Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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New tuna regimes
Yeeting, Agnes David - \ 2017
University. Promotor(en): Simon Bush, co-promotor(en): Hans-Peter Weikard; M. Bailey. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463438308 - 154
fisheries - marine fisheries - tuna - sustainability - environmental policy - governance - economic policy - pacific ocean - environmental economics - visserij - zeevisserij - tonijn - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - milieubeleid - economisch beleid - grote oceaan - milieueconomie
governing sustainability and equity in the Western and Central Pacific Ocean
Het stimuleren van ondernemen met natuur: handelingsopties voor de overheid
Smits, M.J.W. ; Bos, E.J. - \ 2016
Wageningen : Wettelijke Onderzoekstaken Natuur & Milieu (WOt-technical report 83) - 90
natuur - ondernemingen - regering - overheidsbeleid - ondernemerschap - milieueconomie - nature - enterprises - government - government policy - entrepreneurship - environmental economics
De Rijksnatuurvisie wil ondernemers meer betrekken bij natuur. De ambitie is dat natuur altijd meegenomen wordt inhandelingen en beslissingen, ook van ondernemers. Dit wordt ‘natuurinclusief ondernemen’ genoemd. De vraag diecentraal staat in dit rapport is welke beleidsmaatregelen genomen kunnen worden om natuurinclusief ondernemen(verder) te stimuleren. Het antwoord op deze vraag wordt mede bepaald door de wisselwerking tussen publieke enprivate taken en verantwoordelijkheden voor natuur. Een tweede vraag is: in welke mate worden de kosten vannatuurinclusief ondernemen gedragen door de private sector en in welke mate door de publieke sector? Op basis vanvijftien interviews met personen uit het veld kwamen een aantal aandachtspunten en behoeften naar voren die vanbelang blijken voor het verder uitrollen van het concept ‘natuurinclusief ondernemen’. Zo is er behoefte aan duidelijkafgebakende experimenteerruimte om ondernemers het belang en de toepassing van natuurinclusief ondernemen telaten ervaren. Er leeft een gevoel van willekeur door verschillen in (lengte van) procedures tussen gemeenten enprovincies. Verder wordt een intermediair zoals voorheen de Dienst Landelijk Gebied wordt gemist voorgrondaanwerving, inrichting en voorfinanciering. Daarnaast is behoefte aan (ecologische) kennis bij ondernemers enaan ‘oplossingen’ voor de hoge grondprijs die natuurinclusieve landbouw belemmeren, en er werd gewezen op hetbelang van een gebiedsgerichte aanpak. En tot slot: natuurinclusief ondernemen impliceert vaak multifunctioneelgrondgebruik, maar dit stuit nogal eens op wetgeving gericht op bescherming van natuur. Hoewel aan de term‘natuurinclusief ondernemen’ het private belang ten grondslag ligt, blijkt een overheidsrol nog altijd onontbeerlijkhierbij. Zo wordt natuurinclusief ondernemen deels betaald met publiek geld, bijvoorbeeld via subsidies en fiscalevrijstelling. Ook al blijkt uit dit onderzoek de behoefte aan een overheidsrol, tegelijkertijd is duidelijkheid vereist.Wanneer kan natuur privaat opgepakt worden, en wanneer moet het publiek ondersteund worden? Een nieuwevenwicht tussen publieke en private inbreng bij beheer en behoud van natuur is nog niet gevonden---In its policy vision on nature, ‘The Natural Way Forward’ (2014), the government calls on entrepreneurs to take agreater interest in nature. The government’s ambition is for nature to be taken into account in all actions and decisions,including those by entrepreneurs. This is called ‘nature-inclusive enterprise’. The key research question in this report iswhich policy measures can be introduced to stimulate nature-inclusive enterprise. The answer to this question isdetermined in part by the interplay between public and private tasks and responsibilities for nature. A second questionis how the costs of nature-inclusive enterprise should be divided between the private and public sectors. Interviews with15 stakeholders revealed a number of issues and requirements that would help to roll out the concept of ‘natureinclusiveenterprise’ further. For example, there is a need for room to experiment, within clearly defined limits, to allowentrepreneurs to experience the value of nature-inclusive enterprise and how it can be put into practice. There is afeeling that the situation is somewhat arbitrary at the moment because of differences in the procedures, particularlytheir length, between municipalities and provinces. For land acquisition, landscape works and prefinancing, therespondents felt the need for an intermediary organisation like the former Government Service for Land and WaterManagement (DLG). In addition, entrepreneurs are in need of ecological expertise as well as ‘solutions’ to the high priceof land, which frustrates nature-inclusive farming. The importance of an area-based approach was also raised. Finally,nature-inclusive enterprise often implies multifunctional land use, but this tends to conflict with the nature conservationlegislation, which is geared more to protection. Although the term ‘nature-inclusive enterprise’ reflects the underlyingprivate sector interest, government still has an essential role to play. For one thing, nature-inclusive enterprise is stillpartly financed with public money, for example via grants and tax exemptions. The study also indicates that while thisgovernment intervention is welcomed, there is also a desire for certainty. When can nature be integrated into thebusiness case and when should it be supported by the public sector? A new balance between public and privateinvolvement in nature conservation has not yet been found.
Macroeconomic outlook of sustainable energy and biorenewables innovations (MEV II)
Meijl, J.C.M. van; Tsiropoulos, I. ; Bartelings, H. ; Broek, M. van den; Hoefnagels, R. ; Leeuwen, M.G.A. van; Smeets, E.M.W. ; Tabeau, A.A. ; Faaij, A. - \ 2016
LEI Wageningen UR (LEI report 2016-001) - ISBN 9789462577374 - 167 p.
economic development - biobased economy - economic analysis - macroeconomic analysis - netherlands - environmental economics - scenario analysis - economic models - economische ontwikkeling - economische analyse - macro-economische analyse - nederland - milieueconomie - scenario-analyse - economische modellen
De Nederlandse overheid verwacht dat een grootschalige toepassing van biomassa nodig is om aan de emissiedoelstellingen te voldoen, maar de macro-economische effecten hiervan op de Nederlandse economie zijn onbekend. Deze studie onderzoekt de effecten van een bio-economie op zowel systeemals macro-economisch niveau en toont aan dat de bio-economie positief kan bijdragen aan de Nederlandse economie, het behalen van broeikasgasreductiedoelstellingen en aan het reduceren van de kosten van het terugdringen van broeikasgasemissies. Om deze effecten te realiseren zijn grootschalige technologische veranderingen en wereldwijde markten belangrijk, maar lage prijzen van fossiele energie leiden tot minder macro-economische voordelen. Om de positieve macro-economische effecten en CO2-reductie te realiseren is een stimuleringsbeleid noodzakelijk.
Biofuel production in Vietnam : Greenhouse gas emissions and socioeconomic impacts
Thanh, L. le - \ 2016
University. Promotor(en): Ekko van Ierland; Xueqin Zhu. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462576186 - 197 p.
biofuels - greenhouse gases - environmental economics - emission - socioeconomics - fuels - natural resources - vietnam - biobrandstoffen - broeikasgassen - milieueconomie - emissie - sociale economie - brandstoffen - natuurlijke hulpbronnen
The overall objective of this thesis is to study the energy efficiency, GHG emission savings, and the economic viability of biofuels as energy for transportation and to examine the impacts of biofuel policies on food production, welfare, and emission in Vietnam.
De energieke overheid : visies op netwerkend samenwerken voor een groene en veerkrachtige economie
Overbeek, M.M.M. ; Salverda, I.E. - \ 2013
Den Haag : LEI Wageningen UR (Rapport / LEI Wageningen UR 13-084) - 112
rijksoverheid - beleid - economisch beleid - innovaties - economie - burgers - milieu - milieueconomie - central government - policy - economic policy - innovations - economics - citizens - environment - environmental economics
Voor u ligt een verzameling van ervaringen, kennis en ideeën over een nieuwe rol van de overheid bij het verduurzamen van de economie. Dat het verduurzamen van de economie noodzakelijk is, wordt breed gedeeld, maar hoe deze verduurzaming te realiseren is gaat niet zonder slag of stoot. In de verschillende bijdragen wordt de overheid gevraagd meer verantwoordelijkheid te nemen, meer visie te ontwikkelen, meer te stimuleren, meer samen te werken en meer te experimenteren. Hoe kunnen we alles meer doen als de overheid tegelijkertijd moet krimpen? De zoektocht naar een nieuwe rol als ‘energieke overheid’ is volop gaande is. In de zoektocht is behoefte aan enerzijds verdieping en anderzijds aan praktijkvoorbeelden. Met deze bundel wordt een bijdrage aan dit zoekproces geleverd op beide aspecten. In acht bijdragen geven tien deskundigen uit de wetenschap, het bedrijfsleven en de rijksoverheid hun visie op netwerkend werken en de nieuwe rol van de overheid bij de transitie naar een groene en veerkrachtige economie.
Economic viewpoints on ecosystem services
Silvis, H.J. ; Heide, C.M. van der - \ 2013
Wageningen : WOT Natuur & Milieu, Wageningen UR (WOt-rapport 123) - 68
ecosysteemdiensten - economische theorie - economie van natuurlijke hulpbronnen - milieueconomie - ecologie - welvaartseconomie - kosten-batenanalyse - ecosystem services - economic theory - natural resource economics - environmental economics - ecology - welfare economics - cost benefit analysis
to help determine the different values of ecosystems. Ecosystem services are usually divided into four categories: provisioning services, regulating services, cultural services and habitat services (previously denoted as supporting services). This overview highlights economic theories about ecosystem services, distinguishing between pre-classical economics, classical economics, neoclassical economics and modern economics. In addition, specific attention is given to two special branches of economics: (i) natural resource and environmental economics and (ii) ecological economics. Natural resource and environmental economics basically deals with a welfare economics analysis of natural resource and environmental issues, such as pollution control, natural (i.e. renewable and non-renewable) resource exploitation, and global environmental problems such as climate change. The more recent discipline of ecological economics was launched as a new paradigm with closer ties to the natural sciences. Whereas environmental economics focuses on value dimensions (i.e., utility and welfare in theory, and costs and benefits in practice), ecological economics – as a heterodox, non-coherent school of economics – is inclined to add ecological criteria to these dimensions, to cover aspects such as productivity, stability and resilience of ecosystems. Since a proper pricing system for many ecosystem services simply does not exist, various non-market valuation techniques have been developed to elicit the value of these services. Monetary valuation of ecosystem services remains problematic however, for one thing because of the hidden value of the ecosystem structure that supports the different ecosystem services (the ‘glue value’). Finally, the issue of policy analysis and design is addressed. The rationale for regulation with regard to nature and ecosystem services is that adverse risks, such as overexploitation, are not adequately priced in markets. Welfare economics tools for evaluating policies and projects include cost-benefit analysis and cost-effectiveness analysis. From an ecological economics standpoint, multicriteria analysis, the precautionary principle and the method of safe minimum standards are topical issues. The latter two policy tools suggest that we should err on the side of caution in the face of ecological uncertainty. The advancement of knowledge in this field requires further interdisciplinary cooperation between the natural and social sciences. Key words: ecosystem services, history of economic thought, welfare theory, market failures, policy failures, economic valuation, cost-benefit analysis, cost-effectiveness analysis, multicriteria analysis, precautionary principle, safe minimum standards
The economic value of landscapes
Heide, C.M. van der; Heijman, W.J.M. - \ 2013
London [etc.] : Routledge (Routledge studies in ecological economics ) - ISBN 9780415563284 - 329
landschap - economie - ecologie - milieueconomie - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - milieu - landscape - economics - ecology - environmental economics - sustainability - environment
This book aims to explore the avenue of landscape economics and provides the building blocks (from different scientific disciplines) for an economic analysis of landscapes. What exactly constitutes and determines the value of a landscape? It focuses on the value of landscapes in its broadest sense, thereby covering a variety of topics including stakeholder involvement in landscape design, landscape governance and landscape perceptions from different countries. Merely saying that landscapes have value or are important is not sufficient – not when resources are scarce and have alternative uses. Measuring and quantifying the economic value of changes in landscapes would help ensure that landscape management decisions are both (economically) rational and sound
Climate Change, Climate Science and Economics
Kooten, G.C. van - \ 2013
Dordrecht : Springer - ISBN 9789400749870 - 465
klimaatverandering - milieueconomie - sociaal beleid - meteorologie - klimatologie - natuur - milieu - geografie - climatic change - environmental economics - social policy - meteorology - climatology - nature - environment - geography
Economics of water allocation in delta management
Hellegers, Petra - \ 2012
climatic change - water supply - deltas - environmental economics
The end of abundance. Economic solutions to water scarcity
Zetland, D.J. - \ 2011
Mission Viejo, CA : Aguanomics Press - ISBN 9780615469737 - 294
watervoorraden - hulpbronnenbeheer - waterzekerheid - schaarste - watervoorziening - watergebruik - milieueconomie - economie - water resources - resource management - water security - scarcity - water supply - water use - environmental economics - economics
In a past of abundance, we had clean water to meet our demands for showers, pools, farms and rivers. Our laws and customs did not need to regulate or ration demand. Over time, our demand has grown, and scarcity has replaced abundance. We don't have as much clean water as we want. We can respond to the end of abundance with old ideas or adopt new tools specifically designed to address water scarcity. In this book, the author describes the impact of scarcity on our many water uses, how the institutions of abundance fail in scarcity, and how economic ideas and tools can help us direct water to its highest and best use.
Verschillende kleuren, één meesterwerk. Lectorale rede 'Geintegreerd Natuur- en Landsschapsbeheer
Heide, C.M. van der; Janssen, J.A.M. ; Stobbelaar, D.J. - \ 2011
Velp : Van Hall Larenstein - 80
natuurbeheer - landschapsbeheer - ecosysteemdiensten - milieueconomie - biobased economy - openbare redes - economische analyse - nature management - landscape management - ecosystem services - environmental economics - public speeches - economic analysis
Natuur en landschap zijn menselijke maaksels. Dat betekent dat het beheer ervan uit meer moet bestaan dan louter ecologische kennis. Het vraagt om een soort co-productie van ecologie, economie, sociologie en cultuurhistorie, en dat alles is in de term geïntegreerd natuur- en landschapsbeheer vervat. Indien economen serieus genomen willen worden in de discussies over natuur en landschap, dan dient binnen het conventionele economische denken plaats gemaakt te worden voor een meer ecologisch-economisch denken. Tegelijkertijd vereist dit wel dat bestaande economische principes, bijvoorbeeld over de ‘marginale waarde’ van natuur (en niet de absolute waarde ervan), niet uit het oog verloren mogen worden.
Een historisch overzicht van natuur in economische context
Heijman, W.J.M. ; Heide, M. van der - \ 2011
ESB Economisch Statistische Berichten 96 (2011)4612S. - ISSN 0013-0583 - p. 4 - 10.
natuurbeheer - milieueconomie - ecologie - nature management - environmental economics - ecology
Binnen de algemene economische theorie is natuur lange tijd veronachtzaamd. Maar sinds de jaren zestig is door de opkomst van de vakgebieden milieueconomie en ecologische economie het onderwerp weer prominenter in beeld bij economen. De laatste jaren heeft zich dat vooral vertaald in vraagstukken omtrent monetaire waardering van natuur
The economics of adaptation to climate change in integrated assessment models
Bruin, K.C. de - \ 2011
University. Promotor(en): Ekko van Ierland; R.S.J. Tol, co-promotor(en): R.B. Dellink. - [S.l.] : S.n. - ISBN 9789085858607
klimaatverandering - economie - adaptatie - mitigatie - milieubeleid - simulatiemodellen - beoordeling - milieueconomie - climatic change - economics - adaptation - mitigation - environmental policy - simulation models - assessment - environmental economics
The coevolution of renewable resources and institutions - implications for policy design
Richter, A.P. - \ 2011
University. Promotor(en): Johan Grasman, co-promotor(en): D.P. van Soest. - [S.l.] : S.n. - ISBN 9789085858393 - 237
wiskundige modellen - kabeljauw - visserijbeheer - visserijbeleid - visserij-ecologie - hulpbronnenbeheer - milieubeleid - milieueconomie - mathematical models - cod - fishery management - fishery policy - fisheries ecology - resource management - environmental policy - environmental economics

This PhD thesis studies how natural renewable resources and institutions governing those resources mutually influence each other. Theoretical models are developed in which members of a small community have joint access to a common pool resource. We analyze under which circumstances social norms of cooperation evolve that effectively regulate resource exploitation, but also when those social norms break down, identifying obstacles for community governance. Furthermore, in the light of biological and social complexity this thesis analyzes how governmental policy should be designed if self-governance is not sufficient to protect the resource stock. The insights obtained are applied to the case of Arcto-Norwegian cod. An optimal management plan is developed that can be adapted to several policy objectives concerning the utilization of the fleet. In addition, management advice is given for the case that harvesting may trigger an evolutionary response of the fish stock.

Economic Transition and Natural Resource Management in East and Southeast Asia
Beckmann, V. ; Dung, N.H. ; Shi, X. ; Spoor, M. ; Wesseler, J.H.H. - \ 2010
Aachen, Germany : Shaker (Institutional change in agriculture and natural resources vol. 36) - ISBN 9783832281076 - 410
overgangseconomieën - economische verandering - natuurlijke hulpbronnen - hulpbronnenbeheer - grondbeheer - landbouwontwikkeling - duurzame ontwikkeling - milieueconomie - oost-azië - zuidoost-azië - transition economies - economic change - natural resources - resource management - land management - agricultural development - sustainable development - environmental economics - east asia - south east asia
Economic and institutional reforms in East and Southeast Asia have caused impressive economic growth and improved the livelihood of millions of people. In several regions, however, this growth has been obtained at the expense of land quality or to the detriment of other natural resources. As a consequence, the sustainability of future growth is threatened. Efforts aimed at promoting sustainable resource use in rural East and Southeast Asia are being and will be confronted with and influenced by two major changes. First, the continuous transition towards a market-oriented economy implies that massive, centralized state regulation will decrease and that economic, decentralized and informal resource management institutions are likely to increase in importance. Second, domestic economic liberalization, international trade liberalization and globalization will greatly affect domestic agricultural prices and, hence, the use of natural resources. This volume contains a selection of papers that were presented at the Asia-Link RECREATE seminar at the University of Economics, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, in June 2007 and the international Asia-Link RECREATE conference at Nanjing Agriculture University, China, in October 2008. The seminar, the conference and the publication of this book are part of Asia-Link's "Restructuring Higher Education in Resource and Environmental Economics" project activities, which have been funded by the European Union under its Asia-Link programme. The selected papers provide an overview, albeit not a complete one, regarding the environmental and natural resource problems Southeast Asian countries are facing from an economic perspective. The papers are written in such a way so that they can serve as supporting case study material for classes in environmental and natural resource economics at the graduate level. The editors also expect that environmental and natural resource economists with an interest in Southeast Asia will find the various chapters of interest as well as stimulating for their own research.
New perspectives on agri-environmental policies; a multidisicplinary and transatlantic approach
Goetz, S.J. ; Brouwer, F.M. - \ 2010
London : Routledge (Routledge explorations in environmental economics 22) - ISBN 9780415777025 - 304
milieubeleid - landbouwbeleid - landgebruiksplanning - milieubescherming - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - taxatie - economische ontwikkeling - milieueconomie - landbouw en milieu - agro-ecologie - agrobiodiversiteit - environmental policy - agricultural policy - land use planning - environmental protection - sustainability - valuation - economic development - environmental economics - agriculture and environment - agroecology - agro-biodiversity
Significant advances have occurred in recent years in Europe and in North America in addressing agri-environmental policies. Land use issues tend to be more pressing in Europe than in the US as a whole because of different spatial exigencies. Because these advances have taken place within individual academic disciplines, there has been something of a loss of synergy and often efforts are duplicated. While important institutional and legal differences still exist between the two continents, the sharing of recent scientific advances will benefit scientists on both sides of the Atlantic and this is the main purpose of this book. The primary features of the book are threefold. First, the authors aim to identify options for policy to overcome the challenges ahead related to future agri-environmental policies. Second, they synthesize existing knowledge and identify gaps in current knowledge along with future research needs. Finally, they explicitly compare agri-environmental interactions and approaches to their resolution in Europe and in the US. The book focuses specifically on the intersection between agricultural and environmental policies and issues.
SENSOR : sustainable impact assessment: tools for environmental social and economic effects of multifunctional land use in European regions
Verweij, P.J.F.M. ; Roller, J.A. te; Vanmeulebrouk, B. ; Knapen, M.J.R. ; Randen, Y. van; Winter, W.P. de; Franke, G.J. - \ 2009
[S.l.] : S.n. - 78
landgebruik - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - computer software - milieutoets - milieueffect - economische evaluatie - europese unie - landgebruiksmonitoring - milieueconomie - milieusociologie - land use - sustainability - environmental assessment - environmental impact - economic evaluation - european union - land use monitoring - environmental economics - environmental sociology
Economics of controlling invasive species: the case of Californian thistle in New Zealand
Chalak, S.M. - \ 2009
University. Promotor(en): Ekko van Ierland, co-promotor(en): Arjan Ruijs. - [S.l. : S.n. - ISBN 9789085853213 - 140
milieu - economie - invasie - onkruiden - biologische bestrijding - uitsterven - risico - herbivoren - dynamisch programmeren - verspreiding - concurrentie tussen planten - stuifmeelconcurrentie - nieuw-zeeland - cirsium arvense - milieueconomie - verspreiding van planten - environment - economics - invasion - weeds - biological control - extinction - risk - herbivores - dynamic programming - dispersal - plant competition - pollen competition - new zealand - environmental economics - plant dispersal
Keywords
Invasive species, Economics, Californian thistle, New Zealand, Stochastic, Dynamic programming, Biological control, Extinction risk, Herbivory, Dispersal, Competition
Invasive species are one of the most significant threats to biodiversity and agricultural production systems leading to huge worldwide economic damages. This thesis has two main aims. The first aim is to analyse the control of an invasive plant in an agricultural system, using the case study of the Californian thistle in New Zealand. The second aim is to study the negative externalities that controlling invasion in agriculture can pose to ecosystems.
To achieve the first aim, both deterministic and stochastic dynamic programming models are set up to find cost effective methods to tackle the problem of Californian thistle. I make a contribution to the literature by performing a dynamic and stochastic programming analysis in which two different categories of control strategies are considered, each with different dynamics. Models are set up with a discrete decision variable consisting of 62 feasible combinations of integrated control strategies. For the second aim I introduce a novel modelling approach in which two compartments are distinguished: a managed compartment where locally a herbivore is introduced to control a weed, and a natural compartment where the same herbivore species can attack a wild plant species. The main processes are herbivory, competition, dispersal and control.
I conclude that bioeconomic modelling is an important tool in analysing optimal management strategies for the control of invasive species and that annual and once and for all choices need to be integrated in the analysis. A stochastic approach is appropriate but does not necessarily lead to different results, depending on the parameter values and the setup of the model. Finally, the method illustrates that an integrated analysis of the economic system and the ecological system is required to assess the risk of extinction of natural plant species. This risk depends on species interactions which in this thesis are competition, dispersal and herbivory. I conclude that a control measure can protect the desirable wild plant species and increase benefits obtained from the ecosystem.
For the policy implications, I conclude that there are several strategies to control invasive species, which can be integrated combinations of control options. The optimal strategy depends on the costs and benefits of the control options. In the case study for the Californian thistle I found that the optimal strategy is a combination of methods. For the interaction between agricultural and natural system I conclude that introducing a biological agent to the agricultural system can cause extinction of a desirable plant in the natural system. The main processes are competition, herbivory and dispersal. These processes are important and need to be analysed in detail before introducing the biological agent. I conclude that the optimal strategy to control the introduced biological agent also depends on interaction of species through competition, dispersal and herbivory.

Economic Analysis and Environment Impact Assessment of Water-based Economic Activities in Tam Giang - Cau Hai Lagoon, Thua Thien Hue Province
Wageningen International, - \ 2008
Hue, Vietnam : Hue College of Economics - 84
aquacultuur - rijst - visserij - waterbeheer - milieueffect - milieubescherming - watervoorraden - watergebruik - vietnam - middelen van bestaan - milieueconomie - aquaculture - rice - fisheries - water management - environmental impact - environmental protection - water resources - water use - livelihoods - environmental economics
Review report on the literature that links environmental and economic threshold effects
Wesseler, J.H.H. - \ 2008
S.l. : FEEM (A new environmental accounting framework using externality data and input-output tools for policy analysis DII.1.c-1) - 17
projecten - milieueffect - besluitvorming - kosten - modellen - milieueconomie - projects - environmental impact - decision making - costs - models - environmental economics
The decision whether or not to implement a project is one subject to uncertainty and irreversibility. Irreversible effects of a project include effects on: human health, due to changes in emissions; biodiversity; climate change, due to changes in greenhouse gas emissions; sunk costs and; administrative costs due to new regulations. This report gives: Decision in the presence of irreversible costs; Private and Public Irreversibilities
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