allows consideration of multiple management objectives including marine conservation. The monitoring and evaluation of both implemented marine plans and the planning process itself is susceptible to various uncertainties. Here, uncertainties related to a stepwise monitoring and evaluation framework for spatially managed areas were characterised and quantified with the help of two modified and developed tools. In particular, Walker-type and pedigree matrices were utilised to assess both the sources and respective relative levels of uncertainty present in the assessment of nine European case studies that conducted a stepwise monitoring and evaluation process applying a common framework. Across the southern and northern European case studies major sources of uncertainty were found in relation to the knowledge base, management scenarios with related objectives and data availability. Although case studies made flexible use of the framework to account for the particularities of the local realms, the revealed pattern of associated uncertainty was highly consistent across the case studies. The scored pedigree matrices showed that the criteria ‘stakeholder engagement’ and ‘cross validation’ had greatest influence on the overall robustness of the case study assessments. The observed distribution of median pedigree scores was within acceptable ranges with respect to simulated possible score distributions. In addition, a sensitivity analysis revealed that the scoring of the pedigree criteria by five or more experts would result in less variable interquartile ranges of respective median scores. In conclusion, the developed complementary tools showed great flexibility in characterising and assessing uncertainty despite context-dependent differences among case studies such as geographical area, quality of available data, level of spatial management implementation or management objectives. Moreover, the obtained findings allow prioritising efforts and future research to support an iterative monitoring and evaluation of marine spatial plans.
Multiple data sets and modelling choices in a comparative LCA of disposable beverage cups
Harst, E.J.M. van der; Potting, J. ; Kroeze, C. - \ 2014
Science of the Total Environment 494-495 (2014). - ISSN 0048-9697 - p. 129 - 143.
life-cycle assessment - global warming contributions - environmental assessment - greenhouse gases - paper - system - pulp - management - impacts - options
This study used multiple data sets and modelling choices in an environmental life cycle assessment (LCA) to compare typical disposable beverage cups made from polystyrene (PS), polylactic acid (PLA; bioplastic) and paper lined with bioplastic (biopaper). Incineration and recycling were considered as waste processing options, and for the PLA and biopaper cup also composting and anaerobic digestion. Multiple data sets and modelling choices were systematically used to calculate average results and the spread in results for each disposable cup in eleven impact categories. The LCA results of all combinations of data sets and modelling choices consistently identify three processes that dominate the environmental impact: (1) production of the cup's basic material (PS, PLA, biopaper), (2) cup manufacturing, and (3) waste processing. The large spread in results for impact categories strongly overlaps among the cups, however, and therefore does not allow a preference for one type of cup material. Comparison of the individual waste treatment options suggests some cautious preferences. The average waste treatment results indicate that recycling is the preferred option for PLA cups, followed by anaerobic digestion and incineration. Recycling is slightly preferred over incineration for the biopaper cups. There is no preferred waste treatment option for the PS cups. Taking into account the spread in waste treatment results for all cups, however, none of these preferences for waste processing options can be justified. The only exception is composting, which is least preferred for both PLA and biopaper cups. Our study illustrates that using multiple data sets and modelling choices can lead to considerable spread in LCA results. This makes comparing products more complex, but the outcomes more robust.
Strategies to reduce electricity consumption on dairy farms : an economic and environmental assessment
Upton, J.R. - \ 2014
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Imke de Boer; Peter Groot Koerkamp, co-promotor(en): L. Shalloo. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462570771 - 171
elektriciteit - energiegebruik - melkveehouderij - reductie - kosten - technologie - innovaties - economische analyse - milieutoets - electricity - energy consumption - dairy farming - reduction - costs - technology - innovations - economic analysis - environmental assessment

The aim of this thesis was to assess how, and to what extent, do managerial and technology changes affect electricity consumption, associated costs and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of dairy farms. Dairy farms in Ireland are expected to expand in the future, due to policy incentives and the abolishment of European Union milk quotas in 2015, which will result in an increased use of resources such as land, water, and energy, and increased emissions to the environment. In order to develop strategies to reduce electricity consumption associated costs and GHG emissions, it was necessary to understand the consumption trends and the hot-spots of electricity consumption within the farm. Therefore, we performed a life cycle assessment by quantifying the energy use on 22 commercial Irish dairy farms, from cradle-to-farm-gate. This analysis demonstrated that a total of 31.7 MJ of energy was required to produce one kg of milk solids, of which 20% was direct and 80% was indirect energy use. Electricity consumption was found to represent 12% of total cradle-to-farm-gate energy use or 60% of direct energy, and was centered on milk harvesting. Following this analysis we devised two main groups of strategies, i.e. ‘cost strategies’ and ‘energy strategies’. ‘Cost strategies’ consisted of measures that could save on-farm costs but no energy or related emissions, such as, moving to a new electricity tariff or decoupling large electricity users, such as water heating, from milking times and shifting them to off-peak periods when electricity price is lower. Examples of ‘energy strategies’ are; the use of variable speed vacuum pumps on the milking machine, pre-cooling of milk and solar thermal technologies to provide hot water for cleaning purposes. A mechanistic model of electricity consumption that simulates farm equipment on an hourly and monthly basis was developed to further evaluate the ‘cost’ and ‘energy’ strategies. We used this model to show that a Day & Night electricity tariff minimised annual electricity costs, while a Flat tariff would increase the electricity costs by between 16% and 34%, depending on farm size. We also discovered that milking earlier in the morning and later in the evening reduced the simulated annual electricity consumption and related GHG emissions by between 5% and 7%, depending on farm size. An analysis of ‘energy strategies’ was carried out which revealed that that the ideal blend of technologies to maximise farm profitability while also reducing electricity consumption and GHG emissions, consisted of a direct expansion milk tank with pre-cooling of milk with well water to 15°C, electrical water heating and standard vacuum pumps. An individual farmer can also choose to increase his or her use of renewable energy by adding solar thermal water heating with the trade-off of reduced profitability and negative return on investment figures. This analysis highlighted the need for an investment appraisal approach to technology investments on dairy farms.

Onderzoek aan Albuz CVI1 10-015, CVI1 10-02, CVI1 10-025, CVI1 10-03, CVI1 10-04 en CVI1 10-05 spuitdoppen ter verkrijging van de status driftarm en voor classificatie op basis van driftgevoeligheid
Groot, T.T. ; Holterman, H.J. ; Zande, J.C. van de - \ 2013
Wageningen : Plant Research International Wageningen UR, Business Unit Agrosystems (Rapport / Plant Research International 522) - 24
spuiten - spuitdoppen - emissie - reductie - normen - druppelgrootte - meting - milieutoets - spraying - fan nozzles - emission - reduction - standards - droplet size - measurement - environmental assessment
Het Lozingenbesluit Open Teelt en Veehouderij (LOTV, nu Activiteitenbesluit Milieubeheer) bepaalt dat bij bespuitingen van een gewas met veldspuitapparatuur de buitenste strook bespoten moet worden met driftarme spuitdoppen. Uit de resultaten van druppelgroottemetingen wordt aangegeven of de in dit onderzoek onderzochte spuitdoppen, bij bepaalde drukken, volgens het Lozingenbesluit aangemerkt kunnen worden met de status driftarm. Bij de beoordeling van de toelating van bestrijdingsmiddelen en de beperking van de teeltvrije zone in het Lozingenbesluit kan gewerkt worden met het driftpercentage dat bij een zekere dop-drukcombinatie behoort. Dop-drukcombinaties zijn daartoe in te delen in driftreductieklassen van 50, 75, 90 en 95%. In deze rapportage worden de Albuz spleetdoppen CVI110-015, CVI110-02, CVI110-025, CVI110-03, CVI110-04 enCVI110-05 bij een druk van 1 bar, en de doppen CVI110-04 n CVI110-05 ook bij 1,5 bar, onderzocht op hun druppelgroottespectrum. Aan de hand van druppelgroottemetingen wordt beoordeeld of deze optypen bij de aangegeven spuitdruk aan de status driftarm volgens het Lozingenbesluit (Activiteitenbesluit Milieubeheer) voldoen. Daarnaast wordt bepaald tot welke driftreductie klasse een bepaalde dop- drukcombinatie behoort.
Milieurapportage Boom- en Vaste Plantenteelt van 2009 en 2010 : grote afname van de milieubelasting inmiddels gerealiseerd
Sluis, B.J. van der - \ 2012
Lisse : Praktijkonderzoek Plant & Omgeving BBF - 72
boomkwekerijen - vasteplantenkwekerijen - maatregelen - milieubeheer - milieutoets - doelstellingen - innovaties - verbetering - forest nurseries - perennial nurseries - measures - environmental management - environmental assessment - objectives - innovations - improvement
In de boomkwekerij en de vaste plantenteelt is de milieubelasting in de periode 1998-2010 met maar liefst 86% gedaald. In de totale land- en tuinbouw is dit 85%. De doelstelling was 95% en is dus niet helemaal gehaald. Duidelijk is dat de boomkwekerij forse inspanningen heeft geleverd en dat de boomkweker blijft innoveren om de milieubelasting verder terug te dringen. Verdere afname zal nog een grote inspanning vergen. De sector geeft tegelijkertijd aan dat verdere maatregelen wel bedrijfseconomisch verantwoord moeten zijn.
Promoting system-level learning from project-level lessons. An analysis of donor-driven 'indirect' learning about EIA systems in Ghana and the Maldives
Jong, A. de; Runhaar, H. ; Runhaar, P.R. ; Driessen, P. ; Kolhoff, A. - \ 2012
Environmental Impact Assessment Review 33 (2012)1. - ISSN 0195-9255 - p. 23 - 31.
environmental assessment - developing-countries - reflections - policy
A growing number of low and middle income nations (LMCs) have adopted some sort of system for environmental impact assessment (EIA). However, generally many of these EIA systems are characterised by a low performance in terms of timely information dissemination, monitoring and enforcement after licencing. Donor actors (such as the World Bank) have attempted to contribute to a higher performance of EIA systems in LMCs by intervening at two levels: the project level (e.g. by providing scoping advice or EIS quality review) and the system level (e.g. by advising on EIA legislation or by capacity building). The aims of these interventions are environmental protection in concrete cases and enforcing the institutionalisation of environmental protection, respectively. Learning by actors involved is an important condition for realising these aims. A relatively underexplored form of learning concerns learning at EIA system-level via project level donor interventions. This ‘indirect’ learning potentially results in system changes that better fit the specific context(s) and hence contribute to higher performances. Our exploratory research in Ghana and the Maldives shows that thus far, ‘indirect’ learning only occurs incidentally and that donors play a modest role in promoting it. Barriers to indirect learning are related to the institutional context rather than to individual characteristics. Moreover, ‘indirect’ learning seems to flourish best in large projects where donors achieved a position of influence that they can use to evoke reflection upon system malfunctions. In order to enhance learning at all levels donors should thereby present the outcomes of the intervention elaborately (i.e. discuss the outcomes with a large audience), include practical suggestions about post-EIS activities such as monitoring procedures and enforcement options and stimulate the use of their advisory reports to generate organisational memory and ensure a better information dissemination
The added value of participatory modelling in fisheries management - what has been learnt?
Rockmann, C. ; Ulrich, C. ; Dreyer, M. ; Miller, D.C.M. ; Tserpes, G. ; Pastoors, M.A. - \ 2012
Marine Policy 36 (2012)5. - ISSN 0308-597X - p. 1072 - 1085.
environmental assessment - credibility crisis - nusap system - uncertainty - science
How can uncertain fisheries science be linked with good governance processes, thereby increasing fisheries management legitimacy and effectiveness? Reducing the uncertainties around scientific models has long been perceived as the cure of the fisheries management problem. There is however increasing recognition that uncertainty in the numbers will remain. A lack of transparency with respect to these uncertainties can damage the credibility of science. The EU Commission's proposal for a reformed Common Fisheries Policy calls for more self-management for the fishing industry by increasing fishers' involvement in the planning and execution of policies and boosting the role of fishers' organisations. One way of higher transparency and improved participation is to include stakeholders in the modelling process itself. The JAKFISH project (Judgment And Knowledge in Fisheries Involving StakeHolders) invited fisheries stakeholders to participate in the process of framing the management problem, and to give input and evaluate the scientific models that are used to provide fisheries management advice. JAKFISH investigated various tools to assess and communicate uncertainty around fish stock assessments and fisheries management. Here, a synthesis is presented of the participatory work carried out in four European fishery case studies (Western Baltic herring, North Sea Nephrops, Central Baltic Herring and Mediterranean swordfish), focussing on the uncertainty tools used, the stakeholders' responses to these, and the lessons learnt. It is concluded that participatory modelling has the potential to facilitate and structure discussions between scientists and stakeholders about uncertainties and the quality of the knowledge base. It can also contribute to collective learning, increase legitimacy, and advance scientific understanding. However, when approaching real-life situations, modelling should not be seen as the priority objective. Rather, the crucial step in a science–stakeholder collaboration is the joint problem framing in an open, transparent way. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Advice under uncertainty in the marine system
Dankel, D.J. ; Aps, R. ; Padda, G. ; Rockmann, C. ; Sluijs, J.P. van der; Wilson, D.C. ; Degnbol, P. - \ 2012
ICES Journal of Marine Science 69 (2012)1. - ISSN 1054-3139 - p. 3 - 7.
environmental assessment - science - management - knowledge - models
There is some uncertainty in the fisheries science–policy interface. Although progress has been made towards more transparency and participation in fisheries science in ICES Areas, routine use of state-of-the-art quantitative and qualitative tools to address uncertainty systematically is still lacking. Fisheries science that gives advice to policy-making is plagued by uncertainties; the stakes of the policies are high and value-laden and need therefore to be treated as an example of “post-normal science” (PNS). To achieve robust governance, understanding of the characteristics and implications of the scientific uncertainties for management strategies need to come to the centre of the table. This can be achieved using state-of-the-art tools such as pedigree matrices and uncertainty matrices, as developed by PNS scholars and used in similar science–policy arenas on other complex issues. An explicit extension of the peer community within maritime systems will be required to put these new tools in place. These new competences become even more important as many countries within the ICES Area are now embarking on new policies.
Ecosysteemdiensten in Nederland : Verkenning Betekenis en Perspectieven ; Achtergrondrapport bij Natuurverkenning 2011
Melman, T.C.P. ; Heide, C.M. van der - \ 2011
Wageningen : WOT Natuur & Milieu (WOt-rapport 111) - 202
ecosysteemdiensten - haalbaarheidsstudies - economische analyse - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - milieubeleid - milieutoets - nederland - ecosystem services - feasibility studies - economic analysis - sustainability - environmental policy - environmental assessment - netherlands
Een verkenning is uitgevoerd naar de potentiële betekenis van het concept ecosysteemdiensten voor het omgevingsbeleid. Vanuit de literatuur is bepaald wat het begrip inhoudt en is verkend hoe het praktisch en betekenisvol kan worden toegepast in het beleid. Een groot aantal aandachtspunten die daarbij aan de orde komen wordt aangestipt. Daarmee wordt een beeld geschetst van kracht en zwakte van het concept. Afzonderlijke aandacht wordt geschonken aan waardering en monetarisering van ecosysteemdiensten. Naast algemene beschouwingen over het concept wordt op een aantal ecosysteemdiensten meer specifiek ingegaan, toegespitst op de Nederlandse situatie. De Bevindingen zijn onder meer bedoeld als input voor de natuurverkenning die het Planbureau voor de Leefomgeving (PBL) zal uitbrengen. Trefwoorden: duurzaamheid, ecosysteemdiensten, monetarisering, natuurverkenning, waardering
An aggregation framework to link indicators associated with multifunctional land use to the stakeholder evaluation of policy options
Paracchini, M.L. ; Pacini, C. ; Jones, M.L.M. ; Pérez-Soba, M. - \ 2011
Ecological Indicators 11 (2011)1. - ISSN 1470-160X - p. 71 - 80.
sustainability assessment - environmental assessment - decision-making - regions
In the last decade efforts have been carried out by the scientific community aimed at building integrated frameworks to support the decision-making process when sustainability issues are addressed. This paper proposes a further advancement in integrated assessment procedures by setting up an operational multi-scale and transparent framework, which comprises the assessment of European regions in terms of sustainability, and the identification of the impact that policy options might have on the sustainability of these regions. The framework is designed for use in ex ante sustainability impact assessment of policy scenarios on multifunctionality of land use and integrates economic, environmental and social issues across a variety of sectors (agriculture, forestry, transport, tourism and energy). The proposed method provides a conceptual framework applicable at different scales (European, regional), and takes into account the great variability of European regions. The described methodology is based on linear additive models to weight and aggregate selected indicators to a set of land use functions identified to describe the goods and services provided by the different land uses that summarise the most relevant economic, environmental and social issues of a region. The framework is designed to allow the evaluation of impacts at an international scale (e.g. the European Union), or on selected regions. The aggregation framework can be used to evaluate the impact that policy options have on the sustainability of multifunctional land use systems with competing demands. A conceptual envelope, called the ¿trade-off evaluation space¿, delineates all possible developments in the functions of the land. The sustainability limits identify the subset of `acceptable¿ policy options within the trade-off evaluation space, so that the distance of each land use function from sustainability limits can be estimated and trade-offs between the different functions of the multifunctional land use system can be identified. The proposed methodology is adaptable to different contexts: if the assumption is taken that all land use functions are equally weighted the framework can be used to analyse policy cases and take decisions on policy options at the European or regional level. However, at the local-scale the framework can also be applied through a participatory approach and the distribution of weights can be rediscussed with local stakeholders. In both cases the proposed system can be used as a tool for discussion among all interested parties
Ecological models for regulatory risk assessments of pesticides: Developing a strategy for the future.
Thorbek, P. ; Forbes, V. ; Heimbach, F. ; Hommen, U. ; Thulke, H.H. ; Brink, P.J. van den - \ 2010
SETAC America : SETAC and CRC Press - ISBN 9781439805114 - 127
pesticiden - milieufactoren - milieutoets - risicoschatting - simulatiemodellen - ecologie - landbouw en milieu - ecologische risicoschatting - pesticides - environmental factors - environmental assessment - risk assessment - simulation models - ecology - agriculture and environment - ecological risk assessment
Ecological Models for Regulatory Risk Assessments of Pesticides: Developing a Strategy for the Future provides a coherent, science-based view on ecological modeling for regulatory risk assessments. It discusses the benefits of modeling in the context of registrations, identifies the obstacles that prevent ecological modeling being used routinely in regulatory submissions, and explores the actions needed to overcome these obstacles. The book focuses on the following issues: Uncertainties in the process of model development, such as design, analysis, documentation, and communication, The availability of data and background information needed for optimal modeling, The limited knowledge of modeling, The lack of confidence in the outcome of ecological models and their reliability in pesticide risk assessment, It also suggests future solutions to these challenges, including: A guidance document on the modeling process, Case studies that show how ecological models can provide reliable ecologically relevant risk assessments, Training the people who generate or evaluate results obtained by ecological models, Focusing on ecological models, such as unstructured population models, stage-structured matrix models, and individual- or agent-based models, this volume helps regulatory authorities, manufacturers, and scientists assess the risk of plant protection products in nontarget organisms.
Spray drift from Knapsack sprayers : a study conducted within the framework of the Sino-Dutch Pesticide Environmental Risk Assessment Project PERAP
Franke, A.C. ; Kempenaar, C. ; Holterman, H.J. ; Zande, J.C. van de - \ 2010
Wageningen : Plant Research International (Note / Plant Research International 658) - 20
pesticiden - milieutoets - risicoschatting - gewasbescherming - met de rugzak rondtrekken - drift - ecosystemen - pesticides - environmental assessment - risk assessment - plant protection - backpacking - ecosystems
Drift from the application of crop protection products can cause damage to neighboring crops, ecosystems and human health. In this report, estimations of spray drift with reference to Chinese agricultural systems are provided, based on data from literature and a modeling study. As knapsack sprayers make up the most important tool for pesticide application in China, this study focussed on drift from knapsack sprayers. The results presented in this report will be used to model a pesticide drift and conduct an environmental risk assessment of pesticides in Chinese agricultural systems, as part of the Sino-Dutch Pesticide Environmental Risk Assessment Project PERAP.
Uncertainty analysis in integrated assessment: the users' perspective
Gabbert, S.G.M. ; Ittersum, M.K. van; Kroeze, C. ; Stalpers, S.I.P. ; Ewert, F. ; Alkan Olsson, J. - \ 2010
Regional Environmental Change 10 (2010)2. - ISSN 1436-3798 - p. 131 - 143.
science-policy interface - communicating uncertainty - environmental assessment - models - framework - guidance - quality
Integrated Assessment (IA) models aim at providing information- and decision-support to complex problems. This paper argues that uncertainty analysis in IA models should be user-driven in order to strengthen science–policy interaction. We suggest an approach to uncertainty analysis that starts with investigating model users’ demands for uncertainty information. These demands are called “uncertainty information needs”. Identifying model users’ uncertainty information needs allows focusing the analysis on those uncertainties which users consider relevant and meaningful. As an illustrative example, we discuss the case of examining users’ uncertainty information needs in the SEAMLESS Integrated Framework (SEAMLESS-IF), an IA model chain for assessing and comparing alternative agricultural and environmental policy options. The most important user group of SEAMLESS-IF are policy experts at the European and national level. Uncertainty information needs of this user group were examined in an interactive process during the development of SEAMLESS-IF and by using a questionnaire. Results indicate that users’ information requirements differed from the uncertainty categories considered most relevant by model developers. In particular, policy experts called for addressing a broader set of uncertainty sources (e.g. model structure and technical model setup). The findings highlight that investigating users’ uncertainty information needs is an essential step towards creating confidence in an IA model and its outcomes. This alone, however, may not be sufficient for effectively implementing a user-oriented uncertainty analysis in such models. As the case study illustrates, it requires to include uncertainty analysis into user participation from the outset of the IA modelling process
SENSOR : sustainable impact assessment: tools for environmental social and economic effects of multifunctional land use in European regions
Verweij, P.J.F.M. ; Roller, J.A. te; Vanmeulebrouk, B. ; Knapen, M.J.R. ; Randen, Y. van; Winter, W.P. de; Franke, G.J. - \ 2009
[S.l.] : S.n. - 78
landgebruik - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - computer software - milieutoets - milieueffect - economische evaluatie - europese unie - landgebruiksmonitoring - milieueconomie - milieusociologie - land use - sustainability - environmental assessment - environmental impact - economic evaluation - european union - land use monitoring - environmental economics - environmental sociology
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