Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Rabies in Ethiopia: modelling the burden and the effectiveness of control
Beyene, Tariku Jibat - \ 2017
University. Promotor(en): Henk Hogeveen, co-promotor(en): Monique Mourits. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463432177 - 194
cattle - dogs - rabies - farmers - cattle farming - vaccination - business economics - cost effectiveness analysis - ethiopia - east africa - rundvee - honden - hondsdolheid - boeren - rundveeteelt - vaccinatie - bedrijfseconomie - cost effective analysis - ethiopië - oost-afrika

Rabies claims the lives of more than 24,000 people in Africa annually, but efforts to control the disease are still lacking, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa such as Ethiopia. The overall objective of this study was to support the design of an appropriate cost-effective rabies control policy in Ethiopia by providing insights in the health burden of the disease and its economic impacts, as well as an understanding of the relationship between intervention levels, implementation costs and potential returns.

As most human rabies cases result from the bite of domestic dogs, the disease can be eliminated by mass canine rabies vaccination. An extensive literature review on mass canine vaccination programs in Africa indicated that most dogs in Africa are owned and therefore accessible for vaccination, but vaccination coverages strongly depend on the implemented cost schemes. Canine vaccination in Ethiopia is voluntarily based, i.e. “owner-charged”, resulting in one of the lowest coverages in the world.

To assess the current burden of rabies in Ethiopia a retrospective study was conducted by collecting data on human rabies exposure over the period of one year through extensive bite case searching in three representative districts of Ethiopia. Extrapolation of the results to national level indicated an annual average of 3,000 human deaths and 97,000 rabies-exposed persons treated at an average costs of 21 USD per case, causing 2 million USD on treatment costs per year and a health loss of about 93,000 DALYs. About 77% of the exposure cases visited a health centre, while only 57% received sufficient doses of post exposure treatment. Important factors that influenced victim’s medical treatment seeking behaviour were ownership status of the biting dog, severity of the bite, body part bitten, monthly spending and distance to the nearest health centre whereas the likelihood of receiving sufficient doses of treatment were determined by monthly spending and distance to health centre. The district in which victims lived appeared to have a relevant influence on the likelihood of seeking medical treatment but not on the likelihood of treatment compliance. By means of a structured questionnaire administered to cattle-owning households the economic impact of rabies in livestock was assessed. Herd-level incidence rates appeared higher in the mixed crop-livestock system (21%) than in the pastoral system (11%). Average economic losses per herd due to rabies were estimated at 49 USD per year for the mixed-crop livestock system, and at 52 USD per year for the pastoral system.

In light of policy support for rabies control, an evaluation of the cost-effectiveness of control strategies was performed by the use of a dynamic epidemiological model coupled with an economic analysis to predict the human health impact and economic benefit (reducing human treatment costs and livestock rabies-related losses) across a range of vaccination scenarios. Human exposures, human deaths, and rabies-related livestock losses decreased monotonically with increasing vaccination coverage. In the evaluated urban and rural districts, 50% coverage was identified as most likely scenario to provide the greatest net health benefits at the WHO-recommended willingness-to-pay threshold over a time frame of 10 years. The additional economic benefit from rabies control in livestock justified the additional costs of vaccination campaigns with higher coverages than would have been efficient from a strict human health perspective, highlighting the importance of applying a broad perspective with regard to the evaluation of vaccination benefits.

Foreign investment, organizational innovation and transformation in food supply chains : evidence from the Ethiopian barley sector
Tefera, Delelegne Abera - \ 2017
University. Promotor(en): Onno Omta, co-promotor(en): Jos Bijman; Maja Slingerland. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463437165 - 217
foreign investment - organizations - innovations - management science - food supply - supply chain management - farmers - barley - economic sectors - ethiopia - east africa - buitenlandse investering - organisaties - innovaties - bedrijfswetenschap - voedselvoorziening - ketenmanagement - boeren - gerst - economische sectoren - ethiopië - oost-afrika

Driven by rapid urbanization, economic growth, and changes in consumption patterns, food chains in emerging and developing economies are experiencing a fundamental transformation process. This transformation is usually characterized by increased vertical coordination, growth of modern distribution channels (e.g. supermarkets), consolidation of retail markets, and an increase in export orientation. The rapid growth in demand of modern food with higher quality and safety attracts multinational enterprises to invest in agriculture and food processing in emerging economies. The appearance of multinationals in the food systems of developing countries has been claimed to have a positive impact on economic development and reduction of poverty. The multinationals have adopted modern supply chain management practices for securing a large volume and consistent supply of high quality products. They introduce new technologies that boost productivity and post-harvest management for product upgrading.

While so far most research on the modernization of food systems has focused on export chains, there is growing interest in the transformation of domestic and staple food chains. Upgrading domestic food chains is needed for a more efficient supply to fast growing urban markets and to sustain access to affordable food for the rapidly growing urban consumers in sub-Saharan Africa. As domestic food value chains are more inclusive than high-value export chains, upgrading these food chains can contribute more to poverty reduction and food security. However, much remains to be understood about the process of modernization in domestic food chains and its implications for rural development. The overarching aim of this dissertation was to deepen our understanding on how organizational innovations facilitate modernization of domestic food chains using case studies from the Ethiopian barley sector. In particular, the thesis examines the effectiveness and impacts of foreign direct investments (FDI), contract farming arrangements (CFAs), producer organizations (POs), and partnerships on the upgrading of malt barley value chains and welfare of local suppliers. To address this objective, we use a combination of qualitative and quantitative research approaches. Data were analyzed using parametric and non-parametric econometric models.

The findings from the empirical chapters show that: First, our analysis reveals that the appearance of foreign companies in the malt barley chain has brought important changes in the structure and economics of the barley value chain, resulting in the development of a modern chain next to the conventional chain. It is also shown that participation in modern supply chains is determined by a range of factors that include farmer and farm characteristics. Second, the results show that participation in modern supply chains has a positive and significant impact on commercialization, intensification, quality improvement and farm gate prices, ultimately resulting in increased farmer income and spillovers towards productivity of other food crops. Third, we found that POs perform diverse economic functions to enhance rural development , but tighter coordination in food value chains demands alignment of chain activities among actors which leads to changes in the strategies and functions of POs. Fourth, we showed that POs have a positive impact on farm productivity and smallholder income. However, this positive impact of POs come at the expense of inclusiveness, i.e. POs are less inclusive. Thus, there is a tension between business performance and inclusiveness of POs. Moreover, the results show that the motivation to participate in a PO is determined by demographic and economic factors. Lastly, we found that the determinants of quality improvement at farm level are socioeconomic, technological and institutional factors. Specifically, the identified factors are farmers’ level of education, age (as a proxy for farming experience), entrepreneurial attitude, PO membership, CFA participation, and type of improved seed varieties. The thesis concludes that enhancing the modernization of food value chains involving smallholders requires organizational innovation that facilitate coordination and collaborative activities among chain actors.

Making interventions work on the farm : Unravelling the gap between technology-oriented potato interventions and livelihood building in Southern Ethiopia
Tadesse, Yenenesh - \ 2017
University. Promotor(en): Paul Struik, co-promotor(en): Conny Almekinders; Rogier Schulte. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463436847 - 120
potatoes - crop production - crop physiology - technology - intervention - livelihood strategies - livelihoods - ethiopia - east africa - aardappelen - gewasproductie - gewasfysiologie - technologie - interventie - strategieën voor levensonderhoud - middelen van bestaan - ethiopië - oost-afrika

Poor adoption of modern technologies in sub-Saharan Africa is one of the major factors that limit food production and thereby threaten food security of smallholder farmers. This is despite the potential and emerging success stories of new technologies in increasing productivity of smallholder agriculture. Explanations for low uptake of technologies are diverse. Some studies associated it with characteristics of the farmers and their farm; others attributed it to poor access to information about a particular technology, while some others recognize the importance of technology attributes. Farmers’ adoption decision is shaped socially and the farming practices are changing, not only because of the technical changes introduced, but also because of changes in social circumstances among smallholders. All these possible reasons did, however, miss largely important insights on how local complexities influence adoption. The research presented in this thesis analyses the social dynamics of technology-oriented interventions. More specifically, the study assessed the influence of technology introduction strategies, social networks and social differentiation on the adoption, dissemination and effects of potato technologies. As a case, it used interventions introducing improved potato technologies in Chencha, Southern Ethiopia. The field work combined individual and group in-depth interviews, household surveys and field observation for data collection.

Results show that the efforts to introduce technologies for improved potato production to progressive farmers with the assumption that farmers will eventually adopt, once they become familiar with the technology is a distant prospect. Some of the production practices - agronomic field and storage practices - failed to spread to poor farmers as expected, while the majority of agronomic practices fitted well with wealthy farmers. This resulted in diverse outcomes and strategies for livelihood improvement at household level. Access to the technologies and the necessary resources and diverse needs for technology were important factors in explaining variation in adoption and effects of technology across wealth categories. Tracing the seed diffusion through farmers’ networks showed that not all households had equal access to improved seed potatoes, mainly because of social barriers formed by differences in wealth, gender and religion, and because the type of personal relationship (relatives, neighbours, friends and acquaintance) between seed providers and seed recipients affected farmer to farmer seed sharing. In addition, the set-up of farmer-group based seed production demands resources and faces contextual challenges, which could be addressed through a long-term approach that engages continually in diagnosis and responding to the emerging social as well as material challenges. Development practitioners, however, took organizing group initiatives as a one-time process of design and start-up activity. Thus, clean seed potato production and dissemination through farmers’ organizations could not be sustainable. In conclusion, the present study has indicated that through providing special attention to the social dynamics researchers can arrive at better understanding of constraints affecting technology adoption. This implies effective interventions for a range of farm contexts involve not only finding technical solutions but also integrated understanding of farmers’ production conditions and existing social dynamics.

Agronomic and socioeconomic sustainability of farming systems : A case in Chencha, South Ethiopia
Dersseh, Waga Mazengia - \ 2017
University. Promotor(en): Paul Struik, co-promotor(en): Rogier Schulte. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463436830 - 157
potatoes - solanum tuberosum - ethiopia - food security - farming systems - mixed farming - sustainability - optimization - efficiency - farm surveys - household surveys - socioeconomics - self sufficiency - profits - training - agronomic characteristics - productivity - soil fertility - rotation - animal feeding - improved varieties - inorganic fertilizers - aardappelen - ethiopië - voedselzekerheid - bedrijfssystemen - gemengde landbouw - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - optimalisatie - efficiëntie - bedrijfsonderzoeken - huishoudonderzoeken - sociale economie - zelfvoorziening - winsten - opleiding - agronomische kenmerken - productiviteit - bodemvruchtbaarheid - rotatie - diervoedering - veredelde rassen - anorganische meststoffen

Potato has multiple benefits and thus can play a vital role in ensuring food security in Ethiopia. However, for diverse reasons, its productivity is low. The farming systems in Ethiopia in which potato is grown, are predominantly mixed farming systems.

Most of the research in Ethiopia is focused on crop-specific constraints and thus there is limited research in which the interrelations between crop and livestock management practices are investigated. There is also not enough research focused on combined analysis of soil nutrient and animal feed balances and agronomic and socioeconomic efficiencies at farm level.

This study assessed production constraints and agronomic and socioeconomic sustainability of the farming systems in South Ethiopia and explored the possible synergetic options to alleviate major constraints. More specifically, the study intended to quantify the variation in input and output among farms, to identify constraints hindering expansion of potato production, to evaluate the sustainability of the farming systems at farm level, to identify constraints of sustainable intensification, and to explore synergetic solutions for the major constraints. Different research approaches were used ranging from lab analysis, household surveys, group discussions, to farm surveys.

Results showed that constraints related to input and product use in potato production vary across households indicating a need for a pluriform advisory model recognizing (and building upon alleviation of) the diversity of constraints identified in this analysis. The sustainability of the farming system is constrained by low agricultural productivity, low soil fertility, poor labour efficiency and limited economic return associated with improper crop rotation, inappropriate soil fertility management practices, shortage of animal feed, labour- and economically inefficient farm practices and labour shortage. However, there is ample scope to overcome the major constraints and simultaneously to optimize farm management.

The core messages of the study can be summarized as follows:

1) the current potato production is characterized by low productivity and economic returns due to various socioeconomic, agronomic and biological factors;

2) the soil fertility is low and there is uneven distribution of nutrients over plots with relatively high fertility levels in the homestead areas;

3) the current labour shortage can be attributed to mainly inefficiency of agricultural management practices and labour migration to towns for economic reasons indicating that the farming system is not sustainable in terms of labour;

4) considering the direct return from animal production, most of the farms had very low gross margin with the current management system and this reduced the overall operating profit of farms. The low return from animal rearing was offset by the relatively high profit from crop production indicating the benefit of mixed farming system in sustaining agricultural production; and

5) each farm can have a wide range of optimized solutions mainly through introduction of improved technologies and subsequent redesigning of the farm managements.

In general, the findings of the current study indicate that it is worthwhile to assess the sustainability of agricultural production in different farming systems and agro-ecologies of Ethiopia. In addition, the combined effect of introducing improved agricultural technologies and subsequent reconfiguring the farm management is very crucial to increase and sustain agricultural production.

Eco-epidemiology of Bovine Tuberculosis (bTB) in an African savanna : The conflict between traditional pastoralist adaptations and disease transmission in the modern era
Dejene, Sintayehu Workeneh - \ 2017
University. Promotor(en): Herbert Prins, co-promotor(en): Fred de Boer; Ignas Heitkonig. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463436588 - 119
cattle diseases - tuberculosis - disease transmission - pastoralism - animal ecology - risk factors - ethiopia - rundveeziekten - tuberculose - ziekteoverdracht - pastoralisme - dierecologie - risicofactoren - ethiopië

Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) is a zoonotic disease, and remains a cause of concern for livestock, wildlife and human health, especially in Ethiopia. It is a contagious disease, so close contact between animals or sharing of feed between infected and non-infected animals are major risk factors for transmission. Thus, improving the understanding of the factors that promote contact between hosts (i.e., livestock animals but also wild ruminants) is critical for limiting bTB transmission in pastoral, multi-host communities. I found that the older the age of the cattle and the lower the body condition, the higher the chance of a positive bTB test result at the individual animal level. Moreover, at herd level, herd size, contact with wildlife, and the interaction of herd size and contact with wildlife were identified as significant risk factors for bTB prevalence in cattle in Ethiopia. Further to what is already known from the past studies, I found that the probability of contact with wildlife was positively influenced by herd size, through herd movement. As larger herds moved more and grazed in larger areas, the probability of grazing in an area with wildlife and contact with either infected cattle or infected wildlife hosts increased; this also increased the chances for bTB infection. I detected a possible ‘dilution effect’ in bTB, where a higher evenness of mammal species reduced the probability of bTB occurrence. This dilution effect might be caused by encounter reduction. Because the encounter rate is proportional to the distribution of the host species; evenness would then capture the probability of encounter between pathogens and each host species. Thus, species evenness can be an appropriate measure of biodiversity to explain disease risk. I also showed that bTB prevalence was positively associated with the invasion of the plant Prosopis (Prosopis juliflora), maybe due to the loss in host species evenness and the increase in cattle movement as a consequence of the loss of palatable grasses in Prosopis-infested areas. Moreover, social contacts between herd owners are also important, as I found that herds with a greater number of edges in a (social) network had more connections in the livestock transfer network, increasing the probability of becoming infected with bTB. Thus, cultural components like large herd size and social contacts are at odds with the global One Health rationale to reduce bTB.

Genetic diversity of potato for nitrogen use efficiency under low input conditions in Ethiopia
Getahun, Baye Berihun - \ 2017
University. Promotor(en): Richard Visser, co-promotor(en): Gerard van der Linden. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463436595 - 219
solanum tuberosum - potatoes - genetic diversity - nitrogen - plant breeding - ethiopia - nutrient use efficiency - aardappelen - genetische diversiteit - stikstof - plantenveredeling - ethiopië - nutriëntengebruiksefficiëntie

Potato is a prime food security crop for smallholder farmers in the highland part of North western Ethiopia. In this region, nutrient availability, especially nitrogen (N) is a major constraint for crop productivity. To obtain insight in the possibility of improving potato for growth under low N input conditions in Ethiopia, we evaluated CxE diploid back cross population, modern European and Ethiopian potato cultivars and local Ethiopian cultivars for their ability to grow and produce tubers under low and high N input conditions. The experiments were conducted under rainfed and irrigation conditions. Eighty-eight Dutch cultivars and 9 Ethiopian cultivars were evaluated in three locations in North-western Ethiopia, in 2013 and in 2015. The two years represent two different growth seasons: rain-fed (June-October 2013) and irrigated cultivation (February-June 2015). Similarly 100 CxE diploid back cross potato genotypes were evaluated in both rainfed and irrigation production seasons in 2014. The Growth of the plants was monitored throughout the growth cycle using canopy cover measurements, with modelled canopy characteristics, and other agronomic traits were measured as per the description. The effect of season and location was further investigated by a GGE Biplot genotype-by-environment interaction analysis, and genetic factors determining phenotypic traits and yield were identified through QTL mapping and association mapping. Ethiopian cultivars showed a remarkable, environment-dependent difference in utilisation of the canopy for tuber production. While total photosynthetic capacity was higher in Ethiopian cultivars than in Dutch cultivars in rainfed production season at Injibara, tuber production was higher in Dutch cultivars. This low radiation use efficiency was not observed in the other rain-fed location (Debre-Tabor). A Genotype by Environment analysis using GGE biplots demonstrates that, Irrespective of the N levels and locations, rainfed production season test environments were grouped as one mega environment and irrigation production season test environments as the other mega environment, indicating most of the variation for yield and nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) in the dataset may be caused by the effect of rain-fed vs irrigation season. Further trials are needed to confirm this result. The QTL mapping with the CxE diploid population and GWAS analysis with the Dutch cultivars discovered both season-environment and N-specific QTL as well as constitutive QTLs. Overall, N availability affects Dutch and Ethiopian cultivars differentially, with strong environmental interaction on canopy and yield traits. Rainfed and irrigated seasons in Ethiopia may require different breeding programs for improved yield under varying fertilizer levels. Both constitutive and environment-specific QTLs were identified that may be targets for breeding prorgams towards improved yield under Ethiopian cultivation conditions.

Seed for change : the making and implementation of seed policies in Ethiopia
Hassena Beko, Mohammed - \ 2017
University. Promotor(en): Bernd van der Meulen, co-promotor(en): Bram de Jonge; Otto Hospes; Niels Louwaars. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463436687 - 151
governance - agricultural policy - policy processes - agricultural sector - seed production - government policy - ethiopia - east africa - landbouwbeleid - beleidsprocessen - landbouwsector - zaadproductie - overheidsbeleid - ethiopië - oost-afrika

Ethiopia is an agrarian country where agriculture dominates the economy, and thus agriculture is considered as an engine of growth by the government. Seed as one of the agricultural technologies, in fact, a carrier of many technologies, is critical to increasing production, but the use of quality seed from formal sources in Ethiopia is very limited. The current Ethiopian government has focused on agricultural development and has developed different policies both for agriculture in general and for the seed sector in particular. Following the developmental state approach, the government intensified its involvement in the seed sector to enhance agricultural development. Despite the policies and efforts of the government, a shortage of seed, a mismatch between demand and supply, the carryover of seed despite not satisfying the demand of farmers, and poor seed quality have been persistent challenges to the Ethiopian seed sector. Many studies have identified technical gaps that limit the development of the seed sector, and some of the studies have also discussed the extent to which policy responds to existing problems, and the extent to which what is in the policy documents is implemented. However, the causes of these ‘gaps’ are seldom discussed. The lack of such knowledge limits the understanding of the challenges, making it difficult to properly support the seed sector. For these reasons, this research has gone beyond the mere identification of ‘gaps’, aiming to analyse how actors and institutions influence seed policy making and implementation in Ethiopia.

The goal of this research is twofold: to narrow the knowledge gap about policy making and implementation in the Ethiopian seed sector, and to contribute to the debate concerning how to make the seed sector function better. The central research question is: how did actors and institutions influence the formulation and implementation of seed policies in Ethiopia from 2008 to 2016? The empirical research to answer this overall research question addresses two processes: policy making and policy implementation. These include the process of revising the 2000 Ethiopian seed law and the process of implementing direct seed marketing. By analysing these two processes, the thesis unravels how actors and associated institutions have influenced seed policy making and implementation in Ethiopia. The major sources of data were interviews of actors in the seed sector, and desk research of different reports. Guided by theoretical concepts, the research used qualitative methods to generate and analyse data.

Given the complexity of societal phenomenon, several analytical lenses have been used to examine the data in this research. In order to explain how actors negotiate the content of a policy document, including defining the problem and solution, the concept of discourse analysis is used, focusing on frame, the rounds model, and the policy arena. Similarly, to explain the process of implementing the existing policy and the outcome, the concepts of multi-level perspective on transition, transition management, non-decision making, and institutional lock-in are used. While using these analytical lenses to explain seed policy making and implementation, the concept of institutions has remained a central concept.

Chapter 2 analyses the negotiation process, looking into the topics of seed sector governance and variety registration. The analysis reveals that different policy arenas provide opportunities for different actors to place their preferred policy options on the table, and to get them incorporated into the draft working document. While this is a positive step towards a deliberative policy making, the final decision is made by the executive branch of the government. Such a process can be explained by two informal institutions. These are the loose connection between the drafting arenas and the decision-making arenas, and the blurred separation of power between the executive and the legislature. At the Council of Ministers (CoM), where the critical decisions are made, the ministry presents its perspective, particularly on issues where disagreement exists between the ministry and other actors. The council uses the content of the draft and the justification of the ministry for endorsing the draft policy document. Moreover, the parliament can change the content of the draft policy document only if the ministry agrees with the change, regardless of the arguments and justifications provided by other stakeholders. Thus, the inputs of stakeholders are considered as long as the ministry agrees with the suggestions, and the policy decision remains in the hands of the ministry.

Chapter 3 presents the different frames used by different actors to describe the problem of seed quality. While government officials attribute the problem of seed quality to the lack of alignment between the seed sector governance and the regional government structure, experts and bureaucrats attribute the problem to the lack of coordination at national level. As a result, they respectively suggest the decentralization and centralization of seed sector governance. These frames are embedded in the overall interest and strategy of the actors promoting the frames. The centralization frame reflects the interest of experts and bureaucrats to have a say with regards to the seed sector. They have lost this power because of the federal structure that was established formally in 1995. On the contrary, the decentralization frame is embedded in the government’s aim to implement the constitution that established the federal structure in 1995. Despite the fact that the process of revising the seed law took about four years, these actors could not agree on either of the options or find an alternative. This shows a lack of deliberation and reflexivity during the process of revising the seed law, reflecting the fact that seed policy discussion has been part of a larger debate about (de)centralization in Ethiopia since 1991. Thus, in addition to the issue of seed quality, the frames of centralization and decentralization are shaped by the old (unitary) and the new (federal) institutions of the Ethiopian government system.

Chapter 4 focuses on the process of introducing and expanding direct seed marketing (DSM) in Ethiopia. Despite the fact that seed marketing is included in the policies on paper, the seed of major food crops is distributed through government channels resulting in inefficiency of seed distribution. The regional seed core groups introduced DSM in 2011, and by 2016 about one-third of the hybrid maize seed, the main seed marketed in Ethiopia, in Amhara, Oromia and the Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples’ region (SNNPR), was sold through DSM. The presence of actors outside the seed distribution system was instrumental for introducing the concept of DSM. To start the piloting of this existing policy, the core group needed to get approval from the heads of the bureaus of agriculture (BoAs). However, such approval was not required for other new ideas, like establishing an independent regulatory body, showing how the informal institutions guide what has to be approved by bureau heads, regardless of the formal policy. In addition to the demonstrated potential of DSM to overcome the problem of seed distribution inefficiency, strategic management of the stakeholders' process was critical in expanding the area under the pilot. Many actors, including the executives, supported the expansion of DSM to many areas.

Despite the expansion of DSM, its demonstrated potential to overcome the problem of seed supply inefficiency, the support it received from the government officials, and the general policy of market-based approach, the government has not endorsed the use of DSM beyond the pilot. Chapter 5 points out that the government excluded the issue of seed marketing from the seed regulation enacted in 2016, showing that the government has no intention to make seed marketing one of the seed delivery channels in the near future. The major reasons for this are: bureaucrats do not want to contribute to the decision making of DSM because they assume that the government has a strong political interest to remain in seed distribution; bureaucrats need the seed distribution system to achieve the targets set by the government; there is a symbiotic relationship between actors, the extension service as well as seed producers, and the seed distribution system, and so actors want to maintain the distribution system Such institutionalized thinking and practices have created an institutional lock-in that prevents bureaucrats from presenting the recommendation to government officials, thereby leading to non-decision about the future of DSM.

Chapter 6 summarizes the action of actors in affecting policy making and implementation as influenced by two conflicting sets of institutions. The first set relates to market-based thinking versus centralized planning as leading principles for economic development. Both are used as a discourse for promoting economic development and its operationalization, which are shaping how actors view and overcome the problems of the seed sector. This also explains why policies on paper are not implemented and why new initiatives are not formally endorsed. The tension between these divergent institutions has increased because of the dual use of seed by the government: the government has used the seed to both promote economic development and maintain strong political ties with farmers. The second set of conflicting institutions relates to authoritarian versus participatory decision making. On the one hand, is the government practice of authoritative decision-making, where only the input of stakeholders is considered when it fits in with the existing policy direction of the executives. On the other hand, it is common practice to organize stakeholders to contribute to policy making and implementation. The practice of considering the policy input of others only when it fits in with the policy direction of the decision-makers, creates a sense of being forced to accept, increasing the tension between how the government decides and the role of stakeholders.

Given the tension between the conflicting institutions, and circumstances in Ethiopia, this research suggested that choosing one approach over the other will not guarantee the development of the seed sector. There is no guarantee that the outcome of a deliberative policy making process will be a different policy option than the one opted for by one of the actors. However, the co-development of a solution for the shared seed sector problem will guarantee better ownership and thus better implementation than an imposed policy. It is also important to note that deliberative policy making and implementation is not an easy task given the current stakeholders’ landscape and the culture of authoritative decision making. Thus, the change towards deliberative policy making and implementation is not something that emerges overnight: it is a process that matures over time. This calls for the strategic management of a process of change that leads to the transformation of the seed sector into a self-reliant and resilient sector. By identifying the underlying institutions behind the challenges of the seed sector and suggesting options for improvement, this thesis contributes to the debate on how to make the seed sector function better. At a higher level, it also contributes to the debate on policy making and implementation processes in Ethiopia.

The design and impact of a marketing training to strengthen customer value creation among Ethiopian pastoralists
Teklehaimanot, Mebrahtu Leake - \ 2017
University. Promotor(en): Hans van Trijp, co-promotor(en): Paul Ingenbleek; Workneh Kassa Tessema. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463434522 - 195
marketing - training - educational courses - pastoral society - pastoralism - value added - ethiopia - east africa - opleiding - lerarenopleidingen - pastorale samenleving - pastoralisme - toegevoegde waarde - ethiopië - oost-afrika

As the world population is expected to expand beyond 9 billion by 2050, food production will need to increase by approximately 70% to feed the population. Furthermore, a growing part of that expanding population pertains to an upcoming middle class, leading to an increasing demand for high-value products, animal protein and safer food. To respond to this growing demand in terms of quantity and quality, supply chains are pushing market-frontiers deeper into the rural areas in developing and emerging markets to secure their supplies. As a consequence, rural smallholders including pastoralists, who have been functioning at local markets, are increasingly integrating with international markets. While such integration opens opportunities for the smallholders to access higher purchasing power, it is difficult for remote and isolated pastoralists with limited productive resources and limited institutional support to recognize and seize the opportunities. Because pastoralists are mostly isolated from the other value chain members, they have not developed the knowledge regarding how the market functions and what the value chain members want. By conducting a field experiment among a group of Ethiopian pastoralists, this thesis shows that marketing training is an important approach in enhancing the market knowledge of pastoralists that enable them to understand the market environment, to reproduce their animals as per market requirements and to generate returns. The thesis also has implications for other rural smallholders that share similar characteristics with the pastoralists.

Optimization of productivity and quality of irrigated tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) by smallholder farmers in the Central Rift Valley area of Oromia, Ethiopia
Gemechis, Ambecha O. - \ 2017
University. Promotor(en): Paul Struik, co-promotor(en): B. Emana. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463431576 - 262
solanum lycopersicum - irrigation - crop production - optimization - photosynthesis - chlorophyll - gas exchange - water use efficiency - crop yield - ethiopia - irrigatie - gewasproductie - optimalisatie - fotosynthese - chlorofyl - gasuitwisseling - watergebruiksrendement - gewasopbrengst - ethiopië

Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) is a vegetable crop with high potential to contribute to poverty reduction via increased income and food security. It is widely grown by smallholders, has high productivity and its demand is increasing. Ethiopia produced about 30,700 Mg of tomatoes on 5,027 ha annually in 2014/2015. Average yields are only 6.1 Mg ha-1, below the world average yields. There is both a need and a potential to increase tomato production per unit area.

The aim of this thesis is to analyze the irrigated tomato production systems of smallholder farmers in Ethiopia, to survey and characterize the tomato in selected ecoregions and seasons, and to identify yield-limiting or yield-reducing factors and opportunities to enhance yield by using a combination of surveys and field experiments. Field experiments on optimization of yield and quality of field-grown tomato were carried out at Ziway, Ethiopia, for two seasons to study the impact of different irrigation practices applied, based on local empirical practices, deficit irrigation, or crop water requirement.

This thesis begins with a survey of tomato production systems. The survey details the area and production in various zones and for each of these zones yield- determining, yield-limiting, and yield-reducing factors and opportunities for improving yield and quality are indicated. It also avails area, production and yield data for each growing season and typifies the production systems in these zones. Low temperature (cold) from October-January and shortage of improved seeds are recognized as yield-determining factors, whereas insufficient water and nutrient (fertilizer) supply proved to be yield-limiting factors across zones. Late blight (Phytophthora infestans), Fusarium wilt (Fusarium oxysporum) and different pests and weeds are identified as yield-reducing factors in the zones. Experienced growers who have access to extension service recorded significant yield increment. Farmers Research Groups improved actual average yield with the use of improved technology (improved varieties and quality seed), and better efficiencies of water and fertilizer use. This study quantified influences of irrigation systems and strategies on growth-determining tomato features. Variation in irrigation systems and strategies accounted for variation in growth and dry matter accumulation. Greater performance for yield-related traits was obtained with drip irrigation based on crop water requirement for tomato varieties. Examination of plants showed also that local empirical irrigation is responsible for the occurrence of Phytophthora root rot, whereas deficit irrigation proved cause for occurrence of Fusarium wilt (Fusarium oxysporum), blossom end rot and broome rape (Orobanche ramosa) on roots or leaves, stems or fruits.

The experiments on irrigation scheduling with different irrigation systems and strategies gave useful indications on the possibility to improve commercial yield (CY) and water use efficiency. Promising results on CY and agronomical water use efficiency of tomato were achieved with drip irrigation based on crop water requirement, while for the biological water use efficiency higher value was obtained with deficit drip irrigation in both seasons. The findings indicate that the CY was decreased significantly for deficit by 50% in drip irrigation and deficit by 50% in furrow irrigation in both seasons. Mean CY for drip irrigation according to crop water requirement increased by 51% and 56% compared with deficit drip irrigation, whereas furrow irrigation based on crop water requirement increased by 52% and 54% compared with deficit furrow in Experiments 1 and 2, respectively. However, water use efficiency decreased with the increasing water volume.

Simultaneous measurements of rate of photosynthesis based on gas exchange measurements and the thylakoid electron flux based on chlorophyll fluorescence were used to investigate physiological limitations to photosynthesis in leaves of deficit irrigated tomato plants under open field situations. Combined leaf gas exchange/chlorophyll fluorescence measurements differentiated the treatments effectively. Reduction in rate of photosynthesis, stomatal conductance and the maximum quantum efficiency of photosystem II varied across seasons of all varieties, whereas leaf temperature was increased by deficit irrigation in all varieties. Among varieties studied, Miya was found relatively tolerant to deficit irrigation. Stomatal limitation of rate of photosynthesis increased significantly as a result of water stress suggesting a strong influence of the stomatal behaviour.

We also determined the influence of irrigation systems and strategies on water saving and tomato fruit quality. Using deficit drip irrigation was the best management strategy to optimize water use and tomato quality. Fruit dry matter content, acid content and total soluble solids were significantly higher with deficit drip irrigation than with other treatments.

From this thesis it appeared that agro-climatic conditions, access to resources and culture all contribute to the relatively low yields of tomato in the Central Rift Valley of Ethiopia. The thesis also proved that significant advances can be made in yield, quality and resource use efficiency.

Effect of water harvesting techniques on hydrological processes and sediment yield in Northern Ethiopia
Woldegiorgis, Berhane Grum - \ 2017
University. Promotor(en): Violette Geissen; Coen Ritsema, co-promotor(en): Rudi Hessel; Aad Kessler. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463431682 - 156
hydrology - water harvesting - arid zones - semiarid zones - water availability - ethiopia - hydrologie - regenwateropvang - aride klimaatzones - semi-aride klimaatzones - waterbeschikbaarheid - ethiopië

The study was conducted in the semi-arid northern Ethiopia aimed at selecting appropriate water harvesting techniques (WHTs) for implementation. A plot-scale experiment was set up, in the Gule catchment, on a farmland to monitor the effect of in-situ WHTs such as tied ridges and straw mulch mainly on event-based runoff, soil-moisture, and soil and nutrient losses. The off-site effect of WHTs such as check dams and percolation ponds on catchment-scale event-based runoff and sediment yield was also monitored in the Gule catchment (~12 km2) and Misbar sub-catchment (~2.4 km2), northern Ethiopia. First, a decision support approach was developed to aid the selection of WHTs in arid and semi-arid areas. The decision support approach was validated with a case study for WHTs in the upper Geba watershed in northern Ethiopia. Using the decision support methodology, eight potential WHTs were pre-selected for implementation in the watershed. Next, using suitability indicators for WHTs and a GIS-based multi-criteria analysis, suitable areas were identified for three of these WHTs, namely check dams, percolation ponds and bench terraces and suitability maps were generated. The multi-criteria analysis was validated by comparing the predicted suitable areas with the already existing locations of WHTs in the watershed. The result was that 90% of the existing check dams and 93% of the percolation ponds in the upper Geba watershed were correctly identified by the approach. The field study showed runoff reduction by WHTs from farmland between 40 to 88% and soil loss between 60 to 90%. Nutrient loss reduction from farmland by WHTs also ranged between 52 and 86%. Soil-moisture also improved due to the use of the in-situ WHTs. Model-based simulation at the Gule and Misbar outlets using LISEM showed that the current WHTs applied in the catchment are able to decrease event-based runoff by 41 and 45%, respectively. Similarly, sediment yield was reduced at both the Gule outlet and Misbar sub-outlet, by 67 and 55%, respectively. This study has verified that in semi-arid areas, such as the northern Ethiopian highlands, in-situ and catchment-scale WHTs can be used to improve the efficiency of rainwater harvesting and water availability for agricultural uses. Furthermore, these WHTs help to mitigate land degradation by decreasing soil and nutrient losses from farmland and sediment yield from catchments.

Management of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes [Mart.] Solms) using bioagents in the Rift Valley of Ethiopia
Gebregiorgis, Firehun Yirefu - \ 2017
University. Promotor(en): Paul Struik, co-promotor(en): Egbert Lantinga; Taye Tessema. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463430562 - 174
eichhornia crassipes - biological control agents - biological control - neochetina - curculionidae - mycoherbicides - ethiopia - organismen ingezet bij biologische bestrijding - biologische bestrijding - mycoherbiciden - ethiopië

This thesis presents a study on management of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes [Mart.] Solms) using insects and fungal pathogens as bioagents. The main goal was to develop an effective biocontrol strategy for water hyacinth in the Rift Valley of Ethiopia. To this end, a field survey was conducted to assess the agro-ecological distribution of water hyacinth and of native fungal pathogens found in association with water hyacinth. We also performed laboratory and lath house experiments on (i) pathogenicity and host specificity of the fungal pathogens; (ii) adaptability, life table, efficacy and host specificity of the two Neochetina weevils; and (iii) the synergetic effects of integrated use of Neochetina weevils and fungal pathogen as bioagents. Survey results indicated that the weed is distributed in the Rift Valley water bodies located in low, mid and high altitude. The survey results also identified 25 fungal species found in association with water hyacinth that belonged to nine genera. Among the isolates, Alternaria alternata, A. tenuissima, and Alternaria spp. hold promise as possible bioagents of water hyacinth.

Laboratory study on life cycle and development of Neochetina weevils indicated the two weevils took shorter generation time in Ethiopia than in Argentina but relatively similar to Kenya and Uganda. In Ethiopia, the two weevils produced four generations per year indicating their successful establishment. Feeding by adult weevils and tunneling by larvae significantly impacted the vigour and reproduction of water hyacinth plants. A herbivory loads of three pairs of N. bruchi and two pairs of N. eichhorniae showed the highest level of leaf damage and defoliated petioles. The study also reinforced that the two weevils are sufficiently host-specific. Finally, a study on integrated use of Neochetina weevils and an indigenous plant pathogen revealed that the two Neochetina weevils and the fungus A. alternata were together able to reduce the vegetative growth and fresh weight of water hyacinth plants considerably.

This study recommends integrated use of fungal species and the two weevils to control water hyacinth. Implications of the findings are also discussed in the context of integrated water hyacinth management using the native fungal pathogens and the two weevils.

Browse species from Ethiopia: role in methane reduction and nematode control in goats
Mengistu, Genet F. - \ 2017
University. Promotor(en): Wouter Hendriks, co-promotor(en): Wilbert Pellikaan. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462579767 - 130
goats - browsing - nematode control - methane - anthelmintic properties - browse plants - ethiopia - geiten - afgrazen - nematodenbestrijding - methaan - wormdrijvende eigenschappen - graasplanten - ethiopië

The aim of the research reported in this thesis was to evaluate browse species collected from Ethiopia for preference by goats, and for their in vitro anthelmintic and methane (CH4) reduction properties. During the conduct of the studies observations were made warranting a further aim, to compare in vitro fermentation patterns of browse species using inocula from goats and cows kept on identical dietary regime.

The preference of browse species using dry matter intake (DMI) as a proxy and in combination with polyethylene glycol (PEG), relationships between browse species intake and chemical composition were determined in Chapter 2. Air-dried leaves of Acacia etbaica, Cadaba farinosa, Capparis tomentosa, Dichrostachys cinerea, Dodonaea angustifolia, Euclea racemosa, Maerua angolensis, Maytenus senegalensis, Rhus natalensis and Senna singueana were used. Two cafeteria trials, each lasting 10 days were conducted using goats receiving a daily ration of grass hay and wheat bran, without (trial 1) or with (trial 2) the inclusion of PEG. Preference measured as the first 10 min browse DMI differed significantly among browse species and with PEG (P<0.0001). Browse with higher tannin content, D. cinerea, R. natalensis and A. etbaica were the most preferred species regardless of PEG presence. Preference appeared to be based on digestible fibre fraction, hemicellulose rather than tannin levels in the browse species.

Extracts of the 10 browse species were evaluated for their anthelmintic activity against Haemonchus contortus (Chapter 3). The larval exsheathment inhibition assay (LEIA) was applied using H. contortus third stage larvae (L3) in a dose dependent manner with extract concentrations of 0, 150, 300, 600, 1200 µg/ml phosphate buffered saline (PBS). The role of polyphenols in the inhibition against L3 was evaluated using polyvinylpolypyrrolidone (PVPP). All browse extracts significantly (P<0.0001) inhibited larval exsheathment in a dose dependent manner with the dose required to inhibit 50% of the L3 (EC50) being highest in C. farinosa and lowest in E. racemosa and M. senegalensis. Polyvinylpolypyrrolidone treated A. etbaica, C. tomentosa, M. angolensis, R. natalensis and D. cinerea were different (P<0.001) from the control (only PBS), indicating that larval inhibition was largely due to non-phenolic compounds. Absence of significant differences between PVPP treated E. racemosa, M. senegalensis, D. angustifolia and S. singueana, and control suggest that inhibition was mostly attributable to tannins and other polyphenols. Browse species anthelmintic property against H. contortus L3 was due to the presence of phenolic and non-phenolic compounds.

In vitro gas production (GP), CH4, volatile fatty acids (VFA) and in vitro organic matter digestibility (IVOMD) of the 10 browse species were determined using PEG 6000 in Chapter 4. Proanthocyanidins (PA) were quantified using a modified HCl-butanol method and PA composition was determined by UPLC-DAD, with detection of other polyphenols by UPLC-ESI-MS/MS. Substrates were inoculated in buffered goat rumen fluid with or without PEG 6000 for 72 h to measure GP with head space gas sample measurements taken at 0, 3, 6, 9, 12, 24, 30, 48, 54, and 72 h for CH4. At the end of incubation, VFA, ammonia (NH3) and IVOMD were determined. Increased (P<0.0001) GP, CH4 and total VFA were observed after PEG addition indicating PA were mainly involved in reducing methanogenesis and to a lower extent also overall fermentability. Prodelphinidins were the major explaining factors for this reduction but other polyphenols like quercetin, myricetin and kaempferol were also involved in CH4 reduction. The effect of PEG addition on IVOMD was variable among browse and could be due to artefacts from the tannin-PEG complexes in the incubation residue. Proanthocyanidins were mainly responsible for the reduced in vitro fermentative activities with possible minor effects of other phenolic and non-phenolic components.

Due to unusual fermentation patterns observed in Chapter 4, a comparison was made between goat and cow inocula on in vitro gas and CH4 production and kinetics parameters as well as VFA production in Chapter 5. Leaves of A. etbaica, C. tomentosa, D. cinerea, R. natalensis, freeze-dried maize and grass silage, and a concentrate were inoculated for 72 h to measure GP, in buffered inocula from goats and cows kept on an identical feeding regime. During incubation, headspace gas samples were obtained at 0, 3, 6, 9, 24, 30, 48, 54, and 72 h, and analysed for CH4 with VFA determined at the end of incubation. A triphasic and monophasic modified Michaelis-Menten equation was fitted to the cumulative GP and CH4 curves, respectively. Total GP and CH4 (P<0.0001), half-time for asymptotic (P<0.012) and rate (P<0.0001) of GP were higher for goat inoculum. The total VFA were higher (P<0.0001) in goats and the proportion of individual VFA differed significantly (P<0.002) between animal species. Differences between goat and cow inocula were attributable to variation in the activity and composition of the microbial population, and differences were more pronounced for fermentation of browse species than grass and maize silages.

A synthesis of the results from the four research chapters is provided in the general discussion (Chapter 6). The present work highlights the browse species characteristics which can be strategically exploited in goat production systems to improve health and feed utilization efficiency.

Closing the nutrient loops in (peri-)urban farming systems through composting
Nigussie, Abebe - \ 2017
University. Promotor(en): Thomas Kuijper; A. de Neergaard, co-promotor(en): S. Bruun. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463430050 - 144
urban agriculture - farming systems - nutrients - composting - refuse - sewage - waste treatment - vermicomposting - soil quality - nitrogen - ethiopia - stadslandbouw - bedrijfssystemen - voedingsstoffen - compostering - vuilnis - rioolwater - afvalverwerking - vermicompostering - bodemkwaliteit - stikstof - ethiopië

Organic amendments are used to improve soil fertility and maintain agricultural fields in a productive state. Despite these benefits, the use of organic amendments is limited in many developing countries. The overall objective of this thesis is therefore to provide a better understanding of current waste management practices in developing countries and ensure sustainable crop production via the biotransformation of urban waste into a high-quality soil amendment. First, I aimed at determining the causes for the limited use of organic amendments in small-scale urban farming systems. I interviewed 220 urban farmers in Ethiopia and found that competition for agricultural waste between fuel, feed and soil amendment is a major cause for the limited use of organic amendments. I demonstrated that allocation of agricultural waste for soil amendment is linked with farmers’ livelihood strategies. I also studied variation in compost demand among different farmer groups, and the socio-economic variables which explained these variations.

Gaseous losses of ammonia and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions occur during composting of nitrogen-rich urban waste. Several technologies could reduce these losses. However, these technologies are inadequate to fit within the broader farming systems because they are expensive. The second aim of this thesis was to develop low-cost methods to mitigate N losses and GHG emissions from composting, while retaining its fertilising value.

Composting by earthworms (vermicomposting) is proposed as a low-cost strategy for minimising N losses and GHG emissions. Using a wide range of substrate qualities (C:N ratio, labile C sources) and other factors (earthworm density, amount of input, and moisture), I showed that vermicomposting reduced N losses and GHG emissions compared with traditional thermophilic composting, but the magnitude of the earthworm effect varied between substrates. Earthworms also change the quantity and composition of dissolved organic carbon during composting. Another low-cost strategy is to delay the addition of N-rich substrates during composting. I demonstrated that addition of nitrogen-rich substrate after the thermophilic phase reduced N losses. Delayed addition of N-rich substrates increased N2O emissions, but reduced CH4 emissions. Delayed addition resulted in compost that was as stable and effective at completely eradicating weed seeds as traditional composting.

In conclusion, urban waste compost should be considered as alternative source for soil amendment, particularly in developing countries with competition for agricultural waste. Technologies such as vermicomposting and delayed addition of N-rich substrate are recommended to increase or maintain the nitrogen content of compost, reduce N losses and mitigate GHG emissions.

Greening of Ethiopian Dairy Value Chains: evaluation of environmental impacts and identification of interventions for sustainable intensification of dairy value chains
Vries, Marion de; Yigrem, Sintayehu ; Vellinga, Theun - \ 2016
Wageningen : Wageningen UR Livestock Research (Livestock Research report 948) - 69
dairy herds - dairy performance - improvement - dairy industry - sustainability - nutrient use efficiency - environmental impact - intensification - ethiopia - melkveestapel - melkresultaten - verbetering - zuivelindustrie - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - nutriëntengebruiksefficiëntie - milieueffect - intensivering - ethiopië
Sustaining reservoir use through sediment trapping in NW Ethiopia
Getahun, Mulatie Mekonnen - \ 2016
University. Promotor(en): Leo Stroosnijder, co-promotor(en): Saskia Keesstra; Jantiene Baartman. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462579101 - 132
sediment - soil conservation - reservoirs - dams - models - ethiopia - bodembescherming - dammen - modellen - ethiopië

To increase crop production and improve food self-sufficiency, rain-fed agriculture need to be supplemented with irrigated agriculture. To this end, a large number of reservoirs had been constructed in Ethiopia. However, reservoirs are suffering from sedimentation. This study was conducted in Minizr catchment, NW Ethiopia to (1) quantify the sediment entering Koga reservoir, (2) to assess the functioning and effectiveness of the existing man-made sediment trapping (ST) measures and natural sediment sinks, and (3) to design a possible solution to tackle the problem. Results of three years (2013-2015) field data show that 38% of the transported sediment was trapped within the Minizr catchment. Although considerable efforts were made to trap the sediment within the catchment through implementing various ST measures, lack of an integrated ST approach causes the remaining 62% of the sediment load still entering Koga reservoir.

Programme on Integrated Seed Sector Development in Ethiopia : 2015 Annual report
Walsh, Stephen ; Thijssen, M.H. - \ 2016
Centre for Development Innovation (Report CDI-16-012 ) - 45 p.
seeds - seed production - agroindustrial sector - entrepreneurship - businesses - development - ethiopia - zaden - zaadproductie - agro-industriële sector - ondernemerschap - bedrijven - ontwikkeling - ethiopië
The programme on Integrated Seed Sector Development in Ethiopia aims to strengthen the development of a vibrant, market-oriented and pluralistic seed sector in the country, where quality seed of superior varieties is available and affordable for a larger number of farmers, thereby contributing to food security and economic development in Ethiopia. The programme is a joint effort of Bahir Dar University, Haramaya University, Hawassa University, Mekelle University, Oromia Seed Enterprise, the Ethiopian Seed Association and Centre for Development Innovation of Wageningen UR. Partners include governmental organizations at federal, regional and local level, non-governmental organizations, development organizations, and seed businesses operating at different scales. The programme is funded by the Directorate General for International Cooperation through the Embassy of the Kingdom of the Netherlands in Addis Ababa.
Environmental governance of pesticides in Ethiopian vegetable and cut flower production
Mengistie, Belay - \ 2016
University. Promotor(en): Arthur Mol, co-promotor(en): Peter Oosterveer. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462579491 - 254
pesticides - policy - ethiopia - private sector - supply chain management - agriculture - vegetables - cut flowers - environmental protection - pesticiden - beleid - ethiopië - particuliere sector - ketenmanagement - landbouw - groenten - snijbloemen - milieubescherming

Pesticides are intensively used in agriculture across the globe to prevent or control pests, diseases, and weeds. In this process, improper pesticide registration, distribution and use has become more serious, which has resulted in heavy environmental and human health risks in many parts of the world. This holds especially true for developing countries, including Ethiopia where good agricultural practices are often poorly implemented. To safeguard human health and the environment, a strict regulatory policy is essential. In line with this, Ethiopia has developed pesticide registration and control procedures, which are regulations and directives in which the country also included different international agreements related to agropesticides. Therefore, the overall policy with respect to pesticide plays a key role in improving the environment, the health of growers and the surrounding community and stimulates the economic performance of the Ethiopian agricultural sector. However, there was no clear answer to the question whether the policy on pesticide registration, distribution and use was implemented in an effective and sustainable way. Arguably, governance failures are the origin of many environmental and human health problems regarding pesticides in developing countries. This paper argues that the influence of state and non-state actors and the relative importance of their interactions are the major structural characteristics of pesticide governance. However, it is still important to ask what governing mechanisms and actors are available and what can be developed further to promote sustainable pesticide governance. Therefore, the aim of this thesis is to investigate the pesticide policy-and-practice nexus, which includes the roles of governmental actors, private actors(traders) and farmers, and to review the actual and potential contribution from various governance actors in changing the existing (unsafe) pesticide practices in vegetables and cut flowers sector in which pesticides are used intensively.I have to conclude that both state and private actors hardly contribute to significant improvements in achieving sound pesticide management in Ethiopia. The state regulatory system has revealed an inability in controlling proper registration, distribution and safe use. Pesticide registration systems are not well established. A major challenge in pesticide registration is the double/ triple registration of pesticides with the same active ingredient (ai) but under different commercial names. Importing unregistered pesticides (only with import permits) by most flower growers allowed them to use extremely harmful/chemicals toxic to the environment and workers for higher risks. The government’s political commitment in this regard has never been observed in the floriculture industries, where there is no supervision or monitoring at all. In addition, commercial pesticide traders prove unable/unwilling to comply with regulations prescribed by the government proclamation. Among other problems, importation of pesticides with the wrong labels, conflicts of interest between importers (registrants) and double/triple registration of pesticides with the same (ai) under different commercial names cause confusion for retailers and farmers. Moreover, importation without obtaining a prior import permit and requests to import unregistered pesticides have grown over time. At the same time, the responsibility for controlling the pesticide market (inspection) failed in terms of quality control in distribution and use. The retailing of pesticides has been handled by unqualified and unlicensed retailers in shops and open markets with other commodities. Finally, this challenge is particularly critical at farm (local) level. There is substantial overuse, misuse and abuse of pesticides by end users, especially by smallholder farmers, due to lack of knowledge, technical support and training on hazards and risks associated with pesticides. Challenges to pesticide governance throughout the pesticide supply chain has resulted in negative policy outcomes for the environment and human health, particularly with the failure of state authorities to actively engage non-state actors in the complex pesticide registration, distribution and use system. Following the findings in this thesis, these situations call for the reshaping of the pesticide governance system throughout the country. To effectively address the human health and environmental impacts of pesticides requires a pesticide governance system that facilitates agricultural and environmental sustainability.

Towards competence-based technical-vocational education and training in Ethiopia
Solomon, Getachew Habtamu - \ 2016
University. Promotor(en): Martin Mulder, co-promotor(en): Renate Wesselink; Omid Noroozi. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462579002 - 161
vocational training - competency based education - competences - training - training courses - education - technical training - ethiopia - east africa - beroepsopleiding - vaardigheidsonderwijs - bevoegdheden - opleiding - scholingscursussen - onderwijs - technische opleiding - ethiopië - oost-afrika

In the human development effort, different countries are underscoring the role of technical-vocational education and training (TVET) in providing relevant knowledge and skills to improve productivity, increase access to employment opportunities and raise the standard of living. It is in recognition of this that, in all Ethiopian educational development endeavors, TVET has been considered to play a key role to tackle the country’s socio-economic underdevelopment through knowledgeable and skillful manpower. Since its introduction in 1941, TVET has been guided by different policies and strategies adopted by successive governments who came to power at different times. This thesis investigates how TVET has reached the current stage of its development in Ethiopia and the challenges encountered in implementing a competence-based system aimed at improving present and future TVET practices. Within this broad aim, the thesis looks into the historical pathways TVET in Ethiopia has passed through time, teachers’ involvement in policy and curriculum development and implementation, the extent to which TVET programs are competence-based (‘competentiveness’) and TVET teachers’ training and professional development. A mix of methods (quantitative and qualitative) was employed and data were collected through questionnaires, interview and documents.Four Polytechnic TVET colleges in Addis Ababa, TVET teachers, students and employed TVET graduates, teacher training teachers and students were involved.

The research findings showed that TVET development lacked consistent and stable policy direction, greatly influenced by government ideology. Competence-based TVET was implemented under severe challenges which include lack of adequately prepared teachers and resources, frequent curricula changes, lack of employers cooperation, discontent of teachers and administrators, etc. The competence-based approach was implemented without extensive deliberations and understanding by TVET teachers in which teachers participation was minimal. Positive correlation between TVET teachers’ participation in educational reform and perception towards TVET system was observed. Thought teachers, students and graduates observed competence-based education and training (CBET) principles in the Ethiopian TVET system, competence-based TVET is not performing well with regard to the practical dimensions of CBET (mainly the “how” aspect) in accordance with the principles of competence-based education. In a positively perceived work environment, ‘competentiveness’ of a TVET programs and employed TVET graduates’ workplace performance was observed. The TVET teacher training programs lack alignment (coherence) with competence-based TVET curriculum in terms of curriculum design and practices. The delivery is predominantly teacher-centered: more lecture oriented with less opportunity for students self and group reflection; student assessment was norm-referenced, not individual competence assessment. Though teachers believe that teacher professional development (TPD) enhances their professional growth, the practices were not in line with their belief; the personal initiative of TVET teachers to undertake TPD activities was minimal; no systematic professional development plan exists in TVET colleges, more traditional approaches in which TVET teachers’ engagement in research has almost been ignored.

Inconsistency in educational policymaking (unstable policy direction) hampered a consensus-based, national education system including TVET, structuring of TVET starting from the scratch. TVET is implemented without a strong foundation – administratively and manpower and materials/facilities (lack well-crafted implementation strategy), more a product of political than of collective decisions. From the study it appears that lacking proper alignment with employment capacity of the economy is a systemic problem of the TVET system. Enforcement of TVET strategy on TVET teachers and administrators without understanding the new competence-based education, which affected their perception. TVET teachers regarded as implementers of a decision rather than having a stake in the issue, affecting their actions and training outcome. Competence-based education and training (CBET) is practiced in TVET but the instruction and practical components lack alignment with CBET principles (no strong learning environments). Though it requires further evidence, the positive relationship between ‘competentiveness’ of a TVET program and graduates’ job performance found in this study supports the assertion that CBET bridges the gap between classroom learning and labor market reality. Because TVET teacher training programs are not aligned with TVET curriculum and teachers professional needs, it is difficult to say that TVET teachers are well prepared in terms of CBET requirement. In TVET teacher training programs, competence development focused instructional practices are not well fostered in practice. TVET teachers TPD activities are more conventional, not aligned with CBET and teachers’ needs.

A number of recommendations are forwarded to improve the implementation of competence-based TVET which have policy implications for future development of TVET and practical interventions to be taken to improve the implementation of competence-based TVET in its different dimensions.

Crop intensification options and trade-offs with the water balance in the Central Rift Valley of Ethiopia
Debas, Mezegebu - \ 2016
University. Promotor(en): Martin van Ittersum, co-promotor(en): Huib Hengsdijk; Katrien Descheemaeker. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462578616 - 178
cropping systems - intensification - water balance - crop production - land use - climatic change - crop yield - water use - irrigation - ethiopia - teeltsystemen - intensivering - waterbalans - gewasproductie - landgebruik - klimaatverandering - gewasopbrengst - watergebruik - irrigatie - ethiopië

The Central Rift Valley (CRV) of Ethiopia is a closed basin for which claims on land and water have strongly increased over the past decade resulting in over-exploitation of the resources. A clear symptom is the declining trend in the water level of the terminal Lake Abyata. The actual productivity of most cereals in the CRV is less than 2 t ha-1 associated with low input use and poor crop management. Consequently, there are two major development objectives in the CRV, i.e. producing sufficient food for the increasing population, while at the same time ensuring efficient use of limited water and land resources under variable and changing climate conditions. The low productive cereal systems and a declining resource base call for options to increase crop productivity and improve resource use efficiency in order to meet the growing demand for food.

In this thesis, the recent impacts were quantified of climate change, land use change and irrigation water abstraction on water availability of Lake Abyata of the CRV. The trends in lake levels, river discharges, basin rainfall, temperature and irrigation development (ca. 1975-2008) were analysed and the additional evapotranspiration loss resulting from temperature change and irrigated land were computed. We also analysed land use change (1990-2007) and the associated changes in runoff. Results showed that temperature has increased over 34 years (p<0.001) whereas annual rainfall has not changed significantly. Consequently, increased evapotranspiration consumed 62 and 145 Mm3 of additional water from lakes and land surface, respectively, during 1990-2007. Furthermore, an estimated 285 Mm3yr-1 of water was abstracted for irrigation in 2009 of which approximately 170 Mm3yr-1 is irrecoverable evapotranspiration loss. In addition, surface runoff has increased in the upper, and decreased in lower sub-basins of the CRV associated with extensive land use change (1990-2007).

We analysed a large number of data from farmers’ fields (>10,000) and experimental data across the CRV from 2004-2009 to quantify the gaps (Yg) between actual (farm) and experimental (water-limited potential - Yw) yields of maize and wheat in homogenous farming zones. We found that the average (2004-2009) yield gap of maize and wheat ranged between 4.2-9.2 t ha-1, and 2.5-4.7 t ha-1, respectively, across farming zones. The actual N and P application in farmers’ fields was low, as about 46% of maize and 27% of wheat fields did not receive fertilisers. We calibrated, validated and used the Agricultural Production System Simulator (APSIM) model to explore intensification options and their trade-offs with water losses through evapotranspiration. Variety selection and N fertilization were more important for yield gap closure than crop residue management and planting density, and the magnitude of their effect depended on soil type and climate. There was a trade-off between intensification and water use through evapotranspiration, as increasing yield comes at the cost of increased transpiration. However, this trade-off can be minimized by choosing location-specific N levels at which both water use efficiency (WUE) and gross margin are maximised. These application rates varied between 75 and 250 kg N ha-1 across locations and soils, and allowed producing 80% of Yw of maize and wheat. Climate change was projected to lower Yw of maize and wheat by ca. 15-25% and 2-30%, respectively, compared to current climate conditions.

An automated gridded simulation framework was developed to scale up the promising intensification options from field scale to basin scale. We then aggregated basin scale production and identified trade-offs between production and water use for different land use scenarios. This procedure allowed designing land use scenarios based on a spatially explicit optimization of WUE and gross margin per grid cell. Consequences of land use scenarios for food production and water use at basin level were evaluated. Results of the different land use scenarios demonstrated that crop intensification options for which WUE and gross margin are maximised can meet the projected food demand (year 2050) of the growing population in the CRV while at the same time saving large areas of the currently cultivated land. In the intensification scenarios total water loss through evapotranspiration from agricultural land is reduced compared with water loss from current cultivated land and low crop productivity levels.

It is concluded that the current land use together with climate change and water abstraction for irrigation negatively affected the basin level water balance in CRV over the past decade. Furthermore, the scope for further expansion of farmland to increase food production is very limited. The focus should, therefore, be towards intensification also because the existing yield gaps are huge and hence the scope for intensification is large. Model-based exploration of intensification options can be used to prioritize promising options, to close the yield gap and for quantifying trade-offs. Scaling up of promising options allows to assess whether the food demand of the growing population can be met while at the same time saving the less productive land and water per unit agricultural product.

Competence modelling for export performance improvement in Ethiopia
Birru, W.T. - \ 2016
University. Promotor(en): Martin Mulder, co-promotor(en): Piety Runhaar; Thomas Lans. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462578999 - 146 p.
competency based education - professional competence - organizations - international organizations - international trade - management science - management skills - ethiopia - east africa - vaardigheidsonderwijs - vakbekwaamheid - organisaties - internationale organisaties - internationale handel - bedrijfswetenschap - managementvaardigheden - ethiopië - oost-afrika

Export is increasingly seen as an important route for entrepreneurial firms to realize their growth potential. Consequently, a better understanding of the determinant factors for export performance of the firm is of great importance for firms’ success and expansion in the export markets. In this context, international business competence (IBC) is an essential intangible strategic resource that engenders export performance of the firm. This thesis studies the relationships between international business competence and export performance in a developing country context. The thesis shows that IBC comprises a number of specific competence domains; hence, in order to strengthen the said competitive advantages and achieve enhanced export performance, firms need to have suitable IBCs to the context in which they are operating. Furthermore, the thesis shows that IBCs influence each other’s effects, and organizational learning orientation strengthens the effects of the various IBCs. The thesis generally argues that firms need to develop the required competencies in their context to increase export performance, but if this would be exclusively based on the direct relationships between the competencies and export performance, results may be suboptimal. Thus, they need to maintain the optimal balance between their competencies on the one hand, and establish and maintain higher levels of organizational learning orientations on the other hand. The thesis implies that studies that ignore the interaction between different competencies and which do not include contextual factors in the examination provide an incomplete and simplistic picture of the relationship between international business competencies and export performance.

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